Fleming DE -32 - Geskiedenis

Fleming DE -32 - Geskiedenis


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Vlamend

Richard Eugene Fleming, gebore op 2 November 1917 in St. Paul, Minn., Betree die Marine Corps Reserve vir lugvaartopleiding op 20 Januarie 1940. Kaptein Fleming dien as vlugoffisier van die Marine Scout Bombing Squadron in Midway, en word postuum met die medalje toegeken. van eer vir sy buitengewone heldhaftigheid en moed in die Slag van Midway, waartydens hy 'n aanval op 'n Japannese vervoerder op 4 Junie 1942 gelei het en vermoor is terwyl hy 'n ander vervoerder op 5 Junie aangeval het.

Die naam Fleming is oorspronklik op 23 Februarie 1943 aan DE-271 toegeken en op 14 Junie 1943 gekanselleer en weer aan DE-32 toegewys.

(DE-32: dp. 1,140, ​​1. 289 ', b. 36'1 ", dr. 8'3"; s. 21
k .; kpl. 156; a. 3 3 ", 8 dcp., 1 dcp (hh.), 2 dct .;
kl. Evarts)

Fleming (DE-32) is op 16 Junie 1943 gelanseer deur Mare Island Navy Yard, geborg deur mev W. E. Rutherford, en op 18 September 1943, kommandant luitenant R. J. Toner, USNR, in opdrag.

Na opleiding op die Hawaiiaanse eilande het Fleming op 16 Januarie 1944 by Tarawa aangekom vir plaaslike patrollie- en begeleidingsdienste, sowel as begeleide missies na Makin, Majuro, Funafuti en Kwajalein, tot en met April. Sy het tussen 19 Mei en 7 Junie teruggekeer na Pearl Harbor vir 'n kort opknapping, en het daarna na Eniwetok gevaar waar sy by 'n konvooi aangesluit het wat na Guam aangeval het en op 27 Junie aangekom het. Fleming patrolleer by Orote en begelei handelaars van Guam na Tinian en Eniwetok tot 20 Augustus, toe sy vaar om 'n aanvalstransport na Saipan en Pearl Harbor te begelei.

Nadat sy haar toewysing in die Marianas -operasie voltooi het, was Fleming die doelwit vir duikbote wat in Hawaise waters opgelei is tot 17 Oktober 1944, toe sy by Eniwetok aankom om 4 maande se ononderbroke konvooi -begeleiding tussen Eniwetok en Ulithi te begin, die groot basis waarvan die opbou noodsaaklik was die komende Iwo Jima en Okinawa bedrywighede. In die nag van 13 Januarie 1946, terwyl sy twee tenkwaens onderweg van Ulithi na Eniwetok bewaak het, het Fleming 'n radarkontak gemaak en begin met die vyf krimpvarkies en diepte-aanvalle waarmee sy die Japannese duikboot RO-47 gesink het net na middernag 14 Januarie.

Laat in Februarie 1946 en vroeg in Maart het Flemin begeleide reise van EnIwetok na Saipan en Guam gemaak, en op 13 Maart by ULITHI aangekom om voor te berei op die aanval op Okinawa. Sy het op 21 Maart op die skerm gesorteer vir begeleiers wat die eerste landings op 1 April ondersteun het, en saam met hulle gevaar het tot 17 April toe sy die aksie verlaat het; gebied om Natoma Bay (CVE-62) na Guam te begelei vir herstelwerk. Die escort carrier en destroyer escort het op 4 Mei vanaf Guam gevaar om 4 dae later aan diens te gaan by Okinawa.

Op 20 Mei 1945, terwyl hy steeds die begeleiers dra, het Fleming twee van drie Japannese vliegtuie gespat wat probeer kamikazeer of bombardeer het en die derde weggejaag het. Vyf dae later het sy 11 oorlewendes van LSM-l35 en 20 van Bates (APD 47) gered, albei gesink deur kamikazes. Fleming het voortgegaan om by Okinawa te dien
tot 6 Julie toe sy vir 'n opknapping aan die weskus vaar. Toe die oorlog nog op die erf was, is sy op 10 November 1945 uit diens gestel en verkoop sy 29 Januarie 1948.

Fleming het vier gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


USS Vlamend (DE-32)

USS Vlamend (DE-32) là một tàu khu trục hộ tống lớp Evarts được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ chế tạo trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. Nó là chiếc tàu chiến thứ hai của Hải quân Mỹ được đặt theo tên Đại úy Thủy quân Lục chiến Richard Eugene Fleming (1917-1942), phi công đã tử trận trong Trận Midway vàng. [1] Nó đã phục vụ cho đến khi chiến tranh kết thúc, xuất biên chế vào ngày 15 tháng 11, 1945 và xóa đăng bạ vào ngày 28 thang 11, 1945. Con tàu bị bán để tháo 1948. Vlamend được tặng thưởng bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.

  • 1.140 ton Anh (1.160 t) (tiêu chuẩn)
  • 1.430 ton Anh (1.450 t) (đầy tải)
  • 86,41 m (283 ft 6 in) (mực nước)
  • 289 voet 5 in (88,21 m) (chung)
  • 4 × diesel
  • 2 × trục chân vịt
  • 15 sek
  • 183 thyy thủ
    kiểu SA & amp SL Kiểu 128D hoặc Kiểu 144
  • Ăn-ten định vị MF
  • Ăn-ten định vị cao tần Kiểu FH 4
  • 3 × pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal đa dụng (3 × 1)
  • 4 × pháo phòng không1,1 duim/75 kaliber (1 × 4)
  • 9 × pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm (9 × 1)
  • 8 × még phông mìn sâu K3
  • 1 × súng cốichống tàu ngầmHedgehog (24 nòng, 144 quả đạn)
  • 2 × đường ray thả mìn sâu

Inhoud

Gebore op 6 Augustus 1881 op die plaas Lochfield naby Darvel, in Ayrshire, Skotland, was Alexander Fleming die derde van vier kinders van boer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) en Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928), die dogter van 'n buurboer. Hugh Fleming het vier oorlewende kinders uit sy eerste huwelik gehad. Hy was 59 ten tyde van sy tweede huwelik met Grace en is dood toe Alexander sewe was. [9]

Fleming het na die Loudoun Moor School en Darvel School gegaan en 'n tweejarige beurs aan die Kilmarnock Academy verwerf voordat hy na Londen verhuis het, waar hy die Royal Polytechnic Institution bygewoon het. [10] Nadat hy vier jaar in 'n skeepvaartkantoor gewerk het, erf die twintigjarige Alexander Fleming geld van 'n oom, John Fleming. Sy oudste broer, Tom, was reeds 'n dokter en het aan hom voorgestel dat hy dieselfde loopbaan moes volg, en in 1903 het die jonger Alexander by die St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington ingeskryf, met 'n MBBS -graad van die skool met lof. in 1906. [9]

Fleming, wat van 1900 [5] tot 1914 'n privaat in die London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force was, [11] was lid van die geweerklub by die mediese skool. Die kaptein van die klub, wat Fleming in die span wou behou, het voorgestel dat hy by die navorsingsafdeling by St Mary's aansluit, waar hy assistent -bakterioloog word van sir Almroth Wright, 'n pionier in entstofterapie en immunologie. In 1908 verwerf hy 'n BSc -graad met 'n goue medalje in bakteriologie en word hy dosent by St Mary's tot 1914.

In 1914 as luitenant aangestel en as kaptein in 1917 bevorder, [11] het Fleming dwarsdeur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in die Royal Army Medical Corps gedien en is hy in afdelings genoem. Hy en baie van sy kollegas het in slagveldhospitale aan die Wesfront in Frankryk gewerk. In 1918 keer hy terug na die St Mary's -hospitaal, waar hy in 1928 tot professor in bakteriologie aan die Universiteit van Londen verkies word. In 1951 word hy verkies tot die rektor van die Universiteit van Edinburgh vir 'n termyn van drie jaar. [9]

Antiseptika

Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Fleming saam met Leonard Colebrook en sir Almroth Wright by die oorlog aangesluit en feitlik die hele Inokulasie-afdeling van St Mary's na die Britse militêre hospitaal in Boulogne-sur-Mer oorgeplaas. As tydelike luitenant van die Royal Army Medical Corps was hy getuie van die dood van baie soldate as gevolg van sepsis as gevolg van besmette wonde. Volgens hom word antiseptika wat destyds gebruik is om besmette wonde te behandel, die beserings vererger. [12] In 'n artikel gepubliseer in die mediese tydskrif Die Lancet in 1917 beskryf hy 'n vindingryke eksperiment wat hy kon uitvoer as gevolg van sy eie glasblaasvaardighede, waarin hy verduidelik waarom antiseptika meer soldate doodmaak as infeksie self tydens die oorlog. Antiseptika het op die oppervlak goed gewerk, maar diep wonde het anaërobiese bakterieë beskut teen die antiseptiese middel, en dit lyk asof antiseptika voordelige middels verwyder het wat die pasiënte in hierdie gevalle beskerm het ten minste so goed as wat hulle bakterieë verwyder het, en niks gedoen het om die bakterieë wat buite bereik was. [13] Wright ondersteun Fleming se bevindings ten sterkste, maar ten spyte hiervan het die meeste weermagdokters gedurende die oorlog steeds antiseptika gebruik, selfs in gevalle waar dit die toestand van die pasiënte vererger het. [9]

Ontdekking van lisosiem

In die St Mary's -hospitaal het Fleming sy ondersoeke na bakteriekultuur en antibakteriese stowwe voortgesit. As sy navorsingsgeleerde destyds V.D. Allison onthou, Fleming was nie 'n netjiese navorser nie en het gewoonlik ongewone bakteriële groei in sy kweekplate verwag. Fleming het Allison geterg oor sy 'buitensporige netheid in die laboratorium', en Allison het tereg sulke onnetheid toegeskryf as die sukses van Fleming se eksperimente, en gesê: 'As hy so netjies was as wat hy gedink het, sou hy dit nie gedoen het nie sy twee groot ontdekkings. ” [14]

Aan die einde van 1921, terwyl hy agarplate vir bakterieë onderhou het, het hy gevind dat een van die plate besmet is met bakterieë uit die lug. Toe hy neusslym byvoeg, het hy gevind dat die slym die groei van bakterieë belemmer. [15] Rondom die slymgebied was 'n duidelike deursigtige sirkel (1 cm van die slym), wat dui op die dodingsone van bakterieë, gevolg deur 'n glasagtige en deurskynende ring waarna 'n ondeursigtige gebied dui op normale bakteriegroei. In die volgende toets het hy bakterieë in soutoplossing gebruik wat 'n geel suspensie gevorm het. Binne twee minute nadat vars slym bygevoeg is, het die geel sout heeltemal helder geword. Hy het sy toetse uitgebrei met trane, wat deur sy medewerkers bygedra is. Soos Allison herinner en sê: "Vir die volgende vyf of ses weke was ons trane die bron van hierdie buitengewone verskynsel. Baie was die suurlemoene wat ons gebruik het (na die mislukking van uie) om trane te veroorsaak. vir ons was die trane so groot dat laboratoriumpersoneel in diens geneem is en drie keer vir elke bydrae ontvang het. " [14]

Sy verdere toetse met sputum, kraakbeen, bloed, saad, ovariale siste vloeistof, etter en eierwit het getoon dat die bakteriedodende middel in al hierdie bestanddele voorkom. [16] Hy het sy ontdekking by die Medical Research Club in Desember en die volgende jaar by die Royal Society aangemeld, maar het nie daarin geslaag om belangstelling te wek nie, soos Allison onthou:

Ek was by hierdie [Medical Research Club] vergadering as Fleming se gas. Sy referaat wat sy ontdekking beskryf, is ontvang sonder om vrae te vra en sonder bespreking, wat die meeste ongewoon was en 'n aanduiding was dat dit van geen belang was nie. Die volgende jaar lees hy 'n referaat hieroor voor die Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly en ek en hy het 'n demonstrasie van ons werk gelewer. Weereens, met 'n enkele uitsondering, is daar min kommentaar of aandag daaraan gegee. [14]

Verslagdoening in die uitgawe van 1 Mei 1922 van die Verrigtinge van die Royal Society B: Biologiese Wetenskappe onder die titel "Op 'n merkwaardige bakteriolytiese element wat in weefsels en afskeidings voorkom," het Fleming geskryf:

In hierdie mededeling wil ek die aandag vestig op 'n stof wat in die weefsels en afskeidings van die liggaam voorkom, wat sekere bakterieë vinnig kan oplos. Aangesien hierdie stof eienskappe het wat soortgelyk is aan die van fermente, het ek dit 'n 'Lysozyme' genoem, en ek sal dit gedurende hierdie kommunikasie met hierdie naam noem. Die lisosiem is die eerste keer opgemerk tydens 'n paar ondersoeke wat gedoen is na 'n pasiënt wat aan akute koors ly. [15]

Dit was die eerste aangetekende ontdekking van lisosiem. Met Allison het hy in Oktober -uitgawe verdere studies oor lisosiem gepubliseer British Journal of Experimental Pathology dieselfde jaar. [17] Alhoewel hy in staat was om groter hoeveelhede lisosiem uit eierwitte te verkry, was die ensiem slegs effektief teen klein hoeveelhede onskadelike bakterieë en het dit dus min terapeutiese potensiaal. Dit dui op een van die belangrikste verskille tussen patogene en onskadelike bakterieë. [12] In die oorspronklike publikasie is '' 'n pasiënt wat aan akute koors ly '' [15] later geïdentifiseer as Fleming self. Sy navorsingsnotaboek van 21 November 1921 toon 'n skets van die kweekplaat met 'n klein aantekening: 'Staphyloid coccus uit A.F. se neus.' [16] Hy identifiseer ook die bakterie wat in die neusslym voorkom as Micrococcus Lysodeikticus, met die naam van die spesie (wat "lysisaanwyser" beteken omdat dit vatbaar is vir lysosimale aktiwiteit). [18] Die spesie is weer toegewys as Micrococcus luteus in 1972. [19] Die "Fleming -stam" (NCTC2665) van hierdie bakterie het 'n model geword in verskillende biologiese studies. [20] [21] Die belangrikheid van lisosiem is nie erken nie, en Fleming was deeglik bewus hiervan in sy presidensiële toespraak tydens die Royal Society of Medicine -vergadering op 18 Oktober 1932:

Ek kies lysozyme as onderwerp vir hierdie adres om twee redes, eerstens omdat ek 'n vaderlike belangstelling in die naam het, en tweedens omdat die belangrikheid daarvan in verband met natuurlike immuniteit nie algemeen waardeer word nie. [22]

In sy Nobel -lesing op 11 Desember 1945 noem hy kortliks lysosiem en sê: "Penisillien was nie die eerste antibiotika wat ek toevallig ontdek het nie." [23] Dit was eers teen die einde van die 20ste eeu dat die werklike belangrikheid van Fleming se ontdekking in immunologie besef is, aangesien lisosiem die eerste ontdekte antimikrobiese proteïen word wat deel uitmaak van ons aangebore immuniteit. [24] [25]

Ontdekking van penisillien

'N Mens vind soms wat jy nie soek nie. Toe ek op 28 September 1928 net ná dagbreek wakker word, was ek beslis nie van plan om 'n revolusie in alle medisyne te maak deur die wêreld se eerste antibiotika of bakteriemoordenaar te ontdek nie. Maar ek dink dit was presies wat ek gedoen het.

Eksperimenteer

Teen 1927 het Fleming die eienskappe van stafilokokke ondersoek. Hy was reeds bekend uit sy vroeëre werk en het 'n reputasie ontwikkel as 'n briljante navorser. In 1928 bestudeer hy die variasie van Staphylococcus aureus onder natuurlike toestand gegroei, na die werk van Joseph Warwick Bigger, wat ontdek het dat die bakterie in verskillende tipes (rasse) kan groei. [27] Op 3 September 1928 keer Fleming terug na sy laboratorium nadat hy 'n vakansie saam met sy gesin in Suffolk deurgebring het. Voordat hy na sy vakansie vertrek het, het hy stafylokokke op kultuurplate geënt en op 'n bank in 'n hoek van sy laboratorium gelos. [16] By sy terugkeer het Fleming opgemerk dat een kultuur besmet was met 'n swam, en dat die kolonies stafilokokke wat onmiddellik om die swam was, vernietig is, terwyl ander stafylokokke kolonies verder weg normaal was, en beroemd opgemerk het: "Dit is snaaks". [28] Fleming het die besmette kultuur aan sy voormalige assistent Merlin Pryce gewys, wat hom daaraan herinner het: "So het jy lysosiem ontdek." [29] Hy het die vorm geïdentifiseer as afkomstig van die genus Penicillium. Hy het dit vermoed P. chrysogenum, maar 'n kollega Charles J. La Touche het dit geïdentifiseer as P. rubrum. (Dit is later reggestel as P. notatum en dan amptelik aanvaar as P. chrysogenum maar uiteindelik in 2011 is dit opgelos as P. rubens.) [30] [31]

Die laboratorium waarin Fleming penisillien ontdek en getoets het, word bewaar as die Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum in St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington. Die bron van die swambesmetting is in 1966 vasgestel uit die kamer van La Touche, wat direk onder Fleming s'n was. [32] [33]

Fleming het die vorm in 'n suiwer kultuur gegroei en gevind dat die kweekbouillon 'n antibakteriese stof bevat. Hy het die antibakteriese effek daarvan op baie organismes ondersoek en opgemerk dat dit bakterieë beïnvloed, soos stafilokokke en baie ander Gram-positiewe patogene wat skarlakenkoors, longontsteking, breinvliesontsteking en difterie veroorsaak, maar nie tifus of paratyfus nie, wat veroorsaak word deur Gram-negatiewe bakterieë, waarvoor hy destyds 'n geneesmiddel gesoek het. Dit het ook geraak Neisseria gonorrhoeae, wat gonorree veroorsaak, hoewel hierdie bakterie gramnegatief is. Nadat hy dit 'n paar maande lank 'magsap' of 'die remmer' genoem het, het hy op 7 Maart 1929 die naam penisillien gegee vir die antibakteriese stof wat in die vorm voorkom. [34]

Ontvangs en publikasie

Fleming het sy ontdekking op 13 Februarie 1929 aan die Medical Research Club voorgelê. Sy toespraak oor "'n Medium vir die isolasie van Pfeiffer se basil" het geen spesiale aandag of kommentaar gekry nie. Henry Dale, die destydse direkteur van die National Institute for Medical Research en voorsitter van die vergadering, het later herinner dat hy nie eens 'n opvallende belangrike punt in Fleming se toespraak voel nie. [16] Fleming publiseer sy ontdekking in 1929 in die British Journal of Experimental Pathology, [35] maar daar is min aandag aan die artikel geskenk. Sy probleem was die moeilikheid om penisillien in groot hoeveelhede te produseer, en boonop isolasie van die hoofverbinding. Selfs met die hulp van Harold Raistrick en sy span biochemici aan die London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, was chemiese suiwering tevergeefs. 'As gevolg hiervan het penisillien in die dertigerjare grootliks vergete geraak,' het Milton Wainwright beskryf. [36]

So laat as in 1936 was daar geen waardering vir penisillien nie. Toe Fleming op die Tweede Internasionale Kongres vir Mikrobiologie in Londen oor sy mediese belangrikheid gepraat het, [37] [38] het niemand hom geglo nie. Soos Allison, sy metgesel in beide die Medical Research Club en die internasionale kongresvergadering, die twee geleenthede opgemerk het:

[Fleming tydens die vergadering van die Medical Research Club] het die moontlike waarde van penisillien voorgestel vir die behandeling van infeksie by die mens. Weereens was daar 'n totale gebrek aan belangstelling en geen bespreking nie. Fleming was baie teleurgesteld, maar erger was om te volg. Hy het 'n referaat oor sy werk oor penisillien gelees tydens 'n vergadering van die International Congress of Microbiology, bygewoon deur die voorste bakterioloë van regoor die wêreld. Daar was geen ondersteuning vir sy siening oor die moontlike toekomstige waarde daarvan vir die voorkoming en behandeling van infeksies by mense nie, en bespreking was minimaal. Fleming het hierdie teleurstellings stoïsties gedra, maar dit het nie sy siening verander of hom daarvan weerhou om sy ondersoek na penisillien voort te sit nie. [14]

In 1941 het die British Medical Journal berig dat "[Penisillien] blykbaar uit geen ander oogpunt as nuttig beskou is nie." [39] [40] [32]

Suiwering en stabilisering

In Oxford het Ernst Boris Chain en Edward Abraham die molekulêre struktuur van die antibiotika bestudeer. Abraham was die eerste wat die korrekte struktuur van penisillien voorgestel het. [41] [42] Kort nadat die span sy eerste resultate in 1940 gepubliseer het, bel Fleming vir Howard Florey, departementshoof van Chain, om te sê dat hy binne die volgende paar dae sou kom kuier. Toe Chain hoor dat Fleming kom, merk hy op "Goeie God! Ek het gedink hy is dood." [43]

Norman Heatley het voorgestel dat die aktiewe bestanddeel van penisillien weer in die water oorgedra word deur die suurheid daarvan te verander. Dit het genoeg van die geneesmiddel geproduseer om op diere te begin toets. Daar was baie meer mense betrokke by die Oxford -span, en op 'n stadium was die hele Sir William Dunn School of Pathology betrokke by die produksie daarvan. Nadat die span in 1940 'n metode ontwikkel het om penisillien tot 'n effektiewe eerste stabiele vorm te suiwer, het verskeie kliniese proewe gevolg, en hul ongelooflike sukses het die span geïnspireer om metodes vir massaproduksie en massaverspreiding in 1945 te ontwikkel. [44] [45]

Fleming was beskeie oor sy aandeel in die ontwikkeling van penisillien, en beskryf sy roem as die 'Fleming Myth' en hy prys Florey en Chain omdat hulle die nuuskierigheid van die laboratorium in 'n praktiese middel omskep het. Fleming was die eerste om die eienskappe van die aktiewe stof te ontdek, wat hom die voorreg gegee het om dit te noem: penisillien. Hy het ook die oorspronklike vorm vir twaalf jaar gehou, gegroei en versprei en tot 1940 probeer om hulp te kry van enige apteker wat genoeg vaardighede het om penisillien te maak. Maar sir Henry Harris het in 1998 gesê: "Sonder Fleming, geen ketting sonder ketting, geen Florey sonder Florey, geen Heatley sonder Heatley, geen penisillien nie." [46] Die ontdekking van penisillien en die daaropvolgende ontwikkeling daarvan as voorskrifmedikasie was die begin van moderne antibiotika. [47]

Mediese gebruik en massaproduksie

In sy eerste kliniese proef het Fleming sy navorsingsstudent Stuart Craddock behandel wat ernstige infeksie van die neusbeen (sinusitis) ontwikkel het. Die behandeling het op 9 Januarie 1929 begin, maar sonder enige effek. Dit was waarskynlik te wyte aan die feit dat die infeksie met griepbacillus (Haemophilus influenzae), die bakterie wat hy ongevoelig gevind het vir penisillien. [32] Fleming het in 1928 'n paar van sy oorspronklike penisillienmonsters aan sy kollega-chirurg Arthur Dickson Wright gegee vir 'n kliniese toets. [48] [49] Alhoewel Wright na bewering gesê het dat dit "bevredigend werk", [50] is daar geen rekords van die spesifieke gebruik daarvan. Cecil George Paine, 'n patoloog by die Royal Infirmary in Sheffield en 'n voormalige student van Fleming, was die eerste persoon wat penisillien suksesvol vir mediese behandeling gebruik het. [36] Hy het op 25 November 1930 ooginfeksies (konjunktivitis) van een volwassene en drie babas (neonatale konjunktivitis) genees. [51]

Fleming het ook ernstige konjunktivitis in 1932 suksesvol behandel. [3] [52] [53] Keith Bernard Rogers, wat in 1929 as mediese student by St Mary's aangesluit het, [54] was kaptein van die geweerspan van die London University en was op die punt om deel te neem aan inter -hospitale geweerskietkompetisie toe hy konjunktivitis ontwikkel het. [55] [56] [57] Fleming het sy penisillien toegedien en Rogers genees voor die kompetisie. [3] [52] [58] Daar word gesê dat die "penisillien gewerk het en die wedstryd gewen is." Die berig dat "Keith waarskynlik die eerste pasiënt was wat klinies met penisilliensalf behandel is" [56], is egter nie meer waar nie, aangesien Paine se mediese rekords verskyn het. [34]

Daar is 'n gewilde bewering in die populêre en wetenskaplike literatuur dat Fleming in die vroeë dertigerjare grootliks van die penisillienwerk afstand gedoen het. [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] In sy resensie van André Maurois se Die lewe van sir Alexander Fleming, ontdekker van penisillien, William L. Kissick het so ver gegaan om te sê dat "Fleming penisillien in 1932 laat vaar het. Alhoewel die ontvanger van baie eerbewyse en die skrywer van baie wetenskaplike werk, Sir Alexander Fleming nie 'n ideale onderwerp vir 'n biografie blyk te wees nie." [66] Dit is 'n valse inligting, aangesien Fleming penisilliennavorsing voortgesit het. [49] [67] So laat as in 1939 toon Fleming se notaboek pogings om beter penisillienproduksie te maak met behulp van verskillende media. [34] In 1941 publiseer hy 'n metode vir die beoordeling van die effektiwiteit van penisillien. [68] Wat die chemiese isolasie en suiwering betref, het Howard Florey en Ernst Boris Chain by die Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford die navorsing onderneem om dit in massa te vervaardig, wat hulle bereik het met steun van militêre projekte uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog onder die Amerikaanse en Britse regerings . [69]

Teen die middel van 1942 het die Oxford-span die suiwer penisillienverbinding as geel poeier vervaardig. [70] In Augustus 1942 is Harry Lambert ('n medewerker van Fleming se broer Robert) in die St Mary's-hospitaal opgeneem weens lewensbedreigende infeksie van die senuweestelsel (streptokokke-meningitis). [71] Fleming het hom met sulfonamiede behandel, maar Lambert se toestand het versleg. Hy het die vatbaarheid van antibiotika getoets en gevind dat sy penisillien die bakterieë kan doodmaak. Hy het Florey aangevra vir die geïsoleerde monster. Toe Florey die onvolledig gesuiwerde monster, wat Fleming onmiddellik in die ruggraat van Lambert toegedien het, stuur. Lambert het die volgende dag tekens van verbetering getoon [14] en het binne 'n week heeltemal herstel. [3] [72] Fleming het die kliniese geval gepubliseer in Die Lancet in 1943. [73]

By hierdie mediese deurbraak het Allison die Britse ministerie van gesondheid ingelig oor die belangrikheid van penisillien en die noodsaaklikheid van massaproduksie. Die Oorlogskabinet was oortuig van die nut waarop Sir Cecil Weir, Direkteur -generaal van Toerusting, op 28 September 1942 'n vergadering oor die werkwyse belê het. [74] [75] Die Penicillin -komitee is op 5 April 1943 gestig. Die komitee het bestaan ​​uit Weir as voorsitter, Fleming, Florey, Sir Percival Hartley, Allison en verteenwoordigers van farmaseutiese ondernemings as lede. Die hoofdoelwitte was om penisillien vinnig in groot hoeveelhede te produseer in samewerking met Amerikaanse ondernemings, en om die geneesmiddel uitsluitlik aan die geallieerde weermagte te verskaf. [14] Teen D-Day in 1944 is genoeg penisillien geproduseer om al die gewondes van die geallieerde troepe te behandel. [76]

Antibiotiese weerstand

Fleming het ook baie vroeg ontdek dat bakterieë antibiotika -weerstandigheid ontwikkel wanneer te min penisillien gebruik word of wanneer dit te kort gebruik word. Almroth Wright het antibiotiese weerstand voorspel nog voordat dit tydens eksperimente opgemerk is. Fleming het gewaarsku oor die gebruik van penisillien in sy talle toesprake regoor die wêreld. Op 26 Junie 1945 het hy die volgende omsigtigheidsverklarings gemaak: "die mikrobes word opgevoed om penisillien te weerstaan ​​en 'n magdom penisillien-vinnige organismes word uitgebring. In sulke gevalle is die onnadenkende persoon wat met penisillien speel moreel verantwoordelik vir die dood van die man wat uiteindelik beswyk voor die infeksie met die penisillienweerstandige organisme. Ek hoop dat hierdie euwel vermy kan word. " [77] Hy het gewaarsku om nie penisillien te gebruik nie, tensy daar 'n behoorlik gediagnoseerde rede is waarom dit gebruik moet word, en dat as dit gebruik word, nooit te min of te kort tydperk moet gebruik nie, aangesien dit die omstandighede is waarin bakterieë weerstand teen antibiotika ontwikkel. [78]

Daar is in 1942 eksperimenteel getoon dat S. aureus kan penisillienweerstandigheid ontwikkel tydens langdurige blootstelling. [79] In sy Nobel -lesing het Fleming gesê oor die moontlikheid van penisillienweerstand in kliniese toestande:

Die tyd kan aanbreek dat penisillien deur almal in die winkels gekoop kan word. Dan is daar die gevaar dat die onkundige mens homself maklik kan onderdoen en deur sy mikrobes bloot te stel aan nie-dodelike hoeveelhede van die geneesmiddel, dit weerstandig kan maak. [23]

Dit was omstreeks daardie tyd dat die eerste kliniese geval van penisillienweerstand aangemeld is. [80]

Op 24 Desember 1915 trou Fleming met 'n opgeleide verpleegster, Sarah Marion McElroy van Killala, County Mayo, Ierland. Hul enigste kind, Robert Fleming (1924–2015), het 'n algemene praktisyn geword. Na die dood van sy eerste vrou in 1949 trou Fleming op 9 April 1953 met Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, 'n Griekse kollega by St. Mary's. [81]

Fleming kom uit 'n Presbiteriaanse agtergrond, terwyl sy eerste vrou Sarah 'n (vervalle) Rooms -Katoliek was. Daar word gesê dat hy nie besonder godsdienstig was nie, en dat hul seun Robert later in die Anglikaanse kerk opgeneem is, terwyl hy na bewering steeds sy twee ouers se taamlik onreligieuse geaardheid geërf het. [82]

Toe Fleming van Robert D. Coghill en Andrew J. Moyer in 1944 kennis neem van die metode van penisillienproduksie in die VSA, [83] was hy woedend en sê:

Ek het penisillien gevind en dit gratis gegee ten bate van die mensdom. Waarom sou dit 'n winsgewende monopolie van vervaardigers in 'n ander land word? [14]

Van 1921 tot sy dood in 1955 het Fleming 'n plattelandse huis met die naam "The Dhoon" in Barton Mills, Suffolk, besit. [4] [84]

Op 11 Maart 1955 sterf Fleming by sy huis in Londen aan 'n hartaanval. Sy as word begrawe in die St Paul's Cathedral. [2]


Inhoud

Sy is op 16 Junie 1943 van stapel gestuur deur Mare Island Navy Yard, geborg deur mev. W. Rutherford, en op 18 September 1943 in opdrag van luitenant -kommandant R. J. Toner.

Na opleiding op die Hawaii -eilande, Vlamend het op 15 Januarie 1944 by Tarawa aangekom vir plaaslike patrollie- en begeleidingsplig, sowel as begeleide missies na Makin, Majuro, Funafuti en Kwajalein tot en met April. Sy het van 19 Mei tot 7 Junie na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer vir 'n kort opknapping, waarna sy na Eniwetok gevaar het waar sy by 'n konvooi aangekom het wat op pad was na Guam, en op 27 Junie aangekom. Vlamend het by Orote gepatrolleer en handelaars van Guam na Tinian en Eniwetok begelei tot 20 Augustus, toe sy gevaar het om 'n aanvalstransport na Saipan en Pearl Harbor te begelei.

Die voltooiing van haar opdrag in die operasie op die Mariana -eilande, Vlamend was die doelwit vir duikbote -opleiding in Hawaise waters tot 17 Oktober, toe sy by Eniwetok aankom om vier maande se konvooi -begeleiding tussen Eniwetok en Ulithi te begin, die groot basis waarvan die opbou noodsaaklik was vir die Iwo Jima en Okinawa operasies.

Op die nag van 8 Januarie 1945, waak daar oor twee tenkwaens onderweg van Ulithi na Eniwetok, Vlamend het 'n radarkontak gemaak en begin met die vyf Egel- en diepte -aanvalle wat gesink het Ek-362 net na middernag op 14 Januarie.

Einde Februarie en begin Maart, Vlamend het begeleide reise van Eniwetok na Saipan en Guam gemaak, en op 13 Maart by Ulithi aangekom om voor te berei vir die aanval op Okinawa. Sy het op 21 Maart gesorteer op die skerm van begeleiers wat lugondersteuning bied vir die aanvanklike landings op 1 April, en het saam met hulle geseil tot 17 April, toe sy die gebied verlaat om te begelei Natoma Bay na Guam vir herstelwerk. Die escort carrier en destroyer escort het op 4 Mei uit Guam gevaar om 4 dae later aan diens te gaan by Okinawa.

Op 20 Mei, nog besig om die begeleiers te ondersoek, Vlamend spat twee van drie Japannese vliegtuie wat probeer kamikazeer of bombardeer en die derde wegjaag. Vyf dae later het sy 11 oorlewendes van gered LSM-135 en 20 van Bates, albei gesink kamikazes. Vlamend het voortgegaan om by Okinawa te dien tot en met 5 Julie, toe sy vir 'n opknapping aan die weskus gevaar het.

Toe die oorlog nog op die erf was, is sy op 10 November 1945 uit diens gestel en op 29 Januarie 1948 vir afval verkoop.


STERRE

Orale geskiedenis onderhoud van Charles Wert. Onderhoud gevoer deur Mathis, Sam by Wert Residence.

0:17 Opening Bio 1:17 Sluit aan by Navy 2:00 Gesin 2:55 Eerste dag in Navy 3:43 High School krediet vir militêre diens 4:48 Pearl Harbor aangeval 5:12 Waarom hy by die vloot aangesluit het 5:24 Basic Training 6 : 10 KP diens 7:00 Eerste dag in basiese 8:36 Basiese gegradueerde 9:01 Elektrisiën opleiding by Perdue 10:55 Vrywilligers vir subskool 11:45 Gesprekke oor verwoester -begeleiers 12:10 Gehoorskade 12:30 DE opleidingsfasiliteit 12: 58 Bemanning van DE 32 13:14 DE bespot 14:04 Wag vir kommissie 14:19 DE 32 Fleming 17:25 Wapens van DE 19:12 Hedgehog -wapen 20:17 Shakedown -bemanning 20:28 18de verjaardag in Pearl Harbor 21:00 Pearl Harbor 2 jaar later 21:45 Anti -sub -patrollies 22:17 Gilbert -eilande 22:30 DE Division opgestel 23:23 Tarawa 24:00 Shell Back 25:06 Screening Marshall Islands 26:00 Radar and Sonar 27:00 Ulithi Atoll 28 : 00 Dokter 28:24 Konvooi -detail 28:48 Resupply 29:30 Brother in Marine Corps 30:18 Mail gesensureer 31:05 Ontmoet Brother tydens troepevervoer 32:40 Movies 34:11 Guam -inval 35:20 Screen landing ships 36:40 Pêrel Havenherstel 37:20 Gyro -kompas 38:50 Royal Hawaiian stay 40:10 Terug na Ulithi 40:50 Konvooi diens 41:11 Terug na state 41:56 30 dae verlof 42:00 terug huis 42:22 vervanging diens 42:40 toewys na Anchor -afdeling Filippynse see HQ 43:30 Vervoer na Manila 43:40 Land op Samar 44:00 doodslag op Samar 44:34 Bomwerpers kyk na Samar 45:35 Matrose -joyride op bomwerpers 46:22 Verhuis na Manila 46:46 Woon in tent 47:00 Opgeboude basis 48:42 Filippynse mense 49:19 Honger kinders in Navy asblik 50:06 Doel van basis 50:40 Plaaslike kroeë 51:58 Mense mishandel deur Japannese 53:04 Joyriding in vliegtuie 53:40 Vlieg in P -61 55:30 Op die verkeerde basis geneem 57:00 METS 58:16 Bom geval 58:42 Huistoe gebind 59:30 het 1:00:00 bymekaargemaak om by die skool aan te meld met GI -rekening 1:00:30 Getroud 1:01: 12 Lewe na oorlog.


Na opleiding op die Hawaiiaanse eilande, Vlamend het op 15 Januarie 1944 by Tarawa aangekom vir plaaslike patrollie- en begeleidingsplig, sowel as begeleidings na Makin, Majuro, Funafuti en Kwajalein tot en met April. Sy het van 19 Mei tot 7 Junie na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer vir 'n kort opknapping, waarna sy na Eniwetok gevaar het waar sy by 'n konvooi aangekom het wat op pad was na Guam, en op 27 Junie aangekom. Vlamend patrolled off Orote, and escorted merchantmen from Guam to Tinian and Eniwetok until 20 August, when she sailed to escort an attack transport to Saipan and Pearl Harbor.

Completing her assignment in the Mariana Islands operation, Fleming acted as target for submarines training in Hawaiian waters until 17 October, when she arrived at Eniwetok to begin 4 months of convoy escort duty between Eniwetok and Ulithi, the great base whose buildup was essential to the Iwo Jima and Okinawa operations.

On the night of 8 January 1945, guarding two tankers en route from Ulithi to Eniwetok, Fleming made a radar contact and began the five Hedgehog and depth charge attacks which sank I-362 just after midnight on 14 January.

In late-February and early-March, Fleming made escort voyages from Eniwetok to Saipan and Guam, then on 13 March arrived at Ulithi to prepare for the Okinawa assault. She sortied on 21 March in the screen of escort carriers providing air support for the initial landings on 1 April, and sailed with them until 17 April, when she departed the area to escort Natoma Bay to Guam for repairs. The escort carrier and destroyer escort sailed from Guam on 4 May to return to duty at Okinawa 4 days later.

On 20 May, still screening the escort carriers, Fleming splashed two of three Japanese planes which attempted to kamikaze or bomb her, driving the third away. Five days later, she rescued 11 survivors of LSM-135 and 20 of Bates, both sunk by kamikazes. Fleming continued to serve off Okinawa until 5 July, when she sailed for a west coast overhaul.

Still in the yard when the war ended, she was decommissioned on 10 November 1945, and sold for scrap on 29 January 1948.


One Man's War -Part 31: June 10,1945 -- July 24, Back to the War continued

This story appears courtesy of and with thanks to Robert H Allison.

Having caught the raft I discovered that it was up side down and would have to be righted if I was to get in. This just wasn't about to happen. I didn't have enough energy left in me to turn that thing over. So I just stuck my arm through the rope attached to it and hung on waiting for the rescue destroyer, the USS Fleming, DE 32. It was not long in coming. As it passed by it was still making a little headway. The cargo net was hanging down the side but there weren't two big sailors hanging on it to give me a helping hand as there had been on the Lardner. As soon as I was close enough I grabbed the net and turned loose of the raft. I have no idea what happened to the raft but I'm sure they picked it up. When I grabbed the net, because of the forward motion of the ship I was dragged under the water. I hung on and began climbing. The deck is only five or six feet above the water, but in my worn out condition it was a mile. Not only did they not help me up the net but they made me walk to sick bay. I would have gladly lain down in the basket this time. Not only did I suffer these indignities but also I had to wear a wet flight suit until I was back on the Steamer Bay. Don't get me wrong, I'm glad they were there.
On this same day, Lt. (j.g.) George Vigeant's plane was struck by enemy antiaircraft fire and he was forced to make a water landing. As he was about to sit down on the water his plane exploded. He was lost at sea and was the final fatality for the squadron. In all the squadron lost five fighter pilots and two TBM air crewmen in the year and a half that it had been in commission.

The morning after my crash on the 15th, I was scheduled for a pre-dawn patrol with the skipper, Dunagan and Godfrey. Having lost my plotting board and all the maps and codes, I went the night before to the ACI (Aircraft Combat Intelligence) office to replace the missing literature. Lieutenant Bob Winters, the officer in charge, fixed me up with the board and most of the papers but said they were out of some and would get them to me.

About 0300 the morning of June 16th we were called to man our planes. Again this morning as it had been the day before, the sky was black, the weather was lousy, it was raining and the ceiling was about 500 feet. This morning we were to be catapulted off the deck. After checking out the planes we were guided on to the catapult one at a time. The skipper, Godfrey and Dunagan were launched and I was spotted on the catapult and hooked up. After getting the 1 finger windup and checking the magnetos, I received the signal for the two-finger windup. There I sat with full power, feet off the brakes, right hand on the stick, right elbow in my gut and my head back against the headrest. I was ready to go. Nothing was happening. I glanced out the right side of the cockpit and saw the deck officer giving me the cut engine sign. Then I heard the radio telling me to cut the engine and sit tight, that there was a bogey in the vicinity and the condition was "flash red". I sat there in the rain for about five minutes before I got the OK to start my engine. The other three guys had rendezvoused and were waiting for me some where beyond the formation of ships. This time when I was ready I was launched. I began to climb the plane to an altitude of three thousand feet where the skipper was supposed to be. I could not locate them so he said to meet them at target at point sugar. I replied with the affirmative. Again we were in the "flash red" condition and wouldn't you know that I would spot this orange glow. As far as I knew I was the only plane in the area so who or what was this orange glow? I was fairly close to it but the night was absolutely black and I could not see a plane. I know that it wasn't an American because the exhaust flames of our planes are blue. It could be the Japanese bogey because their exhaust flames are red or orange due to the inferior quality of the fuel. It could be a fire on a ship on the water which for me to identify would require me to fly back into the "flash red" zone. Common sense prevailed over heroism and I said to hell with it and took off for Okinawa. A later inquiry revealed that there were no fires on the ocean so maybe I missed my chance to score a "Kill". Jammer! I'm not sorry.

So now I'm on my way to point sugar. But where is point sugar? I pull out the plotting board, open it and "lo and behold!" no map indicating our rendezvous points. It was one of the papers they were out of and I wasn't smart enough to have checked. Well, I racked my mind to recall from previous flights where this point might be. I seemed to recall that it was about half way up the length of the island and on the west side. OK! I'll try it. I arrived at the place where I thought I should be but there is no skipper. This time he called over the radio to tell me they were about 5 miles due south of the southern tip of the island and circling. I would have to fly back across the island down the east coast for about 35 miles to get to them.

On the way down the east side I heard over the radio a message to a division of planes from another squadron from a command ship that there was a bogey on their radar screen about five miles from their ship at 3000 feet. Beings this was the area where I happened to be at that moment I became very alert. I looked down and could see the command ship and almost knew that they had me spotted as their bogey. I checked my IFF (identification, friend or foe) and it was on. I should have been recognized as a friendly. For safety's sake I kept watch for the division of our fighters and made a three hundred and sixty degree circle a few times looking for a bogey. The enemy had been known to slip up under an American plane, gain the protection of the IFF and move right into a formation of ships and make their Kamikaze run. I did not find any bogey and finally arrived under the over cast at the south end of the island. I eventually found the skipper still circling in a hole in the clouds. Upon joining up with them we returned to the carrier having fired not a single shot. I don't think he was too happy and I'll be damned if I was going to tell him about the map.
Our sorties against the enemy continued until July 24th at which time we and the Steamer Bay were ordered back to San Diego. The squadron was scheduled for decommissioning.

Continued.
'This story was submitted to the People’s War site by BBC Radio Merseyside’s People’s War team on behalf of the author and has been added to the site with his / her permission. The author fully understands the site's terms and conditions.'

© Die outeursreg op inhoud wat tot hierdie argief bygedra het, berus by die outeur. Ontdek hoe u dit kan gebruik.


Inhoud

Filippyne Redigeer

LSM-135 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater and participated in the Leyte operation, which included Leyte landings, 20 October 1944, and Ormoc Bay landings, 7 to 8 December 1944. She also participated in additional Philippine landings at Luzon and at Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945.

Okinawa, kamikaze strike Edit

LSM-135 participated in the Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in April and May 1945. While operating at Okinawa she was sunk by kamikaze attack off the Ryukyu Islands, 25 May 1945 at approximately 0830 hours. LSM-135 had only been in service 11 months and 25 days. At the time of her sinking LSM-135 was picking up survivors from the minesweeper Spectacle (AM-305) when it also was hit by kamikaze attack and burst into flames. The destroyer escort Fleming (DE-32) rescued twenty survivors of the high speed transport Bates (APD-47) , which was sinking from two kamikaze hits, and eleven survivors from LSM-135.

LSM-135 was struck from the Naval Register (date unknown).

Final Disposition, hulk donated, 10 July 1957, to the Government of the Ryukyu Islands, fate unknown.


Company-Histories.com

Address:
6301 Waterford Boulevard
P.O. Box 26647
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73126-0647
V.S.A.

Statistics:

Public Company
Incorporated: 1915 as the Lux Mercantile Company
Employees: 42,400
Sales: $17.5 billion (1995)
Stock Exchanges: New York Pacific Midwest
SICs: 5141 Groceries, General Line 5199 Nondurable Good, Not Elsewhere Classified

Fleming Companies, Inc. is the largest food wholesaler in the United States. The company stocks the shelves of more than 3,500 supermarkets and other retail food stores in 42 states and the District of Columbia, as well as in several foreign countries. Fleming has shown exceptional innovation in meeting the changing needs of the independent grocer over the years. The company's taste for the most up-to-date technology and its knack for making healthy acquisitions has catapulted it to the forefront of the wholesale foods industry. Today the company not only supplies its customers with food products but also assists with new store planning and financing, marketing, accounting, and operations management. In the 1990s, Fleming has sought to expand its presence on the retail end of the food industry and has increased its retail revenue to more than 21 percent of total revenue.

Founding and Early Development

In 1915, O. A. Fleming, E. C. Wilson, and Samuel Lux founded the Lux Mercantile Company in Topeka, Kansas, to sell produce to local merchants. The company's name was changed to Fleming-Wilson three years later. In 1921, Ned Fleming, the son of the company's cofounder, joined the firm. He was promoted to general manager a year later and held that position until he was elected president in 1945.

Throughout the 1920s, the Fleming-Wilson Company operated locally in Kansas. In 1927, it joined the Independent Grocers Alliance (I.G.A.), a voluntary grocery store chain and one of the largest independent chains today. In such voluntary chains, affiliated stores agree to buy most or all of their merchandise from one distributor and receive collective buying power in exchange, enabling them to compete with larger corporate supermarket chains. Voluntary chains have historically made up the largest share of the wholesaler's business, and they contributed significantly to Fleming-Wilson's growth.

The Depression took a particularly heavy toll on the lower Midwest and the Southwest. Though many industries in the region were virtually paralyzed, Fleming-Wilson managed to survive. In 1935, it acquired the Hutchinson Wholesale Grocery Company, another Kansas-based distributor, the start of a period of growth that has continued virtually unbroken to the present day.

In February 1941 the company changed its name to Fleming Company, Inc. That same year it branched out of Kansas when it acquired the Carol-Braugh-Robinson Company of Oklahoma City. By the end of World War II the fate of the independent grocer was uncertain and Ned Fleming was faced with new challenges. Americans were moving out of the cities and into the suburbs. As shoppers drove their new automobiles to the new supermarkets, independent "mom and pop" corner stores fell by the wayside, and supermarket chains grew at a frantic pace. It was the voluntary chain concept that rescued the independent grocer. Voluntary chains expanded tremendously after the war, and as a result so, too, did Fleming. The company reported steadily increasing earnings throughout the late 1940s and the 1950s.

In 1956, Fleming Company bought Ray's Printing of Topeka, renamed General Printing and Paper. Fleming itself was General Printing and Paper's biggest customer, consistently accounting for more than half the company's sales.

Acquisitions and Diversifications in the 1960s and 1970s

The 1960s were a decade of exceptional growth, as Fleming expanded nationwide through the acquisition of other regional wholesalers. Throughout the early 1960s, the company acquired several companies and facilities in the Midwest and Southwest, including the Schumacher Company of Houston, Texas, in 1960.

In 1964, Ned Fleming became chairman of the board of directors and Richard D. Harrison became the company's president. Under this new leadership, Fleming began an even more ambitious campaign of expansion and acquisition. In 1965, Fleming purchased Thriftway Foods, which operated in the East with headquarters in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. Three years later, Fleming tapped West Coast markets when it bought Kockos Brothers, Inc. in California. However, at the end of the decade profits slowed for the first time in many years.

Fleming began to diversify again in the 1970s. The company bought a semi-trailer manufacturing unit in 1970, and in 1972 it created the Fleming Foods Company, which ran the food distributing operations as a semi-autonomous unit. Later that year Fleming bought the Quality Oil Company, of Topeka, Kansas. Quality Oil operated about 50 retail gas stations in the Midwest and proved to be a wise investment. A year after the acquisition, the subsidiary was contributing more than ten percent of Fleming's pretax profits. Fleming also branched into health foods distribution when it bought Kahan and Lessin in 1972. At that time, K&L delivered to about 1,200 health food stores and 1,000 supermarkets. Fleming's venture into health foods proved to be less profitable than petroleum: K&L lost money in 1973 and showed only a slight profit in 1974.

In 1974, Fleming bought Benson Wholesale Company and the Dixieland Food Stores retail chain, both headquartered in Geneva, Alabama. In 1975, the company pushed into the New Jersey and New York markets by purchasing Royal Food Distributors. Finally, in 1979 Fleming acquired Blue Ridge Grocery Company of Waynesboro, Virginia, capping off a decade of acquisition and growth.

Renewed Focus on Wholesaling in the 1980s

In 1981, Fleming Companies reincorporated in Oklahoma and its corporate headquarters moved to Oklahoma City. In March 1981, Richard D. Harrison was elected chairman of the Fleming Companies board of directors, and E. Dean Werries, who had previously headed the Fleming Foods division, replaced him as president, while Harrison remained CEO.

This new leadership steered Fleming in a slightly different direction. Harrison and Werries stressed wholesale food distribution over diversification. Throughout the 1980s, Fleming made more and larger acquisitions of food wholesalers as part of its growth strategy. In 1981, it bought McLain Grocery in Ohio. In 1982, it bought the Waples-Platter Company for $91 million, which included the White Swan Foodservice division in Texas. A month later, in January 1983, it purchased the bankrupt American-Strevell Inc. for $14 million. Fleming also purchased Giant Wholesale of Johnson City, Tennessee, that year. In 1984, Fleming acquired United Grocers, a cooperative wholesaler in California. It further strengthened its hold on the northern California region by purchasing a huge distribution center in Milpitas, California, from the Alpha-Beta Company a year later. In 1985, Associated Grocers of Arizona, Inc. was purchased for $47 million. In 1986, Fleming purchased the Frankford-Quaker Grocery Company in Philadelphia and the Hawaiian distribution warehouse of Foodland Super Markets. In 1987, it acquired the Godfrey Company of Wisconsin, and in July 1988 Fleming became the largest wholesaler in the country when it acquired the nation's fourth-largest wholesaler, Malone & Hyde Inc.

Fleming's incredible spree of acquisitions was not completely free of complications. In particular, the acquisition of Associated Grocers of Arizona posed some new problems for Fleming. Because the wholesaler had previously operated as a cooperative, owned by those supermarkets it serviced, Fleming had difficulty implementing its own corporate style of management. Associated Grocers customers were not at first supportive of the changes that were necessary to transform the company into a profitable unit for Fleming. Despite such minor setbacks, Fleming continued to look for possible mergers to strengthen the company. Cooperative distributors who lacked the capital to reinvest in new facilities and found it increasingly difficult to compete with the streamlined corporate wholesaler were likely candidates.

At the same time Fleming concentrated on acquiring food wholesalers, it divested some of its other units. In 1982, it sold Quality Oil, and in 1983 it sold General Printing and Paper. In 1984, it sold its health foods specialty distributor, Kahan and Lessin. K&L's performance had been inconsistent ever since its acquisition in 1972. In addition, in 1982 the Justice Department charged the subsidiary, along with three other health food distributors, with fixing prices. The company was fined $75,000 Fleming reported a $862,000 expense as a result of the litigation. Also divested were M&H Drugs, the retail drug subsidiary of Malone & Hyde, and White Swan both were sold in 1988.

Wholesale food distributors traditionally operate on profit margins of less than one percent. Increased productivity of even fractions of a penny on each dollar of volume can make a noticeable difference in earnings. For this reason, Fleming was quick to implement technological developments to increase productivity. In its newest warehouses, a computer breaks down orders by product, allowing a worker to fill several orders at once. The worker puts the total number of cases of one product ordered on a conveyor belt. A laser scanner sends each unit to the proper shipping bay to be loaded for delivery. This system increased productivity an average of 11 percent in those warehouses where it was employed. In warehouses in which it was impossible to mechanize without significantly disrupting operations, Fleming established standards of productivity as an alternative way to increase its profit margins. The procedure improvement program (PIP) measured each worker's productivity by computer. Before doing a specific task, a worker inserted a card into a computer, which calculated the standard amount of time for the task and evaluated the worker's performance. A worker who consistently fell below standard faced dismissal. Such work standards programs were, naturally, not always popular. In early 1986, workers went on strike at Fleming's warehouse in Oaks, Pennsylvania, in opposition to the work standards program and an increase in the standard number of cases moved per hour, from 125 to 150. The strike was settled when the Teamsters agreed to the new standard, and the company lengthened the five-step disciplinary review procedure to six steps.

Rapidly Changing Fortunes in the 1990s

Fleming went through a number of significant shifts in the 1990s, starting in 1990 with the loss of a major client when Albertson's became a self-distributing chain. This led to a $400 million loss in volume for Fleming and the closure of the company's Fremont, California, distribution center. Fleming quickly moved the following year to more than recover the lost revenue with a $80 million purchase of the warehousing and transportation assets of the Lubbock, Texas-based Furr's Inc. The deal garnered Fleming about $650 million in wholesale volume from the Furr's stores operating in Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Soon, however, Fleming relinquished the top spot in U.S. food distribution to Supervalu Inc.--based in Eden Prairie, Minnesota--when Supervalu, in 1992, acquired Wetterau Inc. of St. Louis in a $1.1 billion deal.

Fleming also lagged behind Supervalu in profitability, in part because Supervalu had a larger retail operation (retail marketing typically provides higher margins than wholesaling). In early 1992, Fleming derived only seven percent of its revenues from retail, compared to 20 percent for Supervalu. Over the next several years, however, Fleming would dramatically increase its retail base.

In mid-1992 Fleming spent $50 million to acquire a ten-store chain in Omaha, Nebraska--Baker's Supermarket. This was the company's first retail purchase in several years. The following year, Fleming signed a long-term (six-year) deal with Kmart to supply Super Kmart Centers with food products in those areas in which Fleming operates.

Early in 1994, Fleming began a major reengineering effort under the guidance of new company president and CEO, Robert E. Stauth. As originally envisioned, the program focused on downsizing and streamlining operations, including a nine percent (2,000-employee) workforce reduction, the closure of five regional sales offices, and a reduction in operating costs of $65 million per year. This effort had only begun to be implemented when officials at Scrivner Inc., then the number three U.S. food wholesaler, approached Fleming about a possible sale. On June 1, the two Oklahoma City-based companies announced that Fleming would pay Scrivner's owner, the German firm Franz Haniel & Cie, GmbH, $1.085 billion for all of Scrivner's stock.

The Scrivner acquisition catapulted Fleming back to the number one position with revenues of $19 billion, surpassing the $16 billion of Supervalu. The deal also brought Fleming an increased national presence by adding seven specific markets to the company's domain: Iowa, the Carolinas, western Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, and Minnesota. Perhaps most important, however, was Scrivner's large retail operation, which increased Fleming's retail revenue to 15 percent of total revenue, derived from a combined total of 315 corporate retail stores. Fleming quickly bolstered its retail sector further when it acquired controlling interest in CMI in August 1994. CMI operated 24 stores primarily in Missouri, but with operations in Arkansas and Kansas as well. These stores garnered $225 million in annual revenue, bringing Fleming close to the $3 billion level in retail.

Following the acquisition of Scrivner, the company reengineering program was expanded into a consolidation effort as well. With 21 Scrivner distribution centers added to 31 existing ones, Fleming closed eight redundant centers for a final total of 44. Back on the reengineering side, Fleming announced early in 1995 a new approach to selling, called the Flexible Marketing Plan, whereby retail customers would be charged Fleming's net acquisition cost of goods plus the costs of storage, handling, delivery, and other services used by the customer. Another reengineering effort involved an aggressive approach to gaining new customers through a newly created New Sales Development organization.

In 1996 Fleming enhanced its retail operation again with the acquisition of ABCO Markets, a 71-supermarket chain in Arizona. This increased the company's retail sector to 21 percent of total revenues. Fleming was thus closing in on a goal it had recently set to increase retail to 25 percent of total revenue by the year 2000.

Fleming then suffered a potentially severe blow when the company was found guilty of fraud, breach of contract, and deceptive practices in a case brought by David's Supermarkets based in Grandview, Texas, a customer which accused Fleming of inflating manufacturer's prices and overcharging David's. It was estimated that damages could exceed $200 million, but Fleming received at least a temporary reprieve when the judge in the case ordered a new trial after Fleming discovered that the judge had had past financial dealings with David's and should have excused himself. Nevertheless, the judgment had an immediate impact as Fleming's stock moved down sharply, and the company reduced its dividend for the first quarter of 1996 by 93 percent. On the heels of the David's suit came a class action suit filed against Fleming charging violations of securities laws for not disclosing the existence of the David's suit although filed in August 1993, Fleming did not disclose the suit until about the time of the jury's verdict. The company's potential difficulties were compounded by the high debt load taken on in order to purchase Scrivner's and earnings that were lagging because of the major reengineering efforts.

The late 1990s will be a critical time for Fleming Companies. The outcome of the various lawsuits and the success or failure of its reengineering efforts will go a long way toward determining whether Fleming can maintain its top position in food wholesaling.

Principal Subsidiaries: Baker's Supermarkets, Inc. Certified Bakers Fleming Co. of Nebraska, Inc. Fleming Finance Corp. Fleming Foods of Alabama, Inc. Fleming Foods of Missouri, Inc. Fleming Foods of Ohio, Inc. Fleming Foods of Pennsylvania, Inc. Fleming Foods of Tennessee, Inc. Fleming Foods of Texas, Inc. Fleming Foods West General Merchandise Distributors, Inc. Fleming Company Clearwater Mill, Inc. Consumers Markets Inc. Crestwood Bakery Hub City Foods Sentry Drugs, Inc. Sentry Market, Inc. Store Equipment, Inc. Malone & Hyde, Inc. Megamarkets, Inc. Hyde Insurance Agency, Inc. M & H Financial Corp. Piggly Wiggly Corp. Royal Food Distributors, Inc.

Bennett, Stephen, "Aiming for $1 Billion," Progressive Grocer, January 1995, p. 103.
"Fleming Sees Its Future," U.S. Distribution Journal, March 15, 1994, p. 31.
"Fleming's 'Strategic' Buy," U.S. Distribution Journal, July 15, 1994, p. 9.
Friend, Janin, "Fleming Sifts Options after $200 Million Legal Defeat," Supermarket News, March 25, 1996, p. 1.
Garry, Michael, "Linchpin of the New Fleming," Progressive Grocer, January 1995, p. 57.
Jones, Kathryn, "A Move along the Food Chain: A Large Wholesaler Expands into Retail," New York Times, July 2, 1994, p. 17(N), p. 33(L).
Margulis, Ronald A., "The Trials of Staying No. 1," U.S. Distribution Journal, September 15, 1990, p. 26.
Mathews, Ryan, "Bloodied but Unbowed," Progressive Grocer, May 1996, p. 48.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 17. St. James Press, 1997.


12 Years Later

In 1940, the second year of World War II, two scientists at Oxford University were researching promising projects in bacteriology that could possibly be enhanced or continued with chemistry. Australian Howard Florey and German refugee Ernst Chain began working with penicillin.

Using new chemical techniques, they were able to produce a brown powder that kept its antibacterial power for longer than a few days. They experimented with the powder and found it to be safe.

Needing the new drug immediately for the war front, mass production started quickly. The availability of penicillin during World War II saved many lives that otherwise would have been lost due to bacterial infections in even minor wounds. Penicillin also treated diphtheria, gangrene, pneumonia, syphilis, and tuberculosis.


Kyk die video: Флеминг 34 серия. Англия. 2014г.