J.E.B. Stuart

J.E.B. Stuart


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James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (1833-1864) was 'n Amerikaanse weermagoffisier en later 'n hoofgeneraal en kavalleriebevelvoerder vir die Konfederale State van Amerika tydens die Burgeroorlog (1861-65). Stuart, 'n treffende figuur wat bekend is vir sy flambojante kleredrag en gewaagde taktiek, het een van die mees prominente figure van die Konfederasie geword nadat hy sy kavaleriekorps gelei het by twee suksesvolle omseilings van die Union Army of the Potomac in 1862. Stuart se vaardigheid in verkenning het hom 'n die reputasie as die "oë en ore" van die Konfederale weermag, maar hy is ook gedeeltelik die skuld vir die nederlaag op Gettysburg nadat hy nie voldoende inligting oor generaal Robert E. Lee oor die posisies van die Unie -troepe gegee het nie. Stuart is dodelik gewond tydens die Slag van Yellow Tavern in 1864 en sterf op 31 -jarige ouderdom.

J.E.B. Stuart: Vroeë lewe en opvoeding

Stuart is gebore in Patrick County, Virginia, op 6 Februarie 1833. Hy het op 12 -jarige ouderdom die huis verlaat en drie jaar op skool in Wytheville, Virginia, gebly voordat hy op 15 -jarige ouderdom by Emory en Henry College ingegaan het.

In 1850 word Stuart aanvaar by die United States Military Academy in West Point. Daar het hy kennis gemaak met verskeie toekomstige generaals van die Burgeroorlog, waaronder Robert E. Lee, wat in 1852 as superintendent van die akademie oorgeneem het. Stuart het uitgeblink tydens sy studies en is aangestel as kavalerie -offisier nadat hy sy vaardigheid in perdry bewys het.

J.E.B. Stuart: Amerikaanse militêre loopbaan en huwelik

Nadat hy in 1854 aan West Point gestudeer het, is Stuart kortliks by 'n Amerikaanse weermagregiment in Texas aangestel voordat hy na die 1st Cavalry Regiment in Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, in 1855.

Terwyl hy in Leavenworth was, ontmoet Stuart Flora Cooke, die dogter van 'n kavalerie -offisier, en die twee is getroud na 'n warrelwind -hofmakery. Hulle het drie kinders gehad: Flora Stuart (1857-1862), James Ewell Brown Stuart Jr. (1860-1930) en Virginia Pelham Stuart (1863-1898).

Stuart was 'n kwartiermeester en kommissaris tydens die Bleeding Kansas-aangeleentheid, 'n tydperk van intense geweld tussen pro- en anti-slawerny groepe langs die grens tussen Missouri en Kansas. In 1857 neem hy deel aan Amerikaanse militêre optrede teen Indiese stamme en word gewond tydens 'n aanval op die Cheyenne. In 1859 dien Stuart onder Robert E. Lee tydens die Amerikaanse militêre optrede wat John Brown gevange geneem het ná die beroemde afskaffing van die afskaffer op die arsenaal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

J.E.B. Stuart en die burgeroorlog

Nadat Virginia in April 1861 van die Unie afgeskei het, bedank Stuart - 'n slawehouer wat lankal sy lojaliteit aan sy tuisstaat oor die Unie verklaar het - sy pos in die Amerikaanse weermag en bedank sy gesin terug na die Suide. Hy bied sy dienste aan die Konfederale State van Amerika aan en word toegewys aan Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson se Army of the Shenandoah. Hy is spoedig bevorder tot die rang van kolonel en onder bevel van Jackson se kavalerie -eenhede geplaas.

Stuart het geen tyd gemors om sy waarde as kavalleriebevelvoerder te bewys nie. Na die Slag van die 1ste Bull Run in Julie 1861, het sy eenheid agteruitgegaan om die troepe van die Unie tot in die noorde van die Potomacrivier terug te trek en 'n groot hoeveelheid voorrade en gevangenes te verower. Stuart se magnetiese persoonlikheid en onvermoeide energie het hom vinnig die respek van sy troepe besorg, en sy opvallende uniform - wat 'n goue vensterraam en 'n groot pluimhoed insluit wat deur 'n volstruisveer beklemtoon is - het gehelp om 'n kavalier -reputasie te bevorder.

J.E.B. Stuart's Rise to Prominence

In September 1861 word Stuart bevorder tot brigadier -generaal en is hy in beheer van die kavallerie van die Army of Northern Virginia. Sy bekendste uitbuiting sou in Junie 1862 kom tydens die opbou van die Seven Days Battles. Robert E. Lee - wat onlangs die beheer van die Konfederale magte oorgeneem het - het Stuart op 'n missie gestuur om te bepaal of die generaal van die Unie van George B. McClellan se Army of the Potomac kwesbaar is vir aanvalle op sy regterflank. In 'n grootse gebaar het Stuart en sy 1200 soldate nie net die regterflank van McClellan ondersoek nie, maar hulle het die hele Army of the Potomac omseil, terwyl hulle onderweg voorrade en honderde gevangenes gevang het. Alhoewel dit nie 'n ernstige taktiese slag was nie, het Stuart se rit sy profiel in die suide tot groot hoogtes verhoog, en hy is bevorder tot die rang van generaal -majoor. Hy sou sy selfde prestasie later dieselfde jaar tydens Lee se Maryland -veldtog herhaal.

Stuart se vaardigheid om verkenning te verskaf, konfederale posisies te keur en Unie -plakkate (of vorentoe verdedigende posisies) te teister, was onontbeerlik tydens die Tweede Slag van Bull Run - toe hy die gevegsplanne van die Unie onderskep wat gehelp het om 'n Konfederale oorwinning te behaal - en die Slag van Fredericksburg. So belangrik was sy rol dat Lee na hom begin verwys het as "die oë van die leër". Tydens die Slag van Chancellorsville bewys Stuart ook 'n bekwame infanteriebevelvoerder toe hy bevel neem oor generaal Stonewall Jackson se magte nadat Jackson dodelik gewond is.

J.E.B. Stuart: Brandewynstasie en die Slag van Gettysburg

Teen 1863 het Stuart se prestasies legendaries geword. Altyd geneig om uitgebreide uitstallings uit te voer, het hy in Junie 'n "groot oorsig" van sy kavaleriemagte naby Brandy Station, Virginia, gehou. Die resensie, wat oënskynlik bedoel was om indruk te maak op meerderes en lede van die media, het ook die aandag van die Unie-troepe getrek, wat die teenwoordigheid van Stuart se byna 10 000 manlike kavallerie as teken van 'n dreigende konfederale offensief geneem het. Op 9 Junie het twee unie -kavaleriedivisies op Stuart se posisie neergedaal en sy leër probeer omhul. In die daaropvolgende Slag van Brandy -stasie - die grootste kavaleriegeveg van die burgeroorlog - is Stuart aanvanklik onvoorbereid betrap, maar reageer met 'n kenmerkende manier om die vooruitgang van die Unie te weerlê. Tog het sy reputasie skade gely, want dit was die eerste keer dat Stuart nie sy opposisie kon oorheers nie.

Stuart se situasie het net 'n paar dae later tydens die opbou van die Slag van Gettysburg nog meer gevaarlik geword. Toe die Konfederale weermag noordwaarts marsjeer, het Stuart instruksies gekry om hul vordering te toets en intelligensie te versamel oor vyandelike troeposisies. In plaas daarvan het Stuart 'n aanval op posisies van die Unie aan die buitewyke van Washington, DC, uitgevoer. Hy sou eers op die tweede dag van die geveg by Gettysburg aankom, en Lee van belangrike intelligensie ontneem. Stuart se traagheid het waarskynlik 'n rol gespeel in die daaropvolgende Konfederale nederlaag en het sy reputasie selfs na sy dood agtervolg.

J.E.B. Stuart se dood by Yellow Tavern

Tydens die veldtog van Ulysses S. Grant in 1864, stel generaal -majoor Philip Sheridan, 'n oorweldigende offensief teen J.E.B. Stuart se magte. Op 11 Mei 1864 het Sheridan se superieure getalle Stuart se kavallerie buite Richmond naby 'n herberg met die naam Yellow Tavern aangegaan. Terwyl hy sy rewolwer op Unie -troepe afvuur en bevele aan sy manne skree, is Stuart deur sy linkerkant geskiet deur 'n Unie -kavalleris. Hy is na Richmond geneem, waar hy op 12 Mei 1864 op 31 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is.


Die plek van die dood van J. E. B. Stuart

Generaal-majoor James Ewell Brown Stuart, C.S.A., bevelvoerder van die kavallerie van die Army of Northern Virginia, sterf hier op 12 Mei 1864 in die huis van sy swaer, dr Charles Brewer. Die oorsaak van sy dood was 'n wond wat die vorige dag ontvang is ter verdediging van Richmond tydens die Slag van Yellow Tavern. Dr Brewer se huis is in 1893 gesloop.

1989 opgerig deur Departement Historiese Hulpbronne. (Merkernommer SA-32.)

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplys gelys: Oorlog, Amerikaanse burger. 'N Beduidende historiese maand vir hierdie inskrywing is Mei 1861.

Ligging. 37 & deg 32.77 ′ N, 77 & deg 26.697 ′ W. Marker is in Richmond, Virginia. Marker is in West Grace Street, 0.1 myl wes van North Jefferson Street, aan die regterkant wanneer u wes ry. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Richmond VA 23220, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie merker. 'Ek moet die vroue van Richmond red!' (ongeveer 0,2 myl weg) Maggie Walker (ongeveer ½ kilometer ver) Jacob House (ongeveer 0,3 myl weg) Leigh Street Armory


Die stamboom vir genl.maj. J.E.B. Stuart moet nie as uitputtend of gesaghebbend beskou word nie. Die stambome wat nog steeds aan die gang is, kom dikwels voort uit navorsing oor bekende mense wat 'n verwantskap met hierdie persoon het. Navorsing wat uitsluitlik aan hierdie persoon gewy is, het óf nog nie plaasgevind nie, óf dit is tans aan die gang. Soos met alle stambome op hierdie webwerf, word die bronne vir elke voorouer op die familiegroepbladsye gelys, sodat u persoonlik die betroubaarheid van die inligting kan beoordeel.

Zachary Taylor

1ste neef 2 keer verwyder
deur Sarah Bayly

Eleanor Roosevelt

Presidentsvrou van president Franklin D. Roosevelt

4de neef 3 keer verwyder
via William Pannill van Richmond Co., Virginia

Theodore Roosevelt

4de neef 2 keer verwyder
via William Pannill van Richmond Co., Virginia

Lee Harvey Oswald

Beskuldigde moordenaar van president John F. Kennedy

4de neef 3 keer verwyder
via William Pannill van Richmond Co., Virginia


Manassas na Fredericksburg

Stuart se eerste opdrag was aan Joseph E. Johnston ‘s Army of the Valley as bevelvoerder van die 1ste Virginia Kavalerie. In daardie hoedanigheid het hy die briljante siftingsoperasie uitgevoer wat die generaal -majoor van die Unie, Robert Patterson, die Army of the Shenandoah so verbaas het dat Johnston sy leër uit die Shenandoah -vallei kon onttrek en na Pierre GT Beauregard se hulp by Manassas Junction sou kantel, om te kantel. die Eerste Slag van Manassas ten gunste van die Konfederasie. Stuart het met sy regiment gevolg en 'n aanklag gelei teen die 11de New York Infanterie (Ellsworth ’s Fire Zouaves) - een van die min suksesvolle kavallerieklagte in die aanbreek van die gewapende muskus - wat toegeskryf word aan die roete van Irvin McDowell ‘s Unie -weermag. Vir hierdie dienste is hy bevorder tot brigadier -generaal.

Stuart het sy legende verbrand deur die beroemde “Ride rondom McClellan uit te voer en op 12 Junie 1862 Richmond te verlaat, met 1200 soldate en om die Army of the Potomac te draai in 'n driedaagse aanval wat Robert E. Lee van die intelligensie voorsien het. nodig om sy teenaanval te begin teen die regtervleuel van die Unie noord van die Chickahominy -rivier - wat bekend staan ​​as die Seven Days ’ Battles - wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die afstoting van George B. McClellan ’'s teen die Konfederale hoofstad. Hierdie aanval het ook 'n broodnodige hupstoot bygedra tot die Konfederale moreel - toe kwynend as gevolg van die verlies van New Orleans en die grootste deel van Tennessee en die verskriklike bloedverlies in Shiloh die vorige April - en het die Konfederasie 'n indrukwekkende, gewilde jong held uit die Kavaliervorm. Gevolglik is Stuart bevorder tot generaal -majoor en kry hy bevel oor die kavalleriedivisie - later om die kavalleriekorps te word - van die Army of Northern Virginia.

Tydens die Tweede Manassas -veldtog (1862) het Stuart 'n onverskrokke inval in die hoofkwartier van John Pope gelei, wat nie net waardevolle materiaal en intelligensie versamel het nie, maar ook Pous -klere uit die unie se algemene tent vasgevang het. Tydens die Maryland -veldtog het die afdeling van Stuart & Lee's die leër teen die kavaleriesondes van die Unie ondersoek en belangrike paspoorte gehou teen 'n oorweldigende aantal Army of the Potomac, wat belangrike ure vir Lee gekry het om sy verspreide leër in 'n sterk verdedigende posisie agter Antietam Creek te konsentreer. . Aan die einde van die geveg het hy 'n tweede aanval rondom die leër van die Unie gelei, wat veroorsaak het dat die Amerikaanse president, Abraham Lincoln, opgemerk het: 'Toe ek 'n seuntjie was, het ons 'n wedstryd gespeel - drie keer om en om. Stuart was al twee keer om hom. As hy nog een keer om hom gaan, is McClellan weg. ”


Richmond verwyder die standbeeld van die Konfederale genl J.E.B. Stuart

RICHMOND, Va. - Werkspanne het Dinsdag 'n monument vir die Konfederale genl J.E.B. Stuart, die derde groot standbeeld wat binne minder as 'n week skoongemaak is, terwyl die voormalige hoofstad van die Konfederasie haastig is om simbole van onderdrukking te verwyder in reaksie op protes teen polisie -brutaliteit en rassisme.

Terwyl 'n skare juig, het die spanne die groot brons ruiterstandbeeld in tuie vasgemaak en 'n hyskraan gebruik om dit van die granietbasis af op te lig om weggery te word. Sommige in die skare het 'Black Lives Matter' gesing nadat die standbeeld verwyder is. Een persoon sing: "Na na na na, na na na na, hey hey, totsiens."

Die Stuart -standbeeld is in 1907 op Richmond's Monumentlaan geïnstalleer, 'n tyd toe wit leiers regoor die Suide die 'verlore saak' van die burgeroorlog wou verheerlik en pogings van swart mense om hul gelykheid te beweer, onderdruk.

Dit beeld James Ewell Brown (JEB) Stuart, bevelvoerder van die Kavaleriekorps van Robert E. Lee se weermag van Noord -Virginia, in volle uniform met 'n swaard aan sy sy, ooswaarts terwyl sy perd noordwaarts kyk. Die standbeeld is 4,6 meter hoog, bo-op 'n voetstuk van 2,1 meter.

Inskripsies op die basis is gevul met huldeblyke aan Stuart, wat noodlottig gewond is deur 'n uniesoldaat en op 12 Mei 1864 op 31 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is.

'Hy het sy lewe vir sy land gegee en sy stad gered van gevangenskap', lui een opskrif.

Die Stuart -monument is een van die talle wat betogers in Richmond geteiken het sedert die polisie se moord op George Floyd in Minneapolis landwye betogings tot gevolg gehad het. Die polisie het op 21 Junie 'n onwettige vergadering verklaar nadat betogers dit met toue wou aftrek.

Burgemeester Levar Stoney, met verwysing na sy noodmagte op 1 Julie, het beveel dat alle Konfederale standbeelde in die stad verwyder word. Stonewall Jackson se gelykenis is die dag verwyder, gevolg deur 'n standbeeld van die marine -offisier Matthew Fontaine Maury. Stoney het gesê die beelde sal in die stoor geplaas word terwyl die stad openbare insette soek oor wat hulle daarmee moet doen.

Stuart's was die laaste groot standbeeld wat agtergebly het, behalwe 'n massiewe monument vir genl Robert E. Lee wat op staatsgrond is. Die Lee -monument moet ook verwyder word, maar dit is ten minste tydelik geblokkeer deur 'n bevel wat uitgevaardig is in een van verskeie regsgedinge wat aangevoer is nadat goewerneur Ralph Northam verlede maand beveel het dat dit verwyder moet word.


Sondebok of skandaal? J.E.B. Stuart en die Slag van Gettysburg

James Ewell Brown (Jeb) Stuart was bevelvoerder oor die berede vleuel van die Konfederale Weermag van Noord -Virginia. 'N Briljante bevelvoerder, sy optrede tydens die Gettysburg -veldtog bly 'n seldsame gebrek op sy rekord.

Die uitgawe van die Richmond op 12 Junie 1863 Eksaminator gesaai. Slegs dae tevore is die Konfederale kavallerie heeltemal verras deur 'n gewaagde staking deur hul vakbondgenote by Brandy Station Virginia, en eers na 'n harde geveg met die hulp van die suidelike infanterie, word die vyand afgeweer. 'Maar dit het kavallerie van die Army of Northern Virginia opgeblase,' het die Eksaminator gekraai, “is sedert die gevegte van Desember twee keer, indien nie drie keer, verras en sulke herhaalde ongelukke kan as niks anders beskou word as die nodige gevolge van nalatigheid en swak bestuur nie.” Sulke vernederings was onaanvaarbaar, en die Eksaminator tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n beter organisasie, meer dissipline en 'n groter erns onder "ydel en swakkoppige offisiere" nodig is. Ander Suidelike koerante bied meer daarvan. Die Richmond Sentinel het gevra vir groter "waaksaamheid ... van die generaal -majoor tot by die stert." Die Charleston Kwik het die aangeleentheid as 'n 'lelike verrassing' beskou, terwyl die Savannah Republikein het gedink dat dit vir almal 'baie oneerbaar' was.

Die bevelvoerder van die Konfederale kavallerie, James Ewell Brown (Jeb) Stuart, moes wonder of die Brandy Station -stryd nie vir hom 'diskrediteerbaar' is nie. Nadat hy tydens die eerste jare van die oorlog op kommando van uitstekende leiding gekom het, het die verbasend taai stryd op Brandy Station die reputasie van Stuart aangetas (wat hy ywerig gekweek het). Vir die troepe onder hom was Brandy Station "die moeilikste kavaleriegeveg ... sedert die oorlog begin het." Die leër van Noord -Virginia se kavallerie het nog altyd totale oorheersing oor sy Yankee -vyand, Brandy Station, geniet.

Maar binnekort sou Jeb Stuart en sy konfederale troepe 'n kans op verlossing kry. Die jong Benjamin Parker van die 2de Noord -Carolina Kavalerie, wat op 10 Junie aan sy suster skryf, meen dat '[Robert E.] Lee dink ek 'n beweging oor die rivier gaan maak. Daar sal binnekort hard baklei word. ” Die intuïsies van die jong Tarheel was korrek. Konfederale soldate was inderdaad reeds besig om die paaie noordwaarts te slaan, op pad na die klein dorpie Pennsylvania met die naam Gettysburg. Die Konfederale kavallerie sou binnekort ook noordwaarts draf, op soek na glorie en miskien verlossing.

Gedurende Junie het die weermag van Noord -Virginia noord geslinger in die valleie wes van die Bull Run en Blue Ridge Mountains, op pad na Maryland en Pennsylvania daarbuite. Dit was Stuart se plig om hierdie bewegings te ondersoek met sy 10 000 troepe, verdeel in vyf brigades. Teen middel Junie het hy uitstekend begin. Gedurende middel Junie, tydens die geringe gevegte van onderskeidelik Aldie, Middleburg en Upperville, het Stuart se ruiters die ondersoekende Unie-troepe suksesvol afgeweer in die hoop om die ligging van Lee se leër te bevestig. Die kombinasie van die Bull Run -berge en Stuart se kavaliers het die Unie -leër van die Potomac in die donker gehou. Lee se trek noordwaarts bly 'n geheim.

Kunstenaar Edwin Forbes se uitbeelding van die kavallerieverloofing van 17 Junie naby Aldie, Virginia. Sulke aksies het gehelp om die inval van Robert E. Lee in die Noorde te ondersoek.

Toe Lee se leër Maryland nader, het die tyd aangebreek dat Stuart se rol in die komende veldtog uiteengesit word. In 'n paar bevele op 22 en 23 Junie het Lee sy doelwitte vir Stuart uiteengesit. Die kavalleriebevelvoerder moes ten minste twee brigades verlaat om voort te gaan met die beveiliging van die bergpasse terwyl die weermag noordwaarts beweeg. Stuart kan die oorblywende drie brigades egter deur Maryland neem en 'standpunt inneem oor die regter van generaal [Richard S.] Ewell, in kommunikasie met hom tree, sy flank bewaak, hom op die hoogte hou van die vyand se bewegings en al die voorrade versamel jy kan vir die weermag gebruik. ”

Die vlek van die brandewynstasie wat nog bly hang het, het Stuart gehoop om hierdie nuwe bestellings op dramatiese wyse uit te voer. Twee keer tevore in die oorlog het hy met sy troepe regoor die Unie -leër gery, tot hul spyt en tot sy eer. Stuart voel oortuig dat hy weer die Unie -leër kan omsingel. In vergelyking met die "Grey Ghost" John Mosby, het Stuart die vertroue gehad dat sy manne om die Yankees kan ry om 'n perfekte middel met Ewell na Brandy Station te verenig. In die bevel van Lee is dit aan Stuart oorgelaat om 'te oordeel of u sonder hindernis deur hul weermag kan gaan en hulle alle skade berokken.' Met 'n wye mate van diskresie, kon Stuart noordwaarts beweeg soos hy wou, solank hy die Blue Ridge -passe bewaak en in kontak bly met generaal Ewell. Stuart se lot in die komende veldtog berus in sy eie handskoene.

Jeb Stuart verkies om in die Unie -leër te ry. Om te verseker dat die weermag beskerm bly, het Stuart twee brigades kavalerie agtergelaat onder Beverly Robertson en William "Grumble" Jones, bekend vir sy humeur en sy vaardigheid om afdelings te beveel. 'N Brigade troepe onder Albert Jenkins sou ook tot Lee se beskikking wees. Al met al sou byna vyfduisend kavalleriste by die Army of Northern Virginia bly. Tevrede dat Lee goed versorg is, neem Stuart sy oorblywende drie brigades onder Wade Hampton, Fitz Lee en John Chambliss en begin met sy groot aanval, seker dat die heerlikheid voorlê.

Kaart van Jeb Stuart se bewegings tydens die Gettysburg -veldtog. Kaart met vergunning van Hal Jespersen.

Op 25 Junie begin Stuart onmiddellik kommerwekkende tekens ondervind. In 'n poging om oos te beweeg deur Glasscock Gap in die Bull Run -berge, het Stuart ontdek dat die pad wat deur die federale infanteriste Stuart se perdeartillerie geblokkeer is, dit nie kon beweeg nie. In die suide het Stuart net meer Yankee -kolomme ontdek. Die vyand was op pad en blokkeer Stuart se pad. Stuart kon eers die volgende dag ooswaarts beweeg. Lee se bevele het Stuart in staat gestel om die vyand te verbygaan as daar "geen hindernis was nie". Of hierdie noordelike Yankee-kolomme 'n hindernis was, kan betwis word, maar dit het Stuart ongetwyfeld vertraag.

Die volgende twee dae het Stuart baie geluk gebring. In die suide het Stuart 'n pad oos gevind tot by Fairfax Court House in die middel van Virginia, waar hulle op die 27ste 'n klein vyandelike liggaam onder die 11de New York Cavalry teëgekom het. Onder die leiding van Wade Hampton het die 1ste Noord -Carolina Kavallerie die Federals uit die veld geruim en 'n groot voorraad winkels verseker. Op hierdie tydstip het Stuart 'n boodskap aan Robert E. Lee afgeskryf en hom ingelig oor sy ligging, die gevangenes en die noordwaartse beweging van die Unie -leër. Die boodskap het generaal Lee nooit bereik nie.

Stuart se troepe het self noordwaarts gekom en die geswelde Potomac bereik en na Maryland gegaan. Om hul artilleriedoppe droog te hou, het die Rebelle hulle "in ons hande gedra" oor die rivier. William Blackford herinner die vreugdevolle Maryland se oewer: 'O, wat 'n verandering! Van die getrapte, oorloggeteisterde lande van ou Virginia tot 'n land vars en volop. " Die manne is op die oggend van die 28ste beloon met vars en oorvloedige plesier met die plesier om verskeie karwe van Chesapeake en Ohio Canal vol kos te vernietig. Privaat John Armstrong van die 4de Virginia Cavalry onthou dat hy "my haversak met southering gevul het."

Op hierdie stadium het Stuart die Potomac oorgesteek en die vyand se bewegings ontbloot (alhoewel sy koerier nie vir Lee weet nie). Hy het 'n verskeidenheid goedere gevang, vyandelike eiendom vernietig en oor die algemeen 'n oorlas van homself gemaak. Tog het dit alles 'n prys opgelewer. Hy was nou ongeveer 80 kilometer suidoos van die Konfederale weermag, en die federale leër het tussen hom en Lee gestaan. Hy moes nog steeds skakel met Richard Ewell se korps soos sy bevele bepaal. Erger nog, sy vermoë om met Lee te kommunikeer was hoogstens omslagtig en onseker. Robert E. Lee was op sy beurt 'verbaas en ontsteld' toe hy op 27 Junie verneem dat Stuart en sy troepe nog in Virginia was. Lee het verkenners beveel om sy verlore generaal te probeer opspoor. Daar was 'n groeiende, ongemaklike verbreking tussen Lee en sy kavalleriebevelvoerder.

Nadat Jeb Stuart die Potomac oorgesteek het, het hy hom op 'n kruispad bevind. In plaas daarvan om noordwes te draai om te probeer verenig met Lee en Ewell, besluit hy om sy strooptog voort te sit en ooswaarts te draai. Stuart verhuis na Rockville, 'n voorstad van Washington DC, en vang 125 Union -waens, gevul met kos, hooi, brood, spekkoekies en meer. Deur in groter terme te dink, het Stuart oorweeg om die moontlikheid om Washington self te tref, dan afgemaak. Nadat hy tot dusver byna 400 Unie -gevangenes gevange geneem het, het Stuart 'n rukkie geneem om hulle te laat parool, en dan noordwaarts te sit met sy nuut gevange wa -trein gedurende die res van die 28ste en 29ste. Hoe splashier sy aanval, hoe verder weg het Brandewynstasie gelyk.

Op die 29ste, terwyl sy manne telegraafdrade afsny en die spore van die Baltimore- en Ohio -spoorlyn verskeur, het Stuart ontdek dat die vyand in Frederick, Maryland, was. Dit blyk dat Stuart 'n skok gehad het, wat die skielike belangrikheid van vereniging met Lee besef het "om die bevelvoerende generaal kennis te maak met die aard van die vyand se bewegings ..." Uiteindelik het Stuart besef hoe ernstig die Uniebewegings was, en hoe noodsaaklik sy teenwoordigheid was. met die Army of Northern Virginia geword het.

Botsend met Yankee -kavallerie in Westminster op 29 Junie, het Stuart en sy manne die volgende dag Pennsylvania binnegekom. Hulle het amper in 'n ramp beland. Die hoofelemente van Stuart se kolom en 'n enkele brigade van vyandelike kavallerie het mekaar byna buite die stad raakgeloop. By die aanval het verskeie van die regimente van Virginia en Noord -Carolina in Stuart vooruitgegaan, net om 'n wrede teenaanval te kry. In die wilde toevlugsoord is Stuart en sy personeel byna gevange geneem en ontsnap slegs deur 'n kloof van vyftien voet breed te spring. Die Federals, tevrede met hul klein oorwinning, het nie agtervolg nie.

Terwyl die meeste van sy troepe die lang wa -trein bewaak het, kon Stuart nie 'n groot genoeg mag bymekaar maak om die vyand te verdryf nie, en moes hy in plaas daarvan 'n ander pad noord vind. Die mans was moeg, "afgebreek en in geen toestand om te veg nie" soos een beampte berig, en die wa het die kolom van Stuart vertraag. Teen 1 Julie het Stuart se moeë troepe noordwaarts gerus in Dover, Pennsylvania, gerus. Die Slag van Gettysburg begin blindelings, en Jeb Stuart was kilometers ver. Diere sowel as mans was uitgeput. 'N Noord -Karolienaar het tuisgeskryf en erken: "Ek het gedink ek weet iets van die swaarkry van 'n soldaat se lewe, maar moet erken dat ek dit nie gedoen het nie."

A Harper's Weekly ets van New Yorkse milisie in die strate tydens Jeb Stuart se 1 Julie -beskieting van Carlisle, Pennsylvania

Teen hierdie tyd was Stuart aktief op soek na vereniging met Ewell, maar hy het nie geweet waar om hom te vind nie. Stuart glo dat Ewell in Carlisle sou wees, en vertrek na die stad, net om te ontdek dat dit nie deur Ewell beset was nie, maar in plaas daarvan 2,400 Unie -milisies. Dreig om die stad op te skort as die Yankees hulle nie oorgee nie, "kom weg en word verdoem!" kom die antwoord. So het Stuart dit gedoen en die stad losgebrand. Die Konfederate was so uitgeput dat baie van die troepe deur die bombardement geslaap het.

Intussen was Robert E. Lee, net dertig myl daarvandaan, onseker oor Stuart se verblyfplek. Navrae aan ondergeskiktes het net teleurstelling meegebring. 'N Assistent hoor hoe Lee brom dat "Gen'l Stuart nie sy instruksies gehoorsaam het nie." Uiteindelik het een van Stuart se ruiters die korps van Ewell in Gettysburg opgespoor en teruggekeer na Stuart met bevele om na die stad te marsjeer. Dit was die eerste kommunikasie wat Stuart of Lee se weermag sedert 25 Junie met mekaar gehad het. In daardie tyd het die weermag van Noord -Virginia blindelings noordwaarts getrek en onbewustelik vasgevang in 'n verlowing in Gettysburg.

In die oggendure van 2 Julie het Jeb Stuart na generaal Lee gegaan. 'Wel, generaal Stuart,' het Lee eenvoudig gesê, 'u is uiteindelik hier.' Hoe stom ook al, die bestraffing het ongetwyfeld gesteek. Die gesprek van Stuart en Lee was, volgens 'n hulpverlener, 'pynlik onbeskryflik'. Ongeag, Stuart het aangekom, net soos die meeste van sy moeë troepe deur die dag. Stuart het op 2 Julie vertroud geraak met die grond, want hy het nuwe bevele gekry om die Konfederale links te beskerm en die Unie regs te slaan. So het Jeb Stuart en sy manne hul posisie ingeneem, gereed om deel te neem aan die laaste dag van die geveg op Gettysburg.

Op 3 Julie 1863 het ongeveer 14.600 geklede Konfederale infanteriste van die afdelings van generaals Pettigrew, Trimble en George Pickett een van die grootste aanklagte in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis gemaak. Hulle aanval was byna 'n kilometer oop grond en was gemik op die middel van die Union -lyn, 'n pyl wat op die Army of the Potomac se hart geskiet is. Dit was die rol van Jeb Stuart se troepe, versterk deur Albert Jenkins en 'n aantal van 3500, om die Unie heel regs te tref terwyl hierdie aanval gedoen word. As die groot aanklag van Pickett suksesvol was, was daar hoop dat Stuart in staat sou wees om die deurbraak en afsnylyne van terugtog te benut.

Jeb Stuart het geveg met vier brigades kavalerie, dié van Wade Hampton, Fitz Lee, John Chambliss en Milton Ferguson (vervang 'n gewonde Albert Jenkins). Nadat hulle agter die leër van die Unie aangesluit het, sou die Konfederale kavallerie hul federale eweknieë moes oorwin voordat hulle die Unie agteraan kon aanval of 'n deurbraak kon ondersteun wat deur Pickett gemaak is. En die Federale was daar om hulle drie brigades kavallerie te groet onder David Gregg, John McIntosh en die flambojante George Custer. Vir die eerste keer sedert Brandewynstasie, het die Unie en die Konfederale kavalleriemagte teen mekaar afgeruk.

Jeb Stuart besluit om sy manne langs Cress's Ridge te plaas, 'n redelike steil styging enkele kilometer oos van Gettysburg. Ferguson se troepe was byderhand en het langs die rant plek geneem, en die res van die brigades is beveel om by hulle aan te sluit. Dit was nou ongeveer elfuur, en terug op die Seminary -rif het senuweeagtige infanteriste in die bos gewag terwyl tientalle artillerie -stukke die eerste bombardement van Pickett se aanklag voorberei het. Kort nadat hy die rant geneem het, het “die verskriklikste kanonade van die oorlog plaasgevind”, skryf een rebel -soldaat. Die geveg was besig om te vorm in Gettysburg, en dit was ook besig om voor Stuart op Cress's Ridge te vorm.

George Custer en sy Michigan -troepe het die posisie van die rebelle aggressief uitgedaag en 'n skermutseling uitgegooi wat gou deur perdeartillerie ondersteun is. Stuart se eie gewere het probeer reageer, maar dit lyk asof die Federale dit in die tweestryd kon regkry. 'Die federale artillerie het baie doeltreffend gelyk', het 'n konfederale offisier gekla, 'terwyl ons s'n weinig van diens was.' Skermlyne het heen en weer gewaai terwyl elke kant sy brigades vir die komende geveg ingedruk het.

Die unie se kavalleriebevelvoerder, George Custer, was 'n belangrike rol in die afweer van Jeb Stuart se 3de aanklag op Gettysburg.

Stuart het eerste toegeslaan. Die 1ste Virginia -kavalerie, wat Stuart eens persoonlik beveel het, laai af op die rand en breek die vyand se skermutseling. Toe die Virginians die bevel oor die veld neem, reageer Custer vinnig en lei persoonlik die 7de Michigan in 'n kavalerie -aanklag. "Kom nou, julle Wolverines!" huil die jong brigadier -generaal. Die twee lyke van berede ruiters het gebots, sabels het geskeur en die skerp kraak van pistole en karabiene deur die lug. Alhoewel Stuart tydelik teruggery is, het meer mans die stryd aangesê. 'Die geveg het al hoe warmer geword', het 'n privaat in die 3de Virginia -kavalerie geskryf, 'perde en mans is omvergewerp of geskiet en baie is dood en gewond.'

Op hierdie kritieke oomblik het die troepe van Wade Hampton op 'n volle galop die stryd aangepak. Die donderende Rebelle, wie se “sabelblades in die son verblind het”, is deur 'n wederkerige aanklag van George Custer tegemoetgegaan. Die botsing met een Yankee -troepe, soos 'die val van hout ... so skielik en gewelddadig'. In die middel van die geveg is Hampton self gewond. Hampton was vasgekeer teen 'n heining en probeer om drie aanvallende Yankees af te weer. Hy is in die rug geskiet. Onwillig om sy swaard neer te lê, draai Hampton na die aanvaller in sy agterkant en grom: "Jou lafhartige lafaard - skiet 'n man van agter!" en begin uit die skroot kom.

Soos Hampton teruggeval het, so het baie van sy manne ook gedoen. Binnekort trek al die konfederale troepe terug na die veiligheid van Cress 'Ridge. Konfederale slagoffers was 181, die Federale het 254 slagoffers opgedoen, waarvan die meeste verbasend was uit die bevel van Custer. The fight was over and lost. Confederate infantry assaulting Cemetery Ridge had fared no better. What had begun at Brandy Station—an embarrassment by the enemy and an inkling that things were changing—was confirmed at Gettysburg. Union cavalry could and would fight the days of Southern dominance were over. Indeed, that held true for both armies in general Gettysburg signaled a primal shift in the war, a recognition that even more tough, blood-stained roads lie ahead.

As Lee and his defeated army began their retreat southward, Stuart’s troopers, fatigued from nine days of raiding topped by a climactic battle east of Gettysburg, could not afford to rest. They were charged with covering the Confederate retreat, guarding supply trains, and holding the enemy at bay. This they did well. Despite occasional limited successes by the enemy and almost daily fighting, the Confederate troopers largely succeeded in protecting the Confederate retreat over the next ten days. By July 14th, the Army of Northern Virginia, along with its mounted men under Stuart, was back in its namesake state. The Gettysburg campaign had come to an end.

Looking across the broad sweep of events, judging Jeb Stuart’s performance isn’t as simple as it seems. Certainly, not all of his objectives were fulfilled. Most prominently, Stuart spent most of the campaign on a wild raid in which he was out of contact with his commander. He never linked up with General Ewell (not in a timely fashion, at any rate), and Lee was not kept appraised of the enemy’s movement. Whatever his raid may have accomplished, it also fatigued his troopers and possibly limited their effectiveness in the final fight on July 3rd.

Yet there are facts which defend Stuart’s course of action as well. Robert E. Lee’s orders to Stuart offered the young cavalier a tremendous amount of discretion that he utilized that discretion rests at much on Lee’s shoulders as on Stuart’s. Materially, he brought need supplies back to the army, captured hundreds of prisoners, and disrupted the enemies supply line. Nor did his raid leave Lee entirely without cavalry. Although Stuart undoubtedly took some of the finer Confederate troopers with him, the brigades of Beverly Robertson, “Grumble” Jones, and Albert Jenkins were at Lee’s disposal. Lee can hardly be said to be bereft of cavalry when Stuart left nearly five thousand horsemen behind. While Stuart attempted to notify Lee of Union movement north, those messages never got through. Yet the three brigades of cavalry left to Lee could have detected those movements as well.

What ultimately motivated Stuart to take off on his raid? Again, answers don’t come easily. It is hard, however, not to see the battle at Brandy Station as the catalyst that pushed Stuart to undertake his grand raid, however risky. That “discreditable” debacle perhaps spurred Stuart to greater risks in order to repair his tarnished reputation. At least twice, Stuart had chances to abort his raid. On the very first day, Stuart was surprised to discover Yankee infantry blocking his path as it trudged northward. Instead of reporting to Lee and moving up the valley himself, he choose to continue his venture by moving further southeast, lengthening the raid’s duration and his distance from the Army of Northern Virginia. Again when Stuart crossed the Potomac, he could have bolted northwest to unite with Ewell as his orders directed instead he continued his raid by scaring the Washington suburbs. Stuart pushed the raid to its limits, and the result was that Lee was without his best cavalry commander.

Ultimately, Stuart’s legacy at Gettysburg remains mixed. The raid itself was a mild success, and in accordance with Lee’s orders, but it came at a tremendous cost. Lee, whether by his own fault, the fault of the cavalry at his disposal, or the fault of Stuart, was indeed blind as he moved north into Pennsylvania. When Stuart did arrive, his worn and weary troopers failed to dislodge the enemy cavalry on July 3rd. It cannot be said that Stuart lost the Battle of Gettysburg for the Confederacy, but he certainly affected its outcome in his own search of glory and redemption.

Jeb Stuart did not survive the war this 1865 photograph depicts his temporary grave site at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond. Stuart's reputation--including his successes and faults--have long survived the war a fact Stuart may well have been pleased to learn.

Zac Cowsert currently studies 19th-century U.S. history as a doctoral student at West Virginia University, where he also received his master's degree. He earned his bachelor's degree in history and political science at Centenary College of Louisiana, a small liberal-arts college in Shreveport. Zac's research focuses on the involvement and experiences of the Five Tribes of Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) during the American Civil War. He has worked for the National Park Service at Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. ©

Sources & Further Reading:

Primêre bronne

Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. Bound Volumes.

Benjamin Franklin Parker. Letter. 2nd North Carolina Cavalry. Vol. 206.

Franklin Gardner Walter. Diary and Letters. 39th Virginia Cavalry. Vol. 138.

James W. Gray. Letters 10th Virginia Cavalry. Vol. 31.

John Edward Armstrong. Autobiography. 4th Virginia Cavalry. Vol. 374.

Wiley C. Howard. “Sketch of Cobb Legion Cavalry.” Cobb Legion Cavalry. Vol. 244.

Sekondêre bronne

Gorman, Paul R. “J.E.B. Stuart and Gettysburg,” Gettysburg Magazine. No. 1. July, 1989. 86-92.

Longacre, Edward G. Lee’s Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.

Robinson, Warren C. Jeb Stuart and the Confederate Defeat at Gettysburg. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. New York: Mariner Books, 2004.

Shevchuk, Paul M. “The Lost Hours of ‘JEB’ Stuart.” Gettysburg Magazine. No. 4. January, 1991: 65-74.


The Late Gen. J.E.B. Stuart--His Last Hours--How He Received His Death Wound.

From a long obituary of STUART -- whom the rebels call the "flower of Cavaliers" -- in the Richmond Examiner, we clip as follows: "No incident of mortality, since the fall of the great JACKSON, has occasioned more painful regret than this. Major-Gen. J.E.B. STUART, the model of Virginian cavaliers and dashing chieftain, whose name was a terror to the enemy, and familiar as a household word in two continents, is dead, struck down by a bullet from the dastardly foe, and the whole Confederacy mourns him. He breathed out his gallant spirit resignedly, and in the full possession of all his remarkable faculties of mind and body, at twenty-two minutes to 8 oɼlock, Thursday night, at the residence of Dr. BREWER, a relative, on Green-street, in the presence of Drs. BREWER, GARNETT, GIBSON and FONTAINE, of the General's staff, Rev. Messrs. PETERKIN and KEPPLER, and a circle of sorrow-stricken comrades and friends.

We learn from the physicians in attendance upon the General that his condition during the day was very changeable, with occasional delirium and other unmistakable symptoms of speedy dissolution. In the moments of delirium the General's mind wandered, and, like the immortal JACKSON, (whose spirit, we trust, his has joined,) in the lapse of reason, his faculties were busy with the details of his command. He reviewed in broken sentences all his glorious campaigns around MCCLELLAN's rear on the Peninsula, beyond the Potomac, and upon the Rapidan, quoting from his orders, and issuing new ones to his couriers, with a last injunction to "make haste."

About noon, Thursday, President DAVIS visited his bedside, and spent some fifteen minutes in the dying chamber of his favorite chieftain. The President, taking his hand, said: "General, now do you feel?" He replied, "Easy, put willing to die, if God and my country think I have fulfilled my destiny and done my duty." As evening approached, the General's delirium increased, and his mind again wandered to the battle-fields over which he had fought, then off to wife and children, and off again to the front. A telegraphic message had been sent for his wife, who was in the country, with the injunction to make all haste, as the General was dangerously wounded. Some thoughtless or unauthorized person, thinking, probbably, to spare his wife pain, altered the dispatch to "slightly wounded," and it was thus she received it and did not make that haste which she otherwise would have done to reach his side.

As evening wore on the paroxysms of pain increased, and mortification set in rapidly. Though suffering the greatest agony at times, the General was calm, and applied to the wound, with his own hand, the ice intended to relieve the pain. During the evening he asked Dr. BREWER how long he thought he could live, and whether it was possible for him to survive through the night. The doctor, knowing he did not desire to be buoyed by false hopes, told him frankly that death -- the last enemy -- was rapidly approaching. The General nodded, and said, "I am resigned if it be God's will but I would like to live to see my wife. But God's will be done." Several times he roused up and asked if she had come.

To the doctor, who sat holding his wrist and counting the fleeting, weakening pulse, he semarked, "Doctor, I suppose I am going fast now. It will soon be over. But God's will be done. I hope I have fulfilled my duty to my country and my duty to my God."

At 7 1/2 oclock it was evident to the physicians that death was setting its clammy seal upon the brave, open brow of the General, and told him so -- asked if he had any last message to give. The General, with mind perfectly clear and possessed, then made dispositions of his staff and personal effects. To Mrs. Gen. R.E. LEE he directed that the golden spurs be given as a dying memento of his love and esteem of her husband. To his staff officers he gave his horses. So particular was he in small things, even in the dying hour, that he emphatically exhibited and illustrated the ruling passion strong in death. To one of his staff, who was a heavy built man, he said, "You had better take the larger horse he will carry you better." Other mementoes he disposed of in a similar manner. To his young son, he left his glorious sword.

His worldly matters closed, the eternal interests of his soul engaged his mind. Turning to Rev. Mr. PETERKIN, of the Episcopal Church, and of which he was an exemplary member, he asked him to sing the hymn commencing,

"Rock of ages cleft for me, Let me hide myself in thee,"

he joining in with all the voice his strength would permit. He then joined in prayer with the ministers. To the doctor he again said: "I am going fast now I am resigned God's will be done." Thus died Gen, J.E.B. STUART.

HOW HE RECEIVED HIS DEATH WOUND.

Dr. BREWER, the brother-in-law of Gen. STUART, has furnished us with some particulars, obtained from the General's own lips, of the manner in which he came by his wound. He had formed a line of skirmishers near the Yellow Tavern, when, seeing a brigade preparing to charge on his left. Gen. STUART and his staff dashed down the line to form troops to repel the charge. About this time the Yankees came thundering down upon the General and his small escort. Twelve shots were fired at the General at short range, the Yankees evidently recognizing his well-known person. The General wheeled upon them with the natural bravery which has always characterized him, and discharged six shots at his assailants.

The last of the shots fired at him struck the General in the left side of the stomach. He did not fall, knowing he would be captured if he did, and, nerving himself in his seat, wheeled his horse's head and rode for the protection of his lines. Before he reached them his wound overcame him, and he fell, or was helped, from his saddle, by one of his ever-faithful troopers, and carried to a place of security. Subsequently he was brought to Richmond in an ambulance. The immediate cause of his death was mortification of the stomach, induced by the flow of blood from the kidneys and intestines into the cavity of the stomach.

Gen. STUART was about 35 years of age. His oldest offspring, a sprightly boy, died a year ago while he was battling for his country on the Rappahannock. When telegraphed that the child was dying, he sent the reply, "I must leave my child in the hands of God my country needs me here I cannot come."


The Happy Warrior JEB Stuart

Lincoln’s decision to wage war on the South spared JEB Stuart the humiliation of having to trade his cavalry saber for a lawyer’s shingle. He resigned a captain and was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of Virginia infantry, assigned to the command of Stonewall Jackson. Jackson transferred him to the cavalry, where Joseph E. Johnston promoted him to colonel. Stuart’s dash—and efficiency—were apparent from the start. In one early engagement (Stuart was wearing a blue coat and his old U.S. Army cavalry pants), he found himself amidst dozens of Federals, began giving them imperious orders, and then told them to surrender. They did, assuming they were surrounded by unseen Confederates, and he led them away as prisoners of war.

To train his green cavalry, he would keep them in the saddle all hours, ride them into trouble (under fire, surrounded by the enemy), and then laugh and get them out again, always coolly, always daring danger. He looked for men who relished hard-riding, who thought cavalry work was “fun” (“You don’t want to go back to camp, I know it’s stupid there, and all the fun is out here. I never go to camp if I can help it” ), and who shared his disdain for shell-fire (he even organized a special company, Company Q, eventually abolished, to drain off from his other units the lazy, malingering, cowardly, and dull—and anyone who didn’t enjoy racing past whizzing bullets was certainly dull). As he instructed his troopers: “You are brave fellows, and patriotic ones too, but you are ignorant of this kind of work, and I am teaching you. I want you to observe that a good man on a good horse can never be caught. Another thing: cavalry can trot away from anything, and a gallop is unbecoming a soldier, unless he is going toward the enemy. Onthou dat. We gallop toward the enemy, and trot away, always.”

JEB Stuart had a habit of finding himself amidst the enemy—and not always by intent. At First Manassas, when his men were ordered onto the field, he called out to the unit of Zouaves before him, “Don’t run, boys. We’re here!” only to realize that the troops bore the stars and stripes of the Union, and what started as a greeting became a cavalry charge. But such was life in the cavalry—though life with Stuart’s cavalry was far different from life with, say, Sheridan’s.

With his plumed hat, scarlet cloak, thigh-high riding boots, courtly manners with women, love of fun, and affection for flowers (both giving them and receiving them as a conqueror’s garlands), he was the Middle Ages come to life, which was no coincidence, as the South was enraptured by the books of Sir Walter Scott. The knightly ideal was not remote from Virginia cavaliers, but few took it as far as JEB Stuart did. He gave his camps names like Qui Vive and Quien Sabe, and surrounded himself with the Southern equivalent of a medieval court that included a minstrel (or in this case a banjo plucker), a “fighting bishop” (the Reverend Major Dabney Ball), relations of the “King” (Robert E. Lee’s son Rooney and nephew Fitzhugh), a foreign mercenary come to join the Round Table (the Prussian Giant, Heros von Borcke, who after the war flew the Confederate battle flag from the ramparts of his ancestral castle), a golden knight errant (John Pelham, an Alabama-born West Pointer, 30 of romantic blond good looks, a bang up reputation as an athlete, and a fearlessness that petrified those it didn’t inspire, earning him the nickname “the Gallant Pelham”), and a fierce pet raccoon for a watchdog.

But all of this should not blind us to how skilled an officer he was. Joseph E. Johnston wrote of him that “He is a rare man, wonderfully endowed by nature with the qualities necessary for an officer of light cavalry. Calm, firm, acute, active, enterprising, I know of no one more competent than he to estimate the occurrences before him at their true value. If you add a real brigade of cavalry to this army, you can find no better brigadier general to command it.” In September 1861, he was duly promoted. In seven years in the regular army he had been promoted from second lieutenant to captain (which was accounted rapid promotion). But from March to September 1861, he had been promoted from first lieutenant in the United States Army to a brigadier general in the forces of the Confederate States of America. No one doubted that his swift elevation was merited. He was twenty-eight years old.

Stuart’s men were with General Joseph E. Johnston on the retreat from the Peninsula and with Lee during the defense of Richmond. It was during this latter service that his men leapt to prominence with their celebrated raid that had them riding round McClellan’s entire army, humiliating the Federal commander and having a daredevil’s good time doing it. (One of the Federal cavalry officers pursuing Stuart was his father-in-law and there were some who thought General Cooke was more hesitant in the field than usual.)

JEB Stuart for his part, relished the danger (though he was perturbed once when a bullet sliced off half his prized moustache), and it was part of his character that he could perform his duties with the utmost skill, with the soberest estimate of the military realities of his situation, while indulging a rambunctious, fun-loving, cavalier spirit. His personality was such that if he could not entirely win over Wade Hampton (who chafed under the supremacy of the Virginians), he could warm the odd heart of Stonewall Jackson and even wheedle jokes out of him (and present him with a fine new uniform as a gift that left the western Virginian touched, and his staff delighted with amusement as they chided him to try it on). Lee regarded JEB Stuart almost as a son. And Stuart delighted Southern-sympathizing women wherever they could be found.

Nevertheless, he spoke often of the possibility of death—though in no morbid way. When he was chided for exposing himself too often to the enemy, he remarked that he was easily replaceable. He once explained his troop movements to one of his officers so that in case he was killed on the campaign, the officer could explain why Stuart had acted as he did. He was utterly committed to the cause and told his wife Flora that it was his wish that his son should “never do anything his father would be ashamed of” and should “never forget the principles for which his father struggled.”

Those principles were, of course, the defense of his native Southland and of the sovereign rights of the state of Virginia. Slavery he accepted as part and parcel of the South’s way of life, but like most men of his class, station, and background he was sympathetic, in a paternal way, towards blacks, as were many of his men. On one occasion they discovered that Yankees had stopped at a Virginia plantation and made off with a black carriage driver’s watch. The Confederates rode down the blue-bellies, and Confederate Captain William Blackford told them: “Do you see those pine saplings? Well, those ladies back there [at the plantation] tell me you treated them with respect if you hadn’t, I would be hanging every one of you by your halter straps. Now, one of you took a watch from an old Negro back there. Hand it up to me.” The watch was surrendered and returned to its rightful owner.

JEB Stuart took pride in such knight errantry among his men. Blackford noted that “next to having a staff composed of handsome men about him, he liked to see them mounted on fine horses.” And lest you, as a decadent modern reader, suspect something awry from the mention of “handsome men” I can assure that you’re wrong. For him it was simply a matter of having knights worthy of their calling—handsome, daring, well-bred, on fine horses, laughing at hazards, and dancing and singing the night away. And lest Stuart’s fondness for balls, flirtations, and girls bearing flowers lead your thoughts down another immoral alley, we have it on the good authority of his staff officers that Stuart was utterly innocent in these matters.

Stuart was a man who stood by his vows. He told his mother, at the age of twelve, that he would never drink alcohol—and he never did. He even left orders that if he were wounded he was not to be given medicinal whiskey. He was also a keen supporter of religious revivals among the men, and told one scoffer that he regarded no calling higher than that of a clergyman. It might be hard today to find hearts so pure, but surely it is harder when Virginians, and others, no longer aspire to the spirit of the Virginia cavalier, no longer think of chivalry as an ideal to be pursued, or of knighthood as a practice for the current age. Such ambitions are gone with the wind, ground out, as JEB Stuart eventually was, by the ruthless determination of the likes of Phil Sheridan.


J.E.B. Stuart - HISTORY

THE HISTORY OF THE LAUREL HILL FARM

For untold centuries, this beautiful land along the Ararat River valley was inhabited by the Native American peoples who raised crops, hunted, fished, made their dwellings and raised their families in this unspoiled wilderness. It was only with the appearance of white settlers in the early eighteenth century and beyond that the Native American population was gradually dispossessed of the land. Evidence of their habitation of the land now known as Laurel Hill was uncovered during the archaeological survey of Laurel Hill in the 1990's. These artifacts, dating from hundreds of years past, are now preserved by the Trust.

The consummation of a marriage between William Letcher and Elizabeth Perkins in Pittsylvania County, Virginia in 1778, set in motion a chain of events that would ultimately lead to the birth of J.E.B. Stuart in 1833 at the Stuart home, Laurel Hill. Shortly after their marriage, William and Elizabeth Letcher set forth to establish a new home in the west. During those days, the west was generally thought to mean Kentucky. Why, and under what circumstances they decided to venture along the banks of the Ararat River to make their home, is not known. Given William's later role as a patriot in the cause of the American Revolution, it is a matter of conjecture that he settled on the Ararat River to become involved in that cause.

The new family, along with their slaves, nine in number, named David, Ben, Randolph, Craft, Nann, Look, Abraham, Will and Dick, began the task of home building and subsistence farming. The chosen site for the new home, was on the west bank of the Ararat River directly opposite present day Laurel Hill. The site of the original Letcher home has not, as yet, been uncovered. Some evidence exists that suggests that the present day Mitchell House built ca. 1905 is the site of the original Letcher home. No deed or title to the land in the name of William Letcher has ever been uncovered, however considering the long and difficult journey to Collinsville the then county seat of Henry County, it is possible that had a deed existed it was never recorded.

By the early spring of the year 1780, Elizabeth Letcher gave birth to a daughter on March 21st who was given the name of Bethenia. William's continued involvement in the cause of the American Revolution as evidenced by his membership in the local militia, placed him in jeopardy given the great number of Tories that resided in the area. Threats to his life and property were more and more common, and culminated in his murder on August 2nd of that same year. The perpetrator of this foul deed was a local Tory by the name of "Nichols" who was later apprehended and executed. Elizabeth and baby Bethenia returned to Pittsylvania County where Elizabeth later married George Hairston, then reputed to be the wealthiest man in Virginia. They made their home at the Beavercreek Plantation in Henry County which remains in existence, and contains the graves of George and Elizabeth Hairston.

In either late 1799 or early 1800, Bethenia Letcher married David Pannill and became the mother of two children, a son William and a daughter Elizabeth.
The children were named in honor of their maternal grandparents. The history of the fifteen hundred acre plantation that became the Stuart home is complex, in some instances vague and uncertain. Nevertheless, William and Elizabeth Pannill by reason of many different land transactions became the owners of a fifteen hundred acre tract of land which, ultimately became the property of Archibald Stuart.
In a land swap deal, Elizabeth transferred to her brother William the ownership of certain properties she had inherited, while he in turn, transferred ownership of his interest in the fifteen hundred acre tract to Elizabeth.

In the year of 1817, at the age of fifteen or sixteen, Elizabeth Pannill married Archibald Stuart. At the age of twenty-two, Archibald was just entering a career in law and politics. In the early years of the marriage, Archibald practiced law in Campbell County, Virginia where he was elected to the state legislature for the first time. In the next four years, the Stuarts had four children, three daughters and a son, none of whom were born at Laurel Hill.

It is generally assumed that construction of the Stuart home at Laurel Hill began sometime in the mid-1820's, and was completed sometime in 1830. The first child born at Laurel Hill was William Alexander, followed by six additional children which included the seventh child and youngest surviving son, James Ewell Brown Stuart who was born on February 6th, 1833.

The Stuart home at Laurel Hill has been described as an unpretentious, comfortable farmhouse, which tragically was destroyed by fire in the winter of 1847-48, and no detailed description of the house has survived. In a surviving letter, James described the fire as "a sad disaster." For a few years after the fire, Archibald and his son John Dabney set up a domicile in the outbuilding that had served as the family kitchen. Archibald died in 1855 and was laid to rest at Laurel Hill where his body remained until 1952 when it was exhumed and reburied in the Saltville, Virginia cemetery beside his wife Elizabeth. In 1859, Elizabeth Stuart sold the property to two Mt. Airy, North Carolina men, and Laurel Hill passed out of the Stuart family's ownership.

In 1845, prior to the catastrophic fire that destroyed the Stuart home, James
moved to Wytheville, Virginia, to attend school and to enter the employment of his brother William Alexander. In 1848, he entered Emory and Henry College where he studied for two years, until Representative W.D. Averitt appointed him to the United States Military Academy at West Point. James graduated in 1854 with a host of classmates destined for fame during the approaching Civil War.

The first seven years of his Army career was spent in service with the First United States Cavalry until his resignation from the United States Army to offer his services to Virginia. During this time he had risen to the rank of captain, and had married Flora Cooke, the daughter of later Union general Phillip St. George Cooke.

In 1859, while in Washington negotiating the sale of a saber device he had invented to the War Department, he was directed to accompany then Colonel Robert E. Lee to proceed to the armory at Harpers Ferry and suppress an insurrection led by the abolitionist John Brown. During the soon to commence Civil War, Stuart would achieve fame as the commander of General Robert E. Lee's cavalry, but Laurel Hill remained in his thoughts throughout the protracted struggle. In a letter he expressed these thoughts by saying how he longed after the ending of the war to "ramble over the dear old hills of Patrick, amid all the pleasures of a mountain home." The end of his life came on May 12th, 1864 as the result of a wound he received in the previous day's skirmish at Yellow Tavern.

The J.E.B. Stuart Birthplace Preservation Trust Inc. purchased the Laurel Hill property in 1992 to preserve and interpret the birthplace of General Stuart. An archaeological survey of the property, locating the remains of buildings and other items of archaeological interest was accomplished in 1993-94. In 1998. the property was placed on the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places.

The visitor will find interpretive signs illustrating both locations of interest of the Stuart family's years at Laurel Hill as well as the Civil War exploits of General Stuart. The grave site of William Letcher, the great-grandfather of General Stuart along with the probable site of the old Letcher home has been purchased by the Trust and is available for visitation.

In celebration of the life of General Stuart, the Trust sponsors a Civil War re-enactment each year on the first full weekend in the month of October.


Later Years

Flora Stuart honored her husband’s request to raise their children in the South, and for a short time after the war, she lived in Saltville with J. E. B. Stuart’s brother William Alexander Stuart and his family. (The log cabin where they resided still stands.) She also opened a school in Saltville. In 1878 she moved to Staunton where she taught at a Methodist school. In 1880 she became principal of Staunton’s Virginia Female Institute, an Episcopal school for girls chartered in 1844. Before his death in 1870, Robert E. Lee had served on its board of visitors. Flora Stuart—who in these years preferred to be called Mrs. General Stuart—oversaw an increase in enrollment from twenty-five to ninety-nine students. She retired in 1899 and her cousin, Maria Pendleton Duval, became headmistress. Stuart’s daughter, Virginia, helped found the school’s honor and library service society, and Stuart’s granddaughter, Virginia Stuart Waller Davis, graduated from the school in 1917 and served as a trustee. In 1907, the Virginia Female Institute was renamed Stuart Hall in Flora Stuart’s honor. (As of 2009, Stuart Hall is an independent coeducational Episcopal school, educating students from pre-kindergarten age through twelfth grade.)

In 1898, following the death of Virginia, Flora Stuart moved to Norfolk to help raise her three grandchildren. There, according to an entry in the Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography (1915), she surrounded herself with “many reminders of her honored husband, among them a flag, carefully framed, made by her own hands and carried at the head of his troops.” She died on May 10, 1923, and was buried beside J. E. B. Stuart and their daughter Flora in Hollywood Cemetery.


Kyk die video: . Stuart: Bold Cavalier Civil War General Documentary