Zoeloekoning gevange geneem

Zoeloekoning gevange geneem


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Koning Cetshwayo, die laaste groot heerser van Zoeloeland, word deur die Britte gevange geneem ná sy nederlaag in die Brits-Zoeloe-oorlog. Hy is daarna in ballingskap gestuur. Cetshwayo se verset teen Britse heerskappy in Suider -Afrika het gelei tot die inval van Brittanje in Zoeloeland in 1879.

In 1843 volg Brittanje die Boere op as die heersers van Natal, wat Zoeloeland beheer het, die naburige koninkryk van die Zoeloe -mense. Boere, ook bekend as Afrikaners, was die afstammelinge van die oorspronklike Nederlandse setlaars wat in die 17de eeu na Suid -Afrika gekom het. Zoeloes, 'n trekmens uit die noorde, kom ook gedurende die 17de eeu na Suider -Afrika en vestig hulle rondom die Tugelarivier. In 1838 het die Boere, wat noordwaarts getrek het om die nuwe Britse heerskappye in die suide te ontwyk, eers in gewapende konflik met die Zoeloes gekom, wat destyds onder die heerskappy van koning Dingane was. Die Europese migrante het daarin geslaag om Dingane in 1840 omver te werp en hom te vervang deur sy seun Mpande, wat 'n vasaal van die nuwe Boererepubliek Natal geword het. In 1843 het die Britte Natal en Zoeloeland oorgeneem.

In 1872 sterf koning Mpande en word opgevolg deur sy seun Cetshwayo, wat vasbeslote was om die Europese oorheersing op sy gebied te weerstaan. In Desember 1878 verwerp Cetshwayo die Britse eis dat hy sy troepe moet ontbind, en in Januarie val Britse troepe Zoeloeland binne om Cetshwayo te onderdruk. Die Britte het ernstige nederlae op Isandlwana, waar 1300 Britse soldate gedood of gewond is, en op Hlobane Mountain gely, maar op 29 Maart het die gety ten gunste van die Britte gedraai tydens die Slag van Khambula.

Koning Cetshwayo is later gevange geneem en in ballingskap gestuur, maar in 1883 is hy weer ingestel om oor 'n deel van sy voormalige gebied te regeer. As gevolg van sy nederlae is hy egter in die oë van sy onderdane gediskrediteer, en hulle het hom gou uit Zoeloeland verdryf. Hy sterf in die volgende jaar in ballingskap.

In 1887 het die Britte, met die voortgesette Zoeloe -rebellies, formeel geannekseer, en in 1897 het dit deel geword van Natal, wat in 1910 by die Unie van Suid -Afrika aangesluit het.

LEES MEER: 7 invloedryke Afrika -ryke


Cetshwayo

Cetshwayo kaMpande ( / k ɛ tʃ ˈ w aɪ. oʊ / Uitspraak van Zoeloe: [ǀétʃwajo kámpande] c. 1826-8 Februarie 1884) was die koning [a] van die Zoeloe-koninkryk van 1873 tot 1879 en sy leier tydens die Anglo-Zoeloe-oorlog van 1879. Sy naam is getranslitereer as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo en Ketchwayo. Cetshwayo was deurgaans teengestaan ​​teen die oorlog en wou vrugteloos vrede maak met die Britte, en is verslaan en verban na die nederlaag van die Zoeloe in die oorlog. Hy is later toegelaat om na Zoeloeland terug te keer, waar hy in 1884 oorlede is.


Inhoud

Toe Senzangakhona (Shaka se pa) in 1816 sterf, het Shaka se jonger halfbroer Sigujana die mag oorgeneem as die wettige erfgenaam van die Zoeloe-opperhoof. Sigujana se bewind was egter kort, aangesien Dingiswayo, wat angstig was om sy gesag te bevestig, Shaka 'n regiment geleen het sodat hy Sigujana kon doodmaak en 'n relatief bloedlose staatsgreep geloods het wat wesenlik deur die Zoeloe aanvaar is. [5] So word Shaka hoof van die Zoeloe -stam, alhoewel hy 'n vasal van die Mthethwa -ryk was [6] tot Dingiswayo se dood in 'n geveg 'n jaar later deur Zwide, magtige hoof van die Ndwandwe (Nxumalo) nasie. Toe die Mthethwa -magte verslaan en tydelik verstrooi is, is die kragvakuum deur Shaka gevul. Hy hervorm die oorblyfsels van die Mthethwa en ander streekstamme en verslaan Zwide later in die Zoeloe -burgeroorlog van 1819–2020.

Toe Dingiswayo deur Zwide vermoor word, wou Shaka sy dood wreek. Op 'n stadium het Zwide skaars aan Shaka ontsnap, hoewel die presiese besonderhede nie bekend is nie. In daardie ontmoeting is Zwide se ma Ntombazi, 'n Sangoma (Zoeloe -siener of sjamaan), deur Shaka vermoor. Shaka het 'n besonder gruwelike wraak op haar gekies, haar in 'n huis toegesluit en jakkalse of hiënas daarin geplaas: hulle het haar verslind en in die oggend het Shaka die huis tot op die grond afgebrand. Ondanks die wraak het Shaka sy strewe na Zwide voortgesit. Eers omstreeks 1825 ontmoet die twee militêre leiers, naby Phongola, in hul laaste vergadering. Phongola is naby die huidige grens van KwaZulu-Natal, 'n provinsie in Suid-Afrika. Shaka was seëvierend in die geveg, alhoewel sy magte groot ongevalle opgedoen het, insluitend sy hoof militêre bevelvoerder, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. [7]

In die eerste jare het Shaka nie die invloed of reputasie gehad om die kleinste groepe te dwing om by hom aan te sluit nie, en na die dood van Dingiswayo het Shaka suidwaarts oor die Thukelarivier beweeg en sy hoofstad Bulawayo gevestig in Qwabe -gebied waarheen hy nooit weer ingetrek het nie. die tradisionele Zoeloe -hartland. In Qwabe het Shaka moontlik ingegryp in 'n bestaande opvolgingsgeskil om sy eie keuse, Nqetho, aan bewind te help. [8]

Namate Shaka meer respek vir sy mense gekry het, kon hy sy idees met gemak versprei. Vanweë sy agtergrond as soldaat het Shaka die Zoeloes geleer dat die doeltreffendste manier om vinnig magtig te word, was deur ander stamme te verower en te beheer. Sy leerstellings het 'n groot invloed op die sosiale uitkyk van die Zoeloe -mense gehad. Die Zoeloe -stam het gou 'n krygsvooruitsig ontwikkel, wat Shaka tot sy voordeel gewend het. [9]

Die hegemonie van Shaka was hoofsaaklik gebaseer op militêre mag, die vernietiging van teenstanders en die integrasie van verspreide oorblyfsels in sy eie leër. Hy het dit aangevul met 'n mengsel van diplomasie en beskerming, met vriendelike hoofmanne, waaronder Zihlandlo van die Mkhize, Jobe van die Sithole en Mathubane van die Thuli. Hierdie mense is nooit in die geveg verslaan deur die Zoeloe wat hulle nie hoef te wees nie. Shaka het hulle gewen deur subtieler taktiek, soos beskerming en beloning. Wat die heersende Qwabe betref, het hulle hul geslagsregisters begin uitvind om die indruk te wek dat Qwabe en Zoeloe in die verlede nou verwant was. [10] Op hierdie manier is 'n groter gevoel van samehang geskep, hoewel dit nooit volledig geword het nie, soos daaropvolgende burgeroorloë getuig.

Shaka herken nog steeds Dingiswayo en sy groter Mthethwa -stam as oorheerser nadat hy na die Zoeloe teruggekeer het, maar 'n paar jaar later is Dingiswayo deur 'n hinderlaag deur Zwide se Ndwandwe oorval en vermoor. Daar is geen bewyse dat Shaka Dingiswayo verraai het nie. Die kern-Zoeloe moes inderdaad terugtrek voordat verskeie Ndwandwe-aanvalle die Ndwandwe duidelik die aggressiefste groep in die sub-streek was. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Shaka kon 'n alliansie sluit met die leierlose Mthethwa -stam en kon hom onder die Qwabe vestig, nadat Phakathwayo met relatiewe gemak omvergewerp is. Met ondersteuning van Qwabe, Hlubi en Mkhize kon Shaka uiteindelik 'n mag ontbied wat die Ndwandwe (van die Nxumalo -stam) kon weerstaan. Die historikus Donald Morris verklaar dat Shaka se eerste groot geveg teen Zwide, van die Ndwandwe, die Slag van Gqokli Hill aan die Mfolozi -rivier was. Shaka se troepe het 'n sterk posisie op die kruin van die heuwel behou. 'N Frontale aanval deur hul teenstanders kon hulle nie ontwrig nie, en Shaka het die oorwinning beklink deur sy reserwemagte in 'n sweep om die heuwel te stuur om die vyand se agterkant aan te val. Die verliese was in die algemeen groot, maar die doeltreffendheid van die nuwe Shakan -innovasies is bewys. Dit is waarskynlik dat die Zoeloe mettertyd hul omsingelingstaktieke kon slyp en verbeter. [11]

Uiteindelik het 'n ander beslissende geveg plaasgevind op die Mhlatuze -rivier, by die samevloeiing met die Mvuzane -stroom. In 'n tweedaagse stryd het die Zoeloe hul teenstanders 'n dawerende nederlaag toegedien. Shaka lei toe 'n vars reservaat ongeveer 110 kilometer na die koninklike kraal van Zwide, heerser van die Ndwandwe, en vernietig dit. Zwide ontsnap self met 'n handjievol volgelinge voordat hy 'n misdryf tref van 'n kaptein, genaamd Mjanji, heerser van 'n Babelu -stam. [12] (Hy sterf kort daarna in geheimsinnige omstandighede.) Zwide se generaal Soshangane (van die Shangaan) het noordwaarts beweeg na die huidige Mosambiek om minder weerstandige vyande aan te rig en voordeel te trek uit slawengeleenthede, wat Portugese handelaars verplig het om hulde te bring. Shaka moes later in 1826 weer met Zwide se seun, Sikhunyane, baklei. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Shaka het Europeërs toestemming verleen om in seldsame gevalle Zoeloe -gebied binne te gaan. In die middel van die 1820's het Henry Francis Fynn mediese behandeling aan die koning gebied na 'n sluipmoordaanval deur 'n mededingende stamlid wat in 'n skare versteek was (sien verslag van Nathaniel Isaacs). [ verduideliking nodig ] Om sy dankbaarheid te toon, het Shaka Europese setlaars toegelaat om in die Zoeloe -koninkryk in te gaan en op te tree. Shaka het verskeie demonstrasies van Europese tegnologie en kennis waargeneem, maar hy was van mening dat die Zoeloe -pad beter was as dié van die buitelanders. [13]

Dit lyk asof Dingane en Mhlangana, Shaka se halfbroers, ten minste twee pogings aangewend het om Shaka te vermoor voordat hulle daarin geslaag het, miskien met ondersteuning van Mpondo-elemente en 'n paar ontevrede iziYendane-mense. Shaka het genoeg vyande onder sy eie mense gemaak om sy afsterwe te bespoedig. Dit kom relatief vinnig na die dood van sy ma Nandi in Oktober 1827 en die verwoesting wat veroorsaak word deur die onreëlmatige gedrag van Shaka. Volgens Donald Morris het Shaka beveel dat geen gewasse gedurende die daaropvolgende jaar van rou geplant moes word nie, dat geen melk (destyds die basis van die Zoeloe -dieet) gebruik moes word nie, en dat enige vrou wat swanger geword het, saam met haar man. Ten minste 7 000 mense wat as onvoldoende bedroef beskou is, is tereggestel, hoewel die moord nie net op mense beperk is nie: koeie is geslag sodat hul kalwers sou weet hoe 'n ma verloor het. [14]

Die Zoeloe -monarg is deur drie sluipmoordenaars vermoor, in September 1828 is die datum wat die meeste aangehaal word, toe byna al die beskikbare Zoeloe -mannekrag op nog 'n massavy na die noorde gestuur is. Dit het die koninklike kraal kritiek gebrek aan sekuriteit gelaat. Dit was al wat die samesweerders nodig gehad het-dit was Shaka se halfbroers, Dingane en Mhlangana, en 'n iNduna genaamd Mbopa. Mbopa het 'n afleiding gemaak, en Dingane en Mhlangana het die noodlottige houe geslaan. Shaka se lyk is deur sy sluipmoordenaars in 'n leë graanput gestort, wat daarna met klippe en modder gevul is. Die presiese ligging is onbekend. 'N Monument is op 'n beweerde terrein gebou. Die historikus Donald Morris meen dat die ware plek iewers in Couperstraat in die dorpie Stanger, Suid -Afrika, geleë is. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Shaka se halfbroer Dingane het die mag oorgeneem en 'n uitgebreide suiwering van pro-Shaka-elemente en hoofmanne begin, wat oor 'n paar jaar duur om sy posisie te verseker. Die aanvanklike probleem waarmee Dingane te kampe gehad het, was om die lojaliteit van die Zoeloe -vegteregimente, oftewel amabutho, te handhaaf. Hy het dit aangespreek deur hulle toe te laat om te trou en opstalte op te rig (wat tydens Shaka se bewind verbied was) en hulle het ook beeste van Dingane ontvang. Lojaliteit word ook gehandhaaf uit vrees, want almal wat vermoed word dat hy teen Dingane wedywer, is dood. Hy het sy hoofkoshuis in Mgungundlovu opgerig en sy gesag oor die Zoeloe -koninkryk gevestig. [15] Dingane regeer ongeveer twaalf jaar, waartydens hy rampspoedig teen die Voortrekkers veg, en teen 'n ander halfbroer, Mpande, wat met Boere en Britse steun in 1840 die Zoeloe-leiding oorgeneem het en vir sommige regeer het 30 jaar.

Sommige ouer geskiedenisse het getwyfel oor die militêre en sosiale innovasies wat gewoonlik aan Shaka toegeskryf word, dit heeltemal ontken of dit op verskillende maniere aan Europese invloede toegeskryf het. [13] Meer moderne navorsers voer aan dat sulke verklarings tekort skiet, en dat die algemene Zoeloe -kultuur, wat ander stamme en stamme insluit, 'n aantal praktyke bevat wat Shaka sou kon gebruik om sy doelwitte te bereik, hetsy in aanval, verowering of hegemonie. . [13] Sommige van hierdie praktyke word hieronder getoon.

Wapens verander Wysig

Daar word gereeld gesê dat Shaka ontevrede was met die langgooi assegaai, en word toegeskryf aan die bekendstelling van 'n nuwe variant van die wapen: die iklwa, 'n kort steekspies met 'n lang, breë en swaardagtige spies.

Alhoewel Shaka waarskynlik nie die iklwavolgens die Zoeloe-geleerde John Laband, het die leier wel daarop aangedring dat sy krygers met die wapen oefen, wat hulle 'n "skrikwekkende voordeel bo die teenstanders gegee het wat vasgeklou het aan die tradisionele praktyk om hul spiese te gooi en om hand-aan-hand konflik te vermy." [16] Die gooi spies is nie weggegooi nie, maar gebruik as 'n aanvanklike missiel wapen voor noue kontak met die vyand, toe die korter steek spies gebruik is in die hand-tot-hand geveg. [13]

Daar word ook veronderstel dat Shaka 'n groter, swaarder weergawe van die Nguni -skild bekendgestel het. Verder word geglo dat hy sy krygers geleer het hoe om die linkerkant van die skild te gebruik om die vyand se skild regs te haak, en die ribbes van die vyand bloot te stel vir 'n noodlottige spiessteek. In Shaka se tyd is hierdie koeivel -skilde deur die koning verskaf, en dit het die koning se eiendom gebly. [16] Verskillende gekleurde skilde onderskei verskillende amabutho binne die leër van Shaka. Sommige het swart skilde, ander het wit skilde met swart kolle, en sommige het wit skilde met bruin kolle, terwyl ander suiwer bruin of wit skilde gebruik het. [16]

Mobiliteit van die weermag Redigeer

Die verhaal dat sandale weggegooi is om die voete van Zoeloe -krygers te versterk, is opgemerk in verskillende militêre verslae, soos Die was van die spiese, Soos leeus wat hulle geveg het, en Anatomie van die Zoeloe -leër. Die implementering was tipies stomp. Diegene wat beswaar gemaak het om sonder sandale te gaan, is eenvoudig doodgemaak. [17] Shaka het sy troepe gereeld geboor in gedwonge optogte wat soms meer as 80 kilometer per dag in 'n vinnige draf oor warm, rotsagtige terrein afgelê het. [17] [18] Hy het ook die troepe geboor om omsingelingstaktieke uit te voer.

Historikus John Laband verwerp hierdie verhale as 'n mite en skryf: "Wat moet ons dan maak van [Europese handelaar Henry Francis] Fynn se verklaring dat sodra die Zoeloe-weermag in 1826 harde en klipperige grond bereik het, Shaka beveel het om sandale ossevel te vir homself gemaak word? " [16]

Laband het ook die idee van 'n optog van 80 kilometer (50 myl) in 'n enkele dag as belaglik afgemaak. Hy beweer verder dat alhoewel hierdie verhale herhaal is deur 'verbaasde en bewonderende wit kommentators', die Zoeloe -weermag 'n maksimum van 19 kilometer per dag afgelê het en gewoonlik slegs ongeveer 14 kilometer afgelê het (8 + 1 ⁄ 2) my]. " [16] Verder het Zoeloes onder Shaka soms stadiger gevorder. Hulle het in een geval twee hele dae lank herstel, en op 'n ander een rus hulle 'n dag en twee nagte voordat hulle hul vyand agtervolg. [16] Verskeie ander historici van die Zoeloe en die Zoeloe -militêre stelsel bevestig egter die mobiliteitstempo van tot 80 kilometer per dag. [19] [20]

Logistieke ondersteuning deur jeugdiges Redigeer

Seuns en dogters van ses jaar en ouer het by Shaka se mag aangesluit as leerlingkrygers (udibi) en het gedien as rantsoene, voorrade soos kookpotte en slaapmatte en ekstra wapens totdat hulle by die hoofgeledere aangesluit het. Daar word soms beweer dat sulke steun meer gebruik is vir baie ligte magte wat ontwerp is om hulde te bring by beeste en slawe uit naburige groepe. Tog is die konsep van "ligte" kragte twyfelagtig. Die snelbewegende Zoeloe-aanvalpartytjie, of "ibutho lempi", op 'n missie het altyd lig gereis en vee as proviand op die hoef gedryf, en is nie met swaar wapens en voorraadpakke belas nie.

Ouderdomsgraadse regimentstelsel Wysig

Groepe van verskillende ouderdomme was algemeen in die Bantoe-kultuur van die dag, en is inderdaad steeds belangrik in groot dele van Afrika. Ouderdomsgrade was verantwoordelik vir 'n verskeidenheid aktiwiteite, van die bewaking van die kamp, ​​tot veeboerdery, tot sekere rituele en seremonies. Shaka het verskillende grade in regimente georganiseer en hulle in spesiale militêre krale ingevoer, met regimente wat hul eie kenmerkende name en kentekens het. Die regimentstelsel het duidelik gebou op bestaande stamkulturele elemente wat aangepas en gevorm kon word om by 'n ekspansionistiese agenda te pas. [21]

"Stierhoring" -vorming Redigeer

Die meeste historici [ who? ] erkenning aan Shaka met die aanvanklike ontwikkeling van die beroemde "bull horn" formasie. "[22] Dit bestaan ​​uit drie elemente:

  1. Die hoofmag, die 'bors', het met die vyand se impi toegemaak en dit in posisie vasgemaak en in 'n nabygeveg geveg. Die krygers wat uit die 'bors' bestaan ​​het, was senior veterane. [22]
  2. Terwyl die vyandelike impi deur die 'bors' vasgemaak is, sou die 'horings' die Impi van beide kante af flankeer en dit omring saam met die 'bors', dan vernietig hulle die vasgekeerde krag. Die krygers wat uit die "horings" bestaan ​​het, was jong en vinnige juniors. [22]
  3. Die "lende", 'n groot reservaat, was weggesteek, agter die "bors" met hul rug na die geveg, omdat hulle geen vertroue verloor nie. Die 'lende' sou gepleeg word oral waar die vyand impi dreig om uit die omsingeling te breek. [22]

Dissipline wysig

Shaka het meedoënlose vasberadenheid in sy leër geskep deur die kennis van sy krygers in te boesem wat sou gebeur as hul moed hulle in die geveg sou versaak of hul regimente verslaan sou word. Daar wag 'n wrede lot op hulle en hul gesinne as hulle nie goed presteer in die geveg nie. H. Rider Haggard het geleer oor Shaka se metodes by sy groot neef en laat 19de-eeuse Zoeloekoning, Cetshwayo kaMpande:

Terwyl [Shaka] 'n stam verower het, het hy die oorblyfsels daarvan in sy leër ingeskryf, sodat hulle op hul beurt kon help om ander te verower. Hy bewapen sy regimente met die kort steekery Iklwa, in plaas van die gooi assegaai wat hulle gewoond was om te gebruik, en het hulle onderworpe gehou aan 'n yster dissipline. As 'n man opgemerk het dat hy die geringste huiwering toon om by die vyand te kom, is hy tereggestel sodra die geveg verby was. As 'n regiment die ongeluk gehad het om te verslaan, hetsy uit eie skuld of nie, sou dit by sy terugkeer na die hoofkwartier vind dat 'n goeie deel van die vroue en kinders wat daaraan behoort, op bevel van [Shaka] doodgeslaan is , en dat hy wag op hul aankoms om sy wraak te voltooi deur hul brein uit te jaag. Die gevolg was dat alhoewel [Shaka] se leërs af en toe vernietig is, hulle selde verslaan is en dat hulle nooit weggehardloop het nie. [23]

Shakan -metodes versus Europese tegnologie Wysig

Die uitbreidende Zoeloe -mag het noodwendig in die dekades na Shaka se dood met die Europese hegemonie gebots. Trouens, Europese reisigers na die koninkryk van Shaka het gevorderde tegnologie soos vuurwapens en skryfwerk getoon, maar die Zoeloe -monarg was minder as oortuig. Hy het nie nodig gehad om boodskappe op te neem nie, aangesien sy boodskappers onder die doodstraf gestaan ​​het as hulle 'n onjuiste tyding bring. Wat vuurwapens betref, erken Shaka die nut daarvan as missielwapens nadat hy sien dat snuitlaaiers gedemonstreer word, maar hy het aangevoer dat in die tyd dat 'n gewapende man sou herlaai, hy oorweldig sou word deur spieskragters te laai. [13]

Die eerste groot botsing na Shaka se dood het plaasgevind onder sy opvolger Dingane, teen die uitbreiding van die Europese Voortrekkers uit die Kaap. Die aanvanklike sukses van Zoeloe berus op vinnig bewegende verrassingsaanvalle en hinderlae, maar die Voortrekkers het herstel en die Zoeloe 'n ernstige nederlaag van hul versterkte wa-laer tydens die Slag van Bloedrivier besorg. Die tweede groot botsing was teen die Britte gedurende 1879. Weereens het die meeste Zoeloe -suksesse berus op hul mobiliteit, hul vermoë om hul magte te onderdruk en om te sluit wanneer hul teenstanders ongunstig ontplooi is. Hulle belangrikste oorwinning tydens die Slag van Isandlwana was die prominentste, maar hulle het ook 'n Britse kolom tydens die Slag van Hlobane teruggedwing deur vinnig bewegende regimente oor 'n groot gebied van ruwe klowe en ravyne te ontplooi en die Britte aan te val gedwing om vinnig terug te keer na die stad Kambula. [24]

Skepper van 'n revolusionêre oorlogvoeringstyl Edit

'N Aantal historici [ who? ] voer aan dat Shaka "die aard van oorlogvoering in Suider -Afrika verander het" van "'n geritualiseerde uitruil van bespotting met minimale lewensverlies in 'n ware metode van onderwerping deur groot slagting." [13] Ander betwis hierdie karakterisering (sien beursgedeelte hieronder). 'N Aantal skrywers fokus op Shaka se militêre innovasies, soos die iklwa - die Zoeloe -spies wat stoot, en die vorming van "buffelhorings". Hierdie kombinasie is vergelyk met die standaardisering wat deur die herorganiseerde Romeinse legioene onder Marius geïmplementeer is.

Gekombineer met Shaka se "buffelhorings" -aanvalvorming vir omliggende en vernietigende vyandelike magte, was die Zoeloe -kombinasie van iklwa en skild - soortgelyk aan die gebruik van die Romeinse legioenen van gladius en scutum - verwoestend. Teen die tyd dat Shaka in 1828 vermoor is, het dit die Zoeloe -koninkryk die grootste mag in Suider -Afrika gemaak en 'n mag om mee rekening te hou, selfs teen die moderne leër van Brittanje in 1879. [25]

Baie omstredenheid omring steeds die karakter, metodes en aktiwiteite van die Zoeloe -koning. Vanuit militêre oogpunt merk historikus John Keegan op oordrywings en mites wat Shaka omring, maar hou egter vol:

Verruklike kommentators noem hom Shaka, die Swart Napoleon, en met verskillende samelewings en gebruike, is die vergelyking gepas. Shaka is sonder twyfel die grootste bevelvoerder wat uit Afrika gekom het. [26]

As lener nie innoveerder nie

Sommige geleerdes [ who? ] is van mening dat gewilde uitbeeldings van Shaka as 'n skielik verskyende genie wat innovasie skep, oorbeklemtoon word, en dat Shaka inteendeel 'n lener en nabootser was van inheemse metodes, gebruike en selfs liniale linies wat reeds bestaan ​​het. Hulle voer ook aan dat Shaka se lyn relatief kortstondig was en onnodige aandag geniet, in vergelyking met ander, langer gevestigde linies en heersers in die streek.

Dit lyk baie meer waarskynlik dat Shaka, wat probeer om die krag van 'n voorheen onbeduidende opperhoof op te bou, 'n bestaande erfenis van staatskapinge gebruik wat sy onmiddellike bure ken. J.H. Soga het soveel geïmpliseer toe hy genealogiese bewyse gebruik het om aan te voer dat die Zoeloe 'n opkomende groep was wat minderwaardig was in waardigheid en onderskeid as gevestigde opperhoofde in hul streek, byvoorbeeld die Hlubi-, Ndwandwe- en Dlamini -lyne. Deur gebruik te maak van verskillende informante en genealogiese kaarte, het A.T. Bryant het tot soortgelyke gevolgtrekkings gekom. Die Zoeloe -lyn - ''n koninklike huis met twyfelagtige stamboom' - was baie kort in vergelyking met die Langene-, Ndwandwe-, Swazi- en Hlubi -lyne. Deur sy standaardformule van agtien jaar per bewind te gebruik, het Bryant bereken dat die Swazi-, Ndwandwe- en Hlubi -lyne na die begin van die vyftiende eeu teruggevoer kon word, terwyl die gelyknamige hoof Zulu aan die begin van die agtiende eeu gesterf het.

Die seëvierings van Shaka het nie daarin geslaag om die herinneringe aan sy beter gebore mededingers uit te wis of te verminder nie. Die hipotese dat verskeie state van 'n nuwe aard ongeveer dieselfde tyd ontstaan ​​het, hou nie rekening met die kontras tussen die kort lyn van Shaka en die lang stambome van sy belangrikste teenstanders nie - veral die koalisie wat om sy dodelike vyand Zwide (1822) gegroepeer is ). Die stigters van die state wat Omer-Cooper 'Zoeloe-state' genoem het, insluitend die Ndebele, die Gasa, die Ngoni en die Swazi, was almal nou verbonde aan Zwide. In plaas daarvan om te veronderstel dat hulle almal gekies het om Shaka na te volg, is dit makliker om te dink dat hy sy toestand op hulle eie gemaak het. En omdat hulle uit antieke gesinne afkomstig was, is dit heeltemal moontlik dat toestande van hierdie tipe in 'n meer afgeleë verlede bestaan ​​het. Soga en Bryant het elkeen van hulle verwant aan 'n groter groep wat hulle Mho genoem het. "[27]

Biografiese bronne Redigeer

Die afgelope paar jaar het studiebeurse die sienings van die bronne oor die bewind van Shaka hersien. Die vroegste is twee ooggetuieverslae geskryf deur Europese avonturier-handelaars wat Shaka ontmoet het gedurende die laaste vier jaar van sy bewind. Nathaniel Isaacs het syne gepubliseer Reise en avonture in Oos -Afrika in 1836, wat 'n prentjie skep van Shaka as 'n ontaard en patologiese monster wat tot vandag toe in gewysigde vorme oorleef. Isaacs is hierin gehelp deur Henry Francis Fynn, wie se dagboek (eintlik 'n herskryf collage van verskillende koerante) eers in 1950 deur James Stuart geredigeer is. [29]

Hulle rekeninge kan gebalanseer word deur die ryk bron van mondelinge geskiedenis wat omstreeks 1900 versamel is deur dieselfde James Stuart, wat nou in ses volumes gepubliseer is as Die James Stuart -argief. Stuart se vroeë 20ste eeuse werk is voortgesit deur D. McK. Malcolm in 1950. Hierdie en ander bronne soos A.T. Bryant gee ons 'n meer Zoeloe-gesentreerde prentjie. Die gewildste rekeninge is gebaseer op E.A. Ritter se roman Shaka Zoeloe (1955), 'n potboilerige romanse wat weer geredigeer is in iets wat meer lyk soos 'n geskiedenis. John Wright (geskiedenisprofessor aan die Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg), Julian Cobbing en Dan Wylie (Rhodes-universiteit, Grahamstad) is een van 'n aantal skrywers wat hierdie verhale aangepas het. [30]

Verskeie moderne historici wat oor Shaka en die Zoeloe skryf, dui op die onsekerheid van Fynn en Isaac se verhale oor Shaka se bewind. 'N Standaard algemene naslaanwerk op die gebied is Donald Morris se "The Washing of The Spears", wat daarop dui dat die bronne as 'n geheel vir hierdie historiese era nie die beste is nie. Morris verwys nogtans na 'n groot aantal bronne, waaronder Stuart, en die uitgebreide maar ongelyke "Olden Times in Zululand en Natal" van AT Bryant, wat gebaseer is op vier dekades van volledige onderhoude met stambronne. Nadat hy deur hierdie bronne gesif het en hul sterk en swak punte opgemerk het, erken Morris oor die algemeen 'n groot aantal militêre en sosiale innovasies, en dit is die algemene konsensus op die gebied. [31]

'N Studie van 1998 deur die historikus Carolyn Hamilton vat 'n groot deel van die beurs oor Shaka op teen die begin van die 21ste eeu op gebiede wat wissel van ideologie, politiek en kultuur, tot die gebruik van sy naam en beeld in 'n gewilde Suid -Afrikaanse temapark, Shakaland. Dit beweer dat die beeld van Shaka op baie maniere in die moderne era 'uitgevind' is volgens watter agenda ook al mense het. Hierdie 'verbeelding van Shaka' wat gehou word, moet gebalanseer word deur 'n nugtere beskouing van die historiese verslag, en groter ruimte bied vir die bydraes van inheemse Afrikaanse diskoers. [32]

Militêre historici van die Zoeloe -oorlog moet ook in ag geneem word vir hul beskrywing van Zoeloe -vegmetodes en -taktieke, insluitend skrywers soos Ian Knight en Robert Edgerton. Algemene geskiedenis van Suider-Afrika is ook waardevol, insluitend Noel Mostert se "Frontiers" en 'n gedetailleerde weergawe van die resultate van die uitbreiding van Zoeloe, J.D. Omer-Cooper se "The Zulu Aftermath", wat die tradisionele Mfecane/Difaqane-teorie bevorder. [33]

Die Mfecane Edit

Geskiedenis en nalatenskap Redigeer

Die verhoogde militêre doeltreffendheid het daartoe gelei dat meer en meer stamme in Shaka se Zoeloe -ryk opgeneem is, terwyl ander stamme wegbeweeg het om buite die reeks van Shaka te wees impis. Die rimpeleffek wat deur hierdie massamigrasies veroorsaak word, sou (hoewel slegs in die twintigste eeu) bekend staan ​​as die Mfecane/Difaqane (vernietiging).

Shaka se weermag het begin met 'n massiewe uitbreidingsprogram, wat diegene verset het wat verset het in die gebiede wat hy verower het. Syne impis (krygsregimente) is streng gedissiplineer: mislukking in die geveg beteken die dood. [34]

Ten tyde van sy dood het Shaka oor 250 000 mense geheers en kon hy meer as 50 000 krygers bymekaarmaak. Sy tien jaar lange koningskap het tot 'n groot aantal sterftes gelei, meestal as gevolg van die ontwrigtings wat die Zoeloe in naburige stamme veroorsaak het, hoewel die presiese dodetal 'n kwessie van wetenskaplike geskil is. [35] [36] Verdere onkwantifiseerbare sterftes het plaasgevind tydens massastamme om na sy leërs te ontsnap.

Die Mfecane het Mzilikazi van die Khumalo, 'n generaal van Shaka's, vervaardig. Hy het van Shaka se diens ontsnap en op sy beurt 'n ryk in Zimbabwe verower, nadat hy met Europese groepe soos die Boere gebots het. Die vestiging van Mzilikazi se mense, die AmaNdebele of Matabele, in die suide van Zimbabwe met die gepaardgaande ry van die AmaShona in die noorde het 'n stamkonflik veroorsaak wat vandag nog resoneer. Ander noemenswaardige syfers kom uit die Mfecane/Difaqane sluit Soshangane in, wat van die Zoeloe -gebied uitgebrei het na wat nou Mosambiek is. [37]

Onderbrekings van die Mfecane/Difaqane Edit

Die teorie van die Mfecane beweer dat die aggressiewe uitbreiding van Shaka se leërs 'n wrede kettingreaksie in die suidelike dele van die kontinent veroorsaak het, terwyl onteiende stam na stam hul bure in 'n dodelike kringloop en verowering aangeval het. Sommige geleerdes beweer dat hierdie teorie met omsigtigheid behandel moet word, aangesien dit oor die algemeen verskeie ander faktore veronagsaam, soos die impak van Europese inbreuk, slawehandel en uitbreiding in die gebied van Suider -Afrika ongeveer dieselfde tyd. [36] Normale ramings vir die dodetal wissel van 1 miljoen tot 2 miljoen. Hierdie getalle is egter omstrede. [38] [39] [40]

Volgens Julian Cobbing is die ontwikkeling van die siening dat Shaka die monster verantwoordelik was vir die verwoesting gebaseer op die behoefte van historici uit die apartheidsera om die rassistiese beleid van die apartheidsregime te regverdig. [41] Ander geleerdes erken verdraaiing van die historiese rekord deur apartheidsondersteuners en skaduryke Europese handelaars wat hul spore wil bedek, maar betwis die revisionistiese benadering en merk op dat verhale oor kannibalisme, strooptogte, verbranding van dorpe of massaslagting nie ontwikkel is nie dun lug, maar gebaseer op die duidelik gedokumenteerde verslae van honderde swart slagoffers en vlugtelinge. Die bevestiging van sulke rekeninge kan ook gesien word in die moderne argeologie van die dorp Lepalong, 'n hele nedersetting wat ondergronds gebou is om oorblyfsels van die Kwena -mense van 1827 tot 1836 te beskerm teen die gety van ontwrigting wat die streek gedurende Shakan -tye verswelg het. [42]

William Rubinstein het geskryf dat 'Westerse skuld oor kolonialisme ook 'n groot deel van hierdie verdraaiing van die voorgeletterde samelewings uitmaak, asook die begeerte om enigiets te vermy wat na rassisme ruik, selfs as dit beteken dat dit die werklike en dikwels afskuwelike verdraai lewensfeite in baie voorgeletterde samelewings ". [43] Rubinstein merk ook op:

Een element in die vernietiging van Shaka was om 'n groot kunsmatige woestyn rondom sy domein te skep. 'Om die vernietiging te voltooi, het georganiseerde groepe Zoeloemoordenaars gereeld die afval gepatrolleer, op soek na enige verdwaalde mans en soos 'n wilde vark afgejaag'. 'N Gebied van 320 kilometer noord van die middel van die staat, 480 myl na die weste en 800 kilometer suidwaarts is verwoes en ontvol. [43]

Die Suid -Afrikaanse historikus Dan Wylie het skeptisisme uitgespreek oor die uitbeelding van Shaka as 'n patologiese monster wat alles binne bereik vernietig. Hy voer aan dat pogings om sy lewe en beeld te verdraai stelselmatig was - begin met die eerste Europese besoekers aan sy koninkryk. Een besoeker, Nathaniel Isaacs, skryf aan Henry Fynn, 'n wit avonturier, handelaar en 'n kwasi-plaaslike hoofman:

Hier is u op die punt om te publiseer. Maak dat Shaka so bloeddorstig as moontlik is, dit help om die werk uit te swel en dit interessant te maak. [44]

Volgens Wylie het Fynn aan die versoek voldoen, en Wylie merk op dat hy 'n bykomende motief het om Shaka se beeld te verdraai - hy het 'n groot toekenning van grond aangevra - 'n gebied wat na bewering deur Shaka se wreedheid ontvol is.

[Fynn] het gesê dat Shaka ''n miljoen mense' doodgemaak het. You will still find this figure, and higher, repeated in today's literature. However, Fynn had no way of knowing any such thing: it was a thumb-suck based in a particular view of Shaka—Shaka as a kind of genocidal maniac, an unresting killing-machine. But why the inventive lie? . Fynn was bidding for a stretch of land, which allegedly had been depopulated by Shaka.. [he insinuated], Shaka didn't deserve that land anyway because he was such a brute, while he—Fynn— was a lonely, morally upright pioneer of civilisation. [45]

Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some [ watter? ] of his attempts to revise Western thinking about Shaka. [46]

Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat. [16] He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown.

Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. He had a big nose, according to Baleka of the Qwabe, as told by her father. [16] He also had two prominent front teeth. Her father also told Baleka that Shaka spoke as though "his tongue were too big for his mouth." Many said that he spoke with a speech impediment.

There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at. Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead". [16]

The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history. The current tendency appears to be to lionise him popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal. Certain aspects of traditional Zulu culture still revere the dead monarch, as the typical praise song below attests. The praise song is one of the most widely used poetic forms in Africa, applying not only to spirits but to men, animals, plants and even towns. [47]

He is Shaka the unshakeable,
Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi
He is the bird that preys on other birds,
The battle-axe that excels over other battle-axes in sharpness,
He is the long-strided pursuer, son of Ndaba,
Who pursued the sun and the moon.
He is the great hubbub like the rocks of Nkandla
Where elephants take shelter
When the heavens frown.

Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele

Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands. Oral sources record that in this period of devastation, a singular Zulu, a man named Gala, eventually stood up to Shaka and objected to these measures, pointing out that Nandi was not the first person to die in Zululand. Taken aback by such candid talk, the Zulu king is supposed to have called off the destructive edicts, rewarding the blunt teller-of-truths with a gift of cattle. [14]

The figure of Shaka thus remains an ambiguous one in African oral tradition, defying simplistic depictions of the Zulu king as a heroic, protean nation builder on one hand, or a depraved monster on the other. This ambiguity continues to lend the image of Shaka its continued power and influence, almost two centuries after his death. [32]

    , an aquatic theme park on the Durban beach front opened in 2004.
  • The King Shaka International Airport at La Mercy, 35 km (22 mi) north of the Durban city centre was opened on 1 May 2010 in preparation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup after a protracted debate over the naming of the airport.
  • Shaka Zulu, an SABC TV miniseries about Shaka, which starred Henry Cele in the title role. [48]
  • Shaka has been featured as a playable leader for the Zulu civilization in all six Civilization speletjies. [49]

A great part of Shaka's life and rule has been referenced in Henry Rider Haggard's fiction novel, Nada the Lily.


King Cetshwayo

King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother.

Shaka Zulu was in conflict with Shoshangane, a leader of a breakaway faction that had fled the Zulu kingdom and had established their kingdom near Delagoa Bay. Mpande was sent to demand tribute and annex the newly established kingdom into the Zulu Kingdom. Mpande’s forces were defeated by Shoshangane’s force and he was forced to retreat. On his retreat he learned about the assassination of the King Shaka by Dingaan, also half brother to Shaka. Fearing that the same fate might befall him, he moved to Engakavini where Cetshwayo grew up.

Mpande became King of the Zulus following his defeat of King Dingaan’s army in 1840. Mpande had announced Cetshwayo as his heir shortly before becoming king, this was at an unusually early stage – Mpande even took the step of introducing Cetshwayo to the Boer Volksraad at Pietermaritzburg in 1839. The rule of succession is that the heir is born of the women whom the King makes his chief wife. Cetshwayo was declared heir because he was born of a wife given to Mpande by Dingane.

During his reign Mpande was faced with both British and Afrikaner settlers on his borders, and he continuously tried not to alienate either party, ceding some of the Zulu Kingdom’s land. Mpande was often viewed as a weak man in comparison to his contemporaries as a result and Cetshwayo began gaining influence over the Zulu people. Mpande became worried that Cetshwayo was gaining too much influence and began to favour Mbuyazi, son of his most beloved wife. Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi became rivals.

Drought and famine hit the Zulu nation in the summer of 1852–3 and various factions looked towards civil war as an opportunity to gain cattle. As the situation worsened, Mpande made more of his support for his son Mbuyazi. In November 1856 Mpande granted Mbuyazi a large tract of land in south-east Zululand at the same time he refused to meet with Cetshwayo to discuss the succession question. Conflict became inevitable when Mbuyazi and his supporters, the iziGqoza, moved to their lands just north of the Thukela River, clearing the area of Cetshwayo's supporters. In the ensuing battle of Ndondakusuka, Mpande backed Mbuyazi, who was also supported by John Dunn. But Cetshwayo dramatically defeated his brother on the banks of the Tugela River in 1856.

Mpande tried to prevent Cetshwayo from threatening his power, and he again appealed to both the British and the Afrikaners for support. The British Secretary for Native Affairs in Natal, Theophilus Shepstone, encouraged Cetshwayo to proclaim his loyalty to his father, and in 1865 Mpande and Cetshwayo were reconciled and in 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mpande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. However, for the next 15 years Cetshwayo seemed to control the Zulu nation, he reenergized the amabutho system and tried to stem the diffusion of power away from the crown and out to the izikhulu (territorial chiefs).

Mpande had a third son, Umtonga (older than Cetshwayo). Cetshwayo also began to see him as a threat and chased him into Utrecht (land that Mpande had ceded in 1854) in 1861. Cetshwayo’s army camped on the border of the Boer Republic and promised the Boers a strip of land on the border if they handed his brother over. The Boers were prepared to meet his request if he spared Umtonga’s life and Mpande signed a deed giving the Boers the additional land. The extra territory extended from Rorke’s Drift on the Buffalo River to a point on the Pongola River. Utrecht expanded and this new border was officially marked in 1864.

Umtonga fled from Zululand to the Colony of Natal in 1865 and Cetshwayo felt that part of the agreement he made with the Boers had not been upheld. He tried to reclaim the land nearly causing a war as a Zulu army under Cetshwayo and a Boer commando under Paul Kruger positioned themselves along the border between Utrecht and Zululand. In 1869 the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Natal, Sir Anthony Musgrave, was called in to solve the argument between the two groups, but he failed to do so.

Although it is clear that by this stage Cetshwayo’s influence was greater than that of Mpande’s, Mpande remained king until his death on 19 November 1872, although he withdrew increasingly from public life. He died in his Kraal, Nodwengu in Zululand. After his death Cetshwayo came to the throne and an official coronation ceremony took place the following year.

In 1875 Boers flooded across into Zululand, claiming land south of the Phongola River as well as attempting to tax Zulu homesteads in the north-west. Several thousand warriors were sent to the border and the Boers eventually retreated. The situation was finally alleviated when the British annexed the South African Republic in April 1877.

The arrival in March 1877 of Sir Bartle Frere, British High Commissioner for South Africa and Commander-in-Chief of all British forces, brought a new threat to Zulu independence. Although Cetshwayo was initially supported by the likes of Shepstone and the British the Zulu King soon became a threat to the British confederation of South Africa as the Zulu nation grew in military power under his rule. Sir Frere orchestrated a campaign to annex the Zulu kingdom even though British policy at the time was to avoid war with the Zulus.

Without the full backing of the British parliament, Frere went ahead with his war plans. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. King Cetshwayo rejected the ultimatum and war broke out between the two nations.

The Zulus won the Battle of Isandlwana, but they lost the crucial Battle of Ulundi (oNdini). Although Cetshwayo escaped from oNdini, he was soon captured in the Ngome Forest by British dragoons. He was imprisoned and sent into exile in the Cape. Later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria, who permitted him to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883.

He was met at Port Durnford in January by Shepstone who arranged the details of his restoration, but he was not permitted an army to defend his somewhat reduced 'nation' – part of the arrangement was that the north of Zululand was to be put under the control of Zibhebhu kaMaphitha.

By March 1883 Zibhebhu was moving against Cetshwayo's supporters in his assigned northern territory and Cetshwayo's uSuthu marched against him. The uSuthu were defeated and driven into Transvaal and back south to oNdini. The civil war between Cetshwayo and Zibhebhu ranged across the Mahlabathini plain and the uSuthu was once again defeated. Whilst Cetshwayo and his 15-year old heir, Dinizulu, were able to escape the capital of oNdini and hide out in the Nkandla forest, the uSuthu leadership was decimated. Cetshwayo was escorted to Eshowe by Henry Francis Fynn jr, the British Resident in Zululand, on the 15 October 1883.

On the afternoon of 8 February 1884 Cetshwayo died. The doctor who examined him to determine the cause of death suspected that he was poisoned as he seemed in good health that very morning he was seen taking his usual early morning walk. He was prevented from conducting a post mortem inquiry into the King’s cause of death by the relatives of the King when he told them that the procedure of this inquiry would involve dissecting his body. As a result, the doctor certified the cause of death as “syncope, the result of disease of the heart” (Binns, 1963).

Cetshwayo's body was returned to the Nkandla Forest for burial, and the war between his uSuthu and Zibhebhu continued. Cetshwayo's son Dinizulu, as heir to the throne, was proclaimed king on 20 May 1884.


The Rise of Zulu Kingdom

The Zulu Kingdom, also called the Zulu Empire, was a Southern African state in what is now South Africa. During and after the Anglo-Zulu War, the small kingdom gained world renown, not least for initially defeating the British in 1879 at the Battle of Isandlwana.

This led in 1887 to the British annexation of Zululand, while the king’s office continued to be honoured (with the colonial title of Paramount Chief). However, even among the British, who appeared to look down on Africans as inferior, the Zulu gained a reputation for their bravery and ability as warriors.

“While the British discounted their defeat, in the anti-Apartheid struggle in white-dominated South Africa, where the Zulu nation became a “bantustan,” or homeland, the spirit and example of the Zulu warriors lived on to inspire many.

As part of a much larger Bantu expansion, the Zulus had initially trekked or migrated to Southern Africa and their Kingdom can be counted as one of several Bantu Empires, kingdoms and state systems that included Great Zimbabwe’s civilization.

The legacy of the Zulus is one of prestige in a highly organized African communities, which could resist the scramble for Africa, at least initially. When Africa was divided between European powers, they took over any territory they wanted without consulting Africans who own & occupied the land. Europeans enforced treaties backed up by military force.

They were soon defeated by those who refused to sign these treaties, such as the Sultan of Sokoto and the Obo of Benin. In the nineteenth century, Ethiopia alone resisted colonial occupation effectively, though in the twentieth century Fascist Italy exercised it briefly.

The Zulus are the largest ethnic group in South Africa, where they maintain pride in their heritage, history and culture despite the injustice of the Apartheid years.

The rise of the Zulu kingdom under Shaka

This is the only known sketch of Shaka, drawn in 1824. Source: New World Encyclopedia

Shaka Zulu was the legitimate son of the Ruler of the Zulus, Senzangakona. He was born in around 1787. He had been exiled by Senzangakona with his mother, Nandi, and found refuge with Mthethwa. Shaka fought under Dingiswayo, the chief of the Mtetwa Paramountcy, as a warrior. Dingiswayo helped Shaka establish his place as the Zulu Kingdom’s leader when Senzangakona died.

Dingane’s bloody ascension
Shaka was succeeded by his half-brother, Dingane, who collaborated with another half-brother, Mhlangana, to kill him. Dingane assassinated Mhlangana after this assassination and took over the throne. The execution of all his royal kin was one of his first royal acts. He also executed several past supporters of Shaka in the years that followed in order to protect his position. Mpande, another half-brother, was one exception to these purges, and was thought too frail to be a threat at the time.

Conflicts with the Voortrekkers and Mpande’s rise

Zulu warriors | Pinterest

The Voortrekker chairman Piet Retief visited Dingane at his Royal Kraal in October 1837 to discuss a land settlement for the Voortrekkers. In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons descended the Drakensberg Mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal.

Retief and his members were requested by Dingane to return some cattle stolen from him by a local chief. Retief did so with his men, returning on February 3, 1838. A treaty was signed the next day in which Dingane ceded to the Voortrekkers all the land south of the Tugela River to the Mzimvubu River. Celebrations surfaced. Retief’s group were invited to a dance on February 6, at the end of the festivities, and ordered to leave their weapons behind. Dingane jumped to his feet at the height of the dance and shouted “Bambani abathakathi!” (isiZulu for “Seize the wizards”). Retief and his men were overpowered, taken to KwaMatiwane, a nearby hill, and hanged.

Some suggest that they were executed for hiding some of the cattle they had rescued, but it is likely that the agreement was a trap to destroy the Voortrekkers. A party of 500 Voortrekker men, women and children camped nearby were then attacked and massacred by Dingane’s army. Today, the site of the massacre is named Weenen, (Afrikaans “to weep”).

A new chief, Andries Pretorius, was elected by the remaining Voortrekkers and Dingane suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Blood River on December 16, 1838, when he [Dingane] talked a party of 470 Voortrekker colonists led by Pretorius.

Dingane burned his royal household after his defeat and fled north. Mpande, the half-brother spared from Dingane’s purges, defected with 17,000 supporters, and went to battle with Dingane along with Pretorius and the Voortrekkers. Dingane was assassinated near the modern Swaziland frontier. Mpande then seized control of the Zulu kingdom.

Succession of Cetshwayo

The Voortrekkers, under Pretorius, established the Boer Republic of Natalia, south of Thukela, and west of the British settlement of Port Natal (now Durban), in 1839 after the campaign against Dingane. Peaceful relations were preserved between Mpande and Pretorius. However, war broke out between the British and the Boers in 1842, resulting in Natalia’s British annexation. Mpande changed his loyalty to the British, and stayed with them in good terms.

In 1843, Mpande ordered a purge within his kingdom of suspected rebels. This resulted in several deaths, and the fleeing of thousands of refugees into neighboring areas (including the British-controlled Natal). Many of these refugees have left with their animals. Mpande proceeded to raid the surrounding areas, resulting in Swaziland’s invasion of 1852. The British, however, forced him into withdrawing, which he eventually did.

A war for succession broke out at this time between two of the sons of Mpande, Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi. This ended with a battle in 1856 which left Mbuyazi dead. Cetshwayo then set about usurping the authority of his father. Mpande died of old age in 1872, and Cetshwayo took over power. There was then a border dispute in the Transvaal between the Boers and the Zulus, which now under British control, meant that they were now adjudicating between the two groups. The Zulu claim was favored by a commission, but a provision was added by the British governor requiring the Zulus to pay compensation to the Boers who would have to resettle.

Anglo-Zulu War

Background, Isandhlwana Hill. Foreground, monument to the dead Impi of the Zulu nation. | New World Encyclopedia

It was marked by a number of events, all of which gave the British an excuse to express moral indignation and anger about Zulu conduct. For instance, the estranged wife of a Zulu chief fled to British territory for safety, where she was killed. Regarding this as a violation of their own rule, the British sent an ultimatum to Cetshwayo on December 10, 1878, demanding that he disband his army. As he refused, at the end of December 1878, British forces crossed the Thukela river. The war was waged in 1879. Early in the war, at the Battle of Isandlwana on January 22, the Zulus defeated the British, but were badly defeated at Rorke’s Drift later that day. At the Battle of Ulundi on July 4, the war ended in a Zulu defeat. In order to subdue Africa and rule its colonies, Britain relied more on its military reputation, less on real power in the field, as McLynn comments:

The dominance of the colonial powers was founded on legitimacy, the belief that there was a military behemoth behind a small handful of officials, commissioners and missionaries that one called forth at one’s peril. This was why the British were forced to mobilize such force as was required to defeat Cetewayo by a serious military defeat, such as that inflicted by the Zulus at Isandhlwana in 1879, even though the empire did not hold any major interests in that part of Africa at that time.

However, even in defeat, the Zulu warriors gained the admiration of the British. During the long fight for citizenship and justice in white-dominated South Africa, the tale of early Zulu resistance to white colonialism was an inspiration to many Black South Africans.

The division and death of Cetshwayo

A month after his defeat, Cetshwayo was captured, then exiled to Cape Town. The British transferred the law of the Zulu kingdom to 13 “kinglets,” each with a sub-kingdom of their own. Between these sub-kingdoms, war soon erupted, and Cetshwayo was permitted to visit England in 1882. Before being allowed to return to Zululand, he had audiences with Queen Victoria and other famous characters, to be restored as king.

In 1883, Cetshwayo, much reduced from his original empire, was installed as king over a buffer reserve territory. However, Cetshwayo was targeted at Ulundi later that year by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, backed by Boer mercenaries. Cetshwayo was wounded and fled. Cetshwayo, possibly poisoned, died peacefully in February 1884. His son, Dinuzulu, then 15, inherited the throne.

Dinuzulu’s Volunteers and final absorption into Cape Colony

In exchange for their aid, Dinuzulu recruited Boer mercenaries of his own, promising them land. These mercenaries called themselves “Volunteers of Dinuzulu,” and Louis Botha led them. In 1884, the Volunteers of Dinuzulu defeated Zibhebhu, and duly demanded their land. They were individually granted about half of Zululand as farms, and established an independent republic. This alarmed the British, who in 1887, then annexed Zululand. In later disputes with rivals, Dinuzulu became involved. Dinuzulu was charged in 1906 with being behind the Bambatha Rebellion. He was arrested for “high treason and public violence” by the British and put on trial. He was sentenced to ten years in prison on St Helena Island in 1909. Louis Botha became the first prime minister when the Union of South Africa was established and he arranged for his old ally, Dinuzulu, to live in exile on a farm in the Transvaal, where Dinuzulu died in 1913.

The son of Dinuzulu, Solomon kaDinuzulu, was never recognised as a Zulu king by the South African authorities, only as a local chief, but he was eventually regarded as a king by chiefs, political intellectuals like John Langalibalele Dube and ordinary Zulu citizens. In 1923, to promote his royal claims, Solomon established the Inkatha YaKwaZulu organisation, which became moribund and was then revived by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, chief minister of the KwaZulu Bantustan, in the 1970s. In December 1951, Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon, the son of Solomon, was officially recognised as the Zulu people’s Paramount Chief, but real control over ordinary Zulu people lay with white South African officials operating through local chiefs who could be removed from office for failure to cooperate.

In different parts of their empire, the British adopted the word “Paramount Chief” to appoint recognised traditional rulers in a way that left their own monarch as the only King or Queen. Therefore, “kings” have been demoted to “prince” or chief. Under Apartheid, KwaZulu’s homeland (or Bantustan) was established in 1950 and from 1970, all Bantu were considered KwaZulu citizens, not South African citizens, losing their passports. KwaZulu was abolished in 1994 and is now situated under the KwaZulu-Natal province.

During the anti-Apartheid struggle, pride in early Zulu resistance to the white domination and conquest of Africa helped inspire many people. Shaka was known as a national hero and the story of his life was re-enacted by many dramas. In 2004, thousands of Zulus took part in a re-enactment of Isandlwana’s victory to mark its 125th anniversary.

Kings of Zulu Kingdom

Mnguni
Nkosinkulu
Mdlani
Luzumana
Malandela kaLuzumana, son of Luzumana
Ntombela kaMalandela, son of Malandela.
Zulu kaNtombela, son of Ntombela, founder and chief of the Zulu clan from ca. 1709.
Gumede kaZulu, son of Zulu, chief of the Zulu clan.
Phunga kaGumede (d. 1727), son of Gumede, chief of the Zulu clan up to 1727.
Mageba kaGumede (d. 1745), son of Gumede and brother of Phunga, chief of the Zulu clan from 1727 to 1745.
Ndaba kaMageba (d. 1763), son of Mageba, chief of the Zulu clan from 1745 to 1763.
Jama kaNdaba (d. 1781), son of Ndaba, chief of the Zulu clan from 1763 to 1781.
Senzangakhona kaJama (ca. 1762-1816), son of Jama, chief of the Zulu clan from 1781 to 1816.
Shaka kaSenzangakhona (ca. 1787-1828), son of Senzangakona, king from 1816 to 1828.
Dingane kaSenzangakhona (ca. 1795-1840), son of Senzangakhona and half-brother of Shaka, king from 1828 to 1840.
Mpande kaSenzangakhona (1798-1872), son of Senzangakhona and half-brother of Shaka and Dingane, king from 1840 to 1872.
Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826 – February 1884), son of Mpande, king from 1872 to 1884.
Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo (1868-1913), son of Cetshwayo kaMpande, king from 1884 to 1913.
Solomon kaDinuzulu (1891-1933), son of Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo, king from 1913 to 1933.
Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon (4 August 1924-17 September 1968), son of Solomon kaDinuzulu, king from 1948 to 1968.
Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu (b. 14 July 1948), son of Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon, king since 1971.


The history of Ambrosia Bakery’s distinctive Zulu King Cake

Twenty-three years ago, Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club wanted a signature king cake. The historically black krewe parades through the streets of New Orleans each year, its members wearing grass skirts and tossing signature coconuts to revelers. It’s a colorful and unique tradition that was in need of an equally memorable cake.

The krewe approached Ambrosia Bakery in Baton Rouge for the job, and the king cake experts whipped up a brand-new take on the well-loved Mardi Gras dessert: the Zulu King Cake. The custom confection features a dense, sweet dough loaded with chocolate chips and cream cheese, topped with a fudgy chocolate sauce and shaved coconut.

“It’s heavy. It’s thick. It’s exactly what Mardi Gras [is] when it comes to the Zulu tradition,” Ambrosia owner Felix Sherman Jr. says.

Though it’s a decadent deviation from the classic cinnamon-filled or wildly popular fruit-filled king cakes, Sherman estimates the Zulu is Ambrosia’s third-highest seller during Carnival season, behind only the cinnamon and strawberry cream cheese-filled versions. Customers still haven’t lost their “I’ve got to try that!” fascination with the Zulu King Cake, and Ambrosia bakes them for local balls and parties and even ships them across the country.

Being a signature cake at Ambrosia is no small honor. The beloved bakery’s king cakes are so famous they’re featured in French children’s textbooks to illustrate Louisiana’s Mardi Gras customs. A spot on Ambrosia’s lineup of best-sellers makes the Zulu King Cake a Louisiana treasure. ambrosiabakery.com

Click here to go to our Mardi Gras headquarters.

This article was originally published in the February 2017 issue of 225 Magazine.


Related stories

Years before the war, Britain had in 1843 succeeded the Boers as the rulers of Natal, which controlled Zululand, the neighboring kingdom of the Zulu people, according to History. The Zulu were a migrant people from the north who had come to southern Africa during the 17th century. At the time the British took over Natal and Zululand in 1843, Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, had displaced Dingane in 1840, becoming a vassal of the new Boer republic of Natal. With his father as king, Cetshwayo was closer to the throne but he had to kill to make it. In 1856, he fought and killed his brother, Mbulazi, the eldest son of Mpande’s second wife. Cetshwayo’s other brother, Umtonga, fled Zululand five years after Mbulazi’s death.

Cetshwayo was subsequently seen by all as the de facto heir to Mpande. He formally ascended the throne when his father died in 1872. It was during this period that the British sought to create a South Africa federation in the region, and it could only do so by collapsing autonomous African states. In 1878, Sir Henry Bartle Frere, British high commissioner for South Africa, tried to force Cetshwayo to disband his powerful army of 40,000 to 60,000 men and give up land. The result was Britain’s invasion of Zululand in 1879. The Zulu would hand the British a resounding defeat at Isandlwana. But the British in the end emerged victorious over the Zulu at the Battle of Kambula (Khambula) on March 29.

The British captured Cetshwayo in August and exiled him to London. He was brought back in 1883 to rule over part of his former territory. But soon he had to fight a dangerous rival — his cousin Zibebu — in a civil war that eventually forced Cetshwayo out of Zululand. Cetshwayo fled to the British Zulu Native Reserve and died on February 8, 1884, at the British administrative centre of Eshowe. The official cause of his death was given as a heart attack, but the Zulu believed he had been poisoned.

The doctor who examined him to determine the cause of death suspected that he was poisoned as he seemed in good health that very morning he was seen taking his usual early morning walk. He was prevented from conducting a post mortem inquiry into the King’s cause of death by the relatives of the King when he told them that the procedure of this inquiry would involve dissecting his body. As a result, the doctor certified the cause of death as “syncope, the result of disease of the heart” (Binns, 1963).

And that was the end of the last independent Zulu king. Three years after his death, the British formally annexed Zululand. In 1897, it became a part of Natal, which joined the Union of South Africa in 1910.


8. Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu

  • Date of birth: 27 July 1948
  • Age/Died: 72 years old (12 March 2021)
  • Date of Ascension: 3 December 1971
  • Duration of Reign: 50 jaar

King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu came to power three years after the death of his father, King Cyprian. He did not take over in 1968 when his father died because of the fear that he would be assassinated, so he took refuge in the then Transvaal province. In 1971, after he turned 21, he was coronated as the eighth king of the Zulu people.

King Goodwill became an important king in the Zulus and South African history as a country moving out of the Apartheid regime into a more democratic and independent nation. Hence, he is considered important right from the negotiations for the release of Nelson Mandela from prison to the transition into a new government under universal suffrage.

Also importantly, he held a strong political sway in the country and was accorded much reverence both within the Zulus and without. The king died on 12 March 2021 at the age of 72 and after ruling the kingdom for 50 years, making him the longest-serving Zulu King. He was survived by 6 wives and 28 children.

9. Misuzulu Zulu kaZwelithini

  • Date of birth: 23 September 1974
  • Ouderdom: 46 years old
  • Date of Ascension: 7 May 2021
  • Duration of Reign: Till date

Misuzulu Zulu is the current king of the Zulus, although his coronation is still being awaited. Currently 46 years old, he is the oldest surviving son of King Goodwill, making him the presumptive king since the death of the former on 12 March 2021. Misuzulu was appointed king on 7 May 2021, although he is still waiting for his coronation.

In his father’s will, his mother, Queen Mantfombi Dlamini-Zulu, would remain the regent until after the three-month mourning period when a successor is finally coronated. Unfortunately, only a month after she became regent, the Great Queen, as she was referred to, died. Following the sudden death of Her Majesty Queen Shiyiwe Mantfombi Dlamini Zulu, who had been with King Goodwill since they got married in 1977, there were rumors that she was poisoned. However, Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi, the Prime Minister of the Zulu nation, made it clear that she had been suffering some ailments before now and didn’t want to make it public, but she was not poisoned.

This was not the first shocking death the kingdom would suffer within a very short time. In November 2020, Goodwill’s oldest son, who was favored to take over from his father, Prince Lethukuthula, also died mysteriously, and the belief was that he was murdered. As it stands, there is still drama surrounding the future of the leader of the Kingdom as even though Misuzulu Zulu kaZwelithini is believed to be set to take over, there are still those who are against his accession to the throne.


The cover-up

Queen Victoria © Word of the disaster reached Britain on 11 February 1879. The Victorian public was dumbstruck by the news that 'spear-wielding savages' had defeated the well equipped British Army. The hunt was on for a scapegoat, and Chelmsford was the obvious candidate. But he had powerful supporters.

On 12 March 1879 Disraeli told Queen Victoria that his 'whole Cabinet had wanted to yield to the clamours of the Press, & Clubs, for the recall of Ld. Chelmsford'. He had, however, 'after great difficulty carried the day'. Disraeli was protecting Chelmsford not because he believed him to be blameless for Isandlwana, but because he was under intense pressure to do so from the Queen.

Meanwhile Lord Chelmsford was urgently burying all the evidence that could be used against him. He propagated the myth that a shortage of ammunition led to defeat at Isandlwana. He ensured that potential witnesses to his errors were unable to speak out. Even more significantly, he tried to push blame for the defeat onto Colonel Durnford, now dead, claiming that Durnford had disobeyed orders to defend the camp.

Many generals blunder in war, but few go to such lengths to avoid responsibility.

The truth is that no orders were ever given to Durnford to take command. Chelmsford's behaviour, in retrospect, is unforgivable. Many generals blunder in war, but few go to such lengths to avoid responsibility.


Related stories

One of the Voortrekker groups, led by a man called Piet Retief, tried to come into an agreement with the Zulu king, Dingane ka Senzangakhona, or King Dingane for short. Retief, in spite of warnings about the danger, hoped to convince Dingane into ceding some portions of Zulu land to the Boers for permanent settlement.

The area Retief wanted is the Tugela-Umzimvubu region. Dingane was indeed willing to give away that region but on condition that Retief was able to recover and return a significant number of cattle stolen by a rebel chief, Sikonyela.

Historians generally agree that Retief did return to Dingane with some cattle. For what it’s worth, Dingane seemed like a man pleased by what Retief was able to come back with.

According to records taken down by Retief’s secretary, Jan Gerritze Bantjes, Dingane and the Boer leader both signed a deed that ceded the lands to the Boers. Each party also had three witnesses to the February 6, 1838 agreement.

In what seemed like the commemoration of the significance of the agreement, Dingane invited Retief, Retief’s family, and some Boers to an occasion. But when all had been gathered, Dingane ordered his soldiers to capture and kill all the Boers present.

The captured were taken to Kwa-Matiwane, a hillside, and were clubbed to death. Retief is believed to have been the last Boer killed on that day with the Zulu keeping him alive to see all his kin die.

Some 100 Boers were killed on that day and their bodies were left on the hillside to be scavenged by vultures, much in the fashion that Dingane is known to have treated the carcasses of their enemies.

Why would a king agree to cede away land, invite the other party to a celebration only to kill them? A number of theories abound.

One of these theories is that Dingane saw the Boers as invaders especially because, in his correspondence with the king, Retief sent letters that revealed that the people of Mthwakazi Kingdom in the Transvaal region (now Matebeleland) were sacked by Boers.

The revelation of the sacking of the Mthwakazi is read by some historians as a veiled threat from Retief.

Another theory suggests that Dingane was actually not pleased with the number of cattle Retief returned. Some think that Dingane believed Retief kept some of the cattle, beasts symbolizing wealth for the Zulu, for himself.

After the massacre, Dingane waged guerrilla attacks on other Voortrekker camps in the same year. Months later, the Boers responded at Blood River in a battle that decisively crushed the Zulu.


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