Roald Amundsen - Geskiedenis

Roald Amundsen - Geskiedenis


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Roald Amundsen

1872- 1928

Verkenner

Roald Amundsen is gebore in Borge, Noorweë op 16 Julie 1872. Sy gesin was seevaarders, maar sy ma het hom beloof om 'n dokter te word wat hy gaan studeer het. Toe sy dood is toe hy 21 was, het hy opgehou skoolgaan om see toe te gaan. Hy het die eerste suksesvolle Suidpool-ekspedisie gelei en Robert Scott in 1911 geklop. Hy was ook die eerste persoon wat deur die Northwest Passage (1903-1906) navigeer het. Na sy uitbuiting op die Suidpool, het Amundsen hom tot lugverkenning gewend en in werklikheid verdwyn in 'n poging om sy kollega Umberto Nobile te red wat sy lewensgevaar neergestort het ...


Roald Amundsen - Geskiedenis

Roald Amundsen was 'n Noorse ontdekkingsreisiger. Hy was veral bekend daarvoor dat hy die eerste ekspedisie gelei het om die Suidpool in 1911 te bereik. Amundsen was ook aktief in die Arktiese gebied, wat 'n ekspedisie na die Noordpool gelei het in 1926. Sy ander reise was die eerste suksesvolle reis deur die Noordwes -passasie buite Kanada. Amundsen, wat van kleins af geïnteresseerd was in verkenning, het vermoedelik in 1928 gesterf toe hy verdwyn het terwyl hy probeer het om kamerade in die Arktiese gebied te red.

Vroeë lewe

Amundsen is op 16 Julie 1872 in die klein dorpie Borge gebore. Sy familie het 'n tradisie van seevaart agter die rug gehad, en verskeie van sy manlike lede was skeepseienaars of seekapteins. Toe hy volwassenheid bereik het, het Amundsen gewoonlik met die vensters van sy slaapkamer wyd oop geslaap.

Hy sou dit selfs in die dieptes van die winter doen, aangesien hy geglo het dat dit 'n goeie praktyk sou wees vir die lewe van verkenning wat hy graag as 'n man wou lei. In 1897 het hy die eerste keer Antarktika gesien, wat nog steeds deur ontdekkingsreisigers byna onaangeraak was, en die bevrore vasteland het sy verbeelding sy lewe lank behou.

Amundsen verdien erkenning

In 1903 het Amundsen sy eerste mate van bekendheid as matroos gewen toe hy aan boord van 'n ekspedisie deur die Noordwes -gang in 'n vissersboot van slegs 70 voet lank was. Die reis was lank en hard, en die vaartuig was gereeld vasgevang in ys.

Vanweë die noodsaaklikheid om te wag totdat dit ontdooi voordat dit voortgaan, was dit drie jaar voordat die partytjie klaar was. By sy terugkeer na Noorweë het Amundsen nuus gehoor dat die Britse ontdekkingsreisiger, Ernest Shackleton, 'n ekspedisie na Antarktika sou lei om die Suidpool te bereik. Die Shackleton -reis was onsuksesvol, en Amundsen bestee baie tyd aan die bestudering van wat verkeerd gegaan het om sulke probleme self te vermy.

Amundsen verken die Antarktika

Alhoewel hy baie geprys word vir sy beplanning en organisatoriese vermoëns, word gesê dat Amundsen 'n taamlik stilswyende en selfs 'n streng man is. Hy het bemanningslede gekies wat volgens hom die unieke eise van 'n lang poolreis sou kon hanteer, en teen die laat somer van 1910 was hy gereed om te vertrek.

Toe sy ekspedisie in Augustus van daardie jaar die hawe verlaat, het gerugte gesê dat hy eintlik op pad was na die Noordpool, maar eintlik het hy die opsie in die geheim uitgesluit nadat hy gehoor het dat die Amerikaanse ontdekkingsreisiger Robert Peary beweer het dat hy bereik het 90 grade noord in 1909. Selfs Noorse amptenare is nie van Amundsen se hartsverandering meegedeel nie, aangesien die ontdekkingsreisiger bekommerd was dat hy om politieke en diplomatieke redes meegedeel sou word dat hy geen wedywering met Brittanje sou vermy nie.

Amundsen het nie eers sy bemanning die volle waarheid vertel oor waarheen hulle op pad was nie, totdat sy skip, die Fram, die waters van Marokko bereik het. Intussen was hy besig met die seleksie van sleehonde om sy toerusting te trek sodra die partytjie land bereik het. Amundsen beskou dit as 'n baie belangrike saak in die mate dat die sukses of mislukking van sy hele onderneming afhang van hul vermoëns.

Sy Britse mededinger, Robert Falcon Scott, het eerder sterk staatgemaak op Siberiese ponies, 'n besluit wat noodlottig gebrekkig sou wees. Amundsen se partytjie het middel Oktober 1911 die Ross-ysrak bereik en vinnig na die Pool vertrek, drie weke voor Scott.

Bereik die Suidpool

Die partytjie van Amundsen het uitstekende reisomstandighede gehad, danksy buitengewoon goeie weer gedurende die grootste deel van hul reis. Teen 7 Desember het die Noorweërs die verste punt bereik wat die vorige Shackleton -ekspedisie bereik het, en 'n week later is die Suidpool self bereik. Amundsen het self 'n Noorse vlag by die pool opgerig voordat hy en sy groep die lang terugreis begin het.

Danksy hul noukeurige voorbereiding was hierdie been ook relatief eenvoudig, en op 25 Januarie 1925 was hulle veilig terug in die basiskamp. Die ekspedisie het oor 99 dae ongeveer 1,800 myl oor die land gereis. Die ekspedisie van Scott het middel Januarie die pool bereik, maar het omgekom in afskuwelike sneeustorme op die terugkeer, skaars 10 kilometer van 'n voorraadopslagplek.

Verdere verkennings en dood

Amundsen self het verder avonture onderneem, die meeste in die poolstreke. Hiervan was sy opvallendste ekspedisie 'n vlug wat direk in 1926 oor die Noordpool gegaan het. Weens twyfel oor die vraag of die party van Peary in 1909 hul finale posisie akkuraat aangemeld het, word Amundsen se reis nou algemeen aanvaar as die eerste keer dat die Noordpool vir seker bereik is.

Twee jaar later, terwyl hy op 'n ander reis was, het hy egter verdwyn. Op 18 Junie 1918 het hy probeer om mede -ontdekkingsreisigers in die Arktiese Oseaan uit die lug te red, maar sy vliegtuig het op see verlore gegaan. Ondanks 'n soektog van drie maande, is Amundsen se lyk nooit gevind nie.


HistoryLink.org

Op Sondag 27 Junie 1926 om 16:00 stuur die Alaska Steamship Company SS Victoria sluit aan by Pier 2 in Seattle. In teenstelling met die meeste aankomelinge uit Nome, Alaska, word die skip vergesel van Puget Sound deur 'n vloot privaat seiljagte wat langs mekaar vaar en weermagvliegtuie. Stadspersone en 'n skare van meer as 5 000 wag by die pier. Almal is gretig om die beroemde ontdekkingsreisigers en ekspedisieleiers te sien, die Noorse kaptein Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) en die Amerikaanse Lincoln Ellsworth (1880-1951), en die bevelvoerder en ontwerper van die lugskip Norge, Italiaanse kolonel Umberto Nobile (1885-1978). Hulle het pas die eerste lugskipvlug oor die Noordpool van Spitsbergen, Noorweë, na Teller, Alaska, voltooi.

Amundsen se tweede besoek van 26

Dit was Amundsen se tweede besoek aan Seattle in vier maande. In Februarie 1926 het hy sy landlooplesing in die stad voltooi. Dit was die Goue Eeu van Polêre verkenning en hy was bekend in die Noorse gemeenskappe rondom Puget Sound. Op 21 Februarie het Amundsen vir 'n gehoor van 3 000 by die Seattle Eagles Auditorium les gegee. Op 23 Februarie doseer hy in Everett by die Everett Armory vir 'n kapasiteit van 1 500. In sy voorlegging beskryf hy sy onsuksesvolle vliegtuigvlugpoging van 1925 vanaf Spitsbergen, Noorweë, na die Noordpool. Amundsen het twyfel uitgespreek dat poolverkenning met die vliegtuig ooit suksesvol sou wees, maar dat semi-rigiede dirigibles soos die lugskip Norge belofte vir sukses ingehou.

Amundsen se lesingreis van 1926, wat oorspronklik tot 17 Maart sou voortduur, het op 23 Februarie in Everett geëindig toe hy hoor dat die Norge sou binnekort gereed wees vir hul beplande vlug oor die Noordpool. Op 25 Februarie vertrek Amundsen na die ooskus, waar hy by Lincoln Ellsworth aansluit. Vandaar het die twee na Spitsbergen, Noorweë, gereis om voor te berei vir die vlug van die Norge oor die Noordpool.

Wedloop na die Noordpool

Toe hulle die Noorse nedersetting in King's Bay bereik, wag Spitsbergen, Amundsen en Ellsworth op die koms van Umberto Nobile en die Norge uit Italië, waar die Norge gebou was.

Op 28 April 1926 arriveer Richard Byrd in King's Bay met sy Ford Trimotor -vliegtuig en sy volle ekspedisie gereed om die eerste oor die Noordpool te vlieg. Hy is gefinansier deur eksklusiewe nuusdiensooreenkomste wat slegs van waarde sou wees as hy die eerste was om die Noordpool per lug te bereik. As hy nie eerste was nie, sou hy ernstig in die skuld bly.

Die Norge met Nobile, sy Italiaanse bemanning en die Noorse bemanning wat hy op pad van Rome opgetel het, het later as beplan by King's Bay aangekom. Terwyl Nobile en die Italianers in poolklere geklee was, was die Noorse bemanning geklee in straatklere wat nie geskik was vir die koue temperature nie. Nobile het hulle opdrag gegee om hul warm klere agter te laat om gewig te bespaar op die vlug en was ongemaklik koud tydens die vlug na King's Bay. Amundsen het dit as 'n persoonlike belediging van Nobile aangeneem. Om Amundsen verder kwaad te maak, het Nobile hom meegedeel dat een van die lugskipmotors herstelwerk benodig, wat hul vertrek na die Noordpool met minstens twee dae vertraag.

Op 8 Mei, terwyl Amundsen en die Norge Die bemanning wag op die herstelwerk, Byrd en sy vlieënier Floyd Bennett (1890-1928) het op 'n vlug van 15-1/2 uur noordwaarts vertrek. By hul terugkeer kondig Byrd aan dat hy en Bennett die Noordpool bereik het en dit vir 13 minute omring. Maar hulle het minstens 'n uur vroeër as verwag teruggekeer, 'n verdag korter vlug as die afstand en vliegtuigspoed sou aandui.

Noordpoolvlug van die Airship Norge

Twee dae later, met die herstelwerk voltooi, het die Norge was gereed vir vlug. Dit het op 11 Mei om 09:50 vertrek by helder weer. Die lugskip het op 12 Mei om 01:30 die Noordpool bereik. By die paal is nasionale vlae laat val, eers die Noorse, toe die Amerikaner, daarna die Italianer. Soos deur Nobile opdrag gegee is om gewig te bespaar, was die Amerikaanse en Noorse vlae vlae van 'n sakdoek, maar die Italianers het 'n armlading 'vlae en wimpels laat val, een so groot soos 'n tafeldoek.

Eers verby die paal vlieg hulle 72 uur en 3 000 myl verder en land by die klein nedersetting Teller, Alaska. As gevolg van wind en weer, was hul landingsplek 90 myl van hul beplande landing in Nome, Alaska.

Die NorgeDie bemanning het gehoop om vas te stel of daar land tussen die Noordpool en die noordkus van Alaska was, maar die lugskip het mis op die grootste deel van sy pad teëgekom. Die besluit sou in plaas daarvan geneem word deur die vliegtuigvlugte van 1926 tot 1928 van kaptein George Hubert Wilkins (later sir Hubert Wilkins) (1888-1958) en luitenant Carl Ben Eielson (1897-1929). Hulle het gevind dat daar geen land in die gebied was nie, slegs see -ys. Hulle het op verskeie plekke op die ys beland en Wilkins het die diepte van die see onder die ys gemeet.

By die voltooiing van die Norge vlug, Amundsen, Ellsworth, Nobile en 'n paar van die bemanning het van Teller na Nome gereis om te wag vir die stoomskip SS Victoria vir deurgang na Seattle. Die Victoria het op 12 Junie in Nome aangekom.

Alhoewel die feite eers ongeveer 70 jaar later bekend sou wees, het die hersiening van 'n Byrd -dagboek en aantekeninge van sy vlieënier Floyd Bennett die vermoede bevestig dat die Byrd -vlug van Mei 1926 nie die Noordpool bereik het nie, met meer as 100 myl. Daarom het die Norge was die eerste in die geskiedenis wat oor die Noordpool gevlieg het.

Die vaart na Seattle

Die SS Victoria, die "Old Vic" soos sy in die algemeen genoem is, het Nome verlaat en op 16 Junie suidwaarts gegaan vir die 11 dae lange reis na Seattle. In sy boek, Eerste kruising van die poolsee, Het Amundsen dit beskryf as 'n baie ou boot, maar gebou van die beste materiale en nog steeds 'solied en sterk' met eersteklas opgedateerde passasierskwartiere wat slegs twee jaar tevore voltooi is.

Dit was die eerste terugreis van die seisoen van Nome na Seattle. Amundsen het geskryf dat passasiers op die eerste reis noord en laaste na die suide van die seisoen 'n heel ander groep was as wat die gewone reisigers die grootste deel van die seisoen vervoer het. Hierdie seilings het prospekteerders na Alaska vervoer om goud te soek. Die tekens van die vaart na Nome is steeds regdeur die skip aangebring om passasiers daaraan te herinner om hul stewels uit te trek voordat hulle gaan slaap, en dobbel is streng verbode (ondanks die feit dat daar tafeltafels in elke kajuit was).

Terwyl die Norge ekspedisie die doel bereik het om oor die Noordpool te kom, was Amundsen bekommerd dat hulle dalk 'n teleurstellende ontvangs in Seattle sou beleef. Was daar van hom verwag om 'n skouspelagtige aankoms per lugskip te maak, nie deur stoomskip nie?

Amundsen se kommer oor die warmte van die onthaal is vinnig verdwyn toe hulle Port Townsend bereik. Daar is hulle ontmoet deur verteenwoordigers van die Seattle Chamber of Commerce wat die res van die reis aan boord by hulle aangesluit het. 'N Uur voor hul aankoms is hulle begroet deur vyf weermagvliegtuie wat oor die hoof vlieg. Ongeveer 20 kilometer van hul bestemming af, word 'n vloot seiljagte en die stoomskip SS op hulle ontmoet Atlanta wat deur die Italiaanse gemeenskap van Seattle gehuur is om Nobile en sy Italiaanse bemanning met liedere en gejuig te groet.

In Amundsen se woorde van Eerste kruising van die Polêre See:

"Op 27 Junie het ons afgekom in Puget Sound, die wonderlike deel van die see wat na Seattle Washington lei. Nadat ons Port Townsend verby was, moet ons nie meer twyfel oor die houding van die Amerikaanse volk teenoor ons vlug nie. Deputasies van die Kamer van Koophandel en ander openbare instellings het ons hier ontmoet en die vele en groot voorbereidings wat vir ons aankoms getref is, voorgelê, kort daarna het die een vliegtuig na die ander oor die ou geslinger. Vic en het ons duidelik laat verstaan ​​dat die koue hier verdwyn het. Dit was 'n onvergeetlike oomblik toe ons by die Alaska Steamship Company -pier in Seattle lê. Groot skare is versamel om ons te verwelkom "(Amundsen Ellsworth, 160-161).

Vieringe in Seattle

Wanneer die Vic Pier 2 aan die voet van Yesler Way bereik het, is die ontdekkingsreisigers begroet deur 'n skare van 5 000 juigende mense. Toe hulle die skip verlaat, verskyn Nobile geklee in sy beste blou militêre uniform, maar Amundsen en Ellsworth was geklee soos prospekteerders in klere wat hulle in Nome gekoop het. Dit was verwarrend vir 'n jong meisie wat gelukwensende blomme dra, wat dit na die indrukwekkend geklede Nobile in sy helder uniform gebring het, eerder as na Amundsen, die leier van die ekspedisie.

Nobile het die Noorweër aangesê om nie onnodige klere aan boord te bring nie weens gewigbeperkings, maar het nie die beperking op hom of die Italiaanse bemanningslede opgelê nie. Toe Amundsen Nobile en die bemanning skerp geklee in hul uniforms sien wat hulle aan boord van die lugskip weggesteek het, het hy besluit om nie 'n kwessie daaroor te maak nie, alhoewel die lugskip afgeneem het omdat dit oorgewig was en hy oor ys moes loop en sneeu na die beskawing as gevolg daarvan, sou dit 'n ander storie gewees het.

Van die pier af het die skare 'n parade deur die middestad gevorm, gelei deur die Seattle Police Band tot by die Olympic Hotel, waar die gaste oornag het. Die ontdekkingsreisigers het met luukse motors gery. Die middag die volgende dag, Maandag 28 Junie, is hulle vereer tydens 'n middagete in die banketsaal van die Kamer van Koophandel. 'N Totaal van 800 kaartjies is aan die publiek verkoop, wat die kamer vol was. Die oorvloedige menigtes het aangrensende kleiner eetkamers, sitkamers, die belangrikste voorportaal en die gange gevul.

Amundsen, Ellsworth en Nobile het kort toesprake gehou. Amundsen het gesê dat die sukses van hul vlug bewys is dat dit moontlik is om reistyd en afstand tussen kontinente te verminder met 'n Arktiese baan vir kommersiële reise per lugskip oor die paal van Europa na Amerika of Asië. Op 'n persoonlike noot het hy gesê dat hy met hierdie ekspedisie, na albei pole, sy laaste lang gesoekte doel bereik het en gereed was om die toekomstige werk aan 'n jonger geslag oor te dra. Hy was 55, dit sou sy laaste ekspedisie wees. Hy kan selfs trou.

Ellsworth het gesê hy sien uit na nog ekspedisies na die poolstreke. Nobile het gesê dat die verkenning van die Noordpool met 'n lugskip eers begin het, en wanneer hy na Italië terugkeer, sou hy sy planne aan premier Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) voorlê. Nobile het gesê dat hulle deur die Italiaanse regering geborg sal word, nie deur die Noorse Aero Club nie, en anders kan hy nie meer besonderhede bekend maak nie. Na die middagete het die ontdekkingsreisigers na hul hotel teruggekeer om voor te berei op hul vertrek per trein.

Great Northern Railway Oriental Express

Hulle het die aand van 28 Junie per trein uit Seattle vertrek. Amundsen moes New York teen 3 Julie bereik, betyds vir die seil van die Noorse American Line seevaart SS Bergensfjord vir hul terugkeer na Europa. Om betyds te kom, kon hulle nie hul verblyf in Seattle verleng nie. Hulle het gekies om met die Great Northern Railway Oriental Express te reis, aangesien dit die reputasie gehad het as die gemaklikste trein deur die land. Die spoorlyn het 'n privaat motor op die trein gesit, met slaapkamers, 'n sitkamer en 'n eie eetkamer. Amundsen beskryf hul lewenswyse as verander van die van swerwers na dié van vorste.

Hy vergelyk hul reis van drie dae oor Amerika met 'n triomfantelike optog, ontvang telegramme en word begroet deur 'n warm en entoesiastiese skare by hul stop langs die pad. Hy was veral verheug dat die weldoeners nie net sy mede-Noorweërs was nie, maar 'n deursnit van Amerikaners verteenwoordig.

Toe hulle by die Grand Central Station in New York aankom, word Amundsen, Ellsworth en die Noorse bemanning weer as helde begroet en bestuur deur 'n polities begeleide kavalkade deur New York, gejuig deur entoesiastiese skares. Hulle is vereer tydens 'n openbare middagete voordat hulle aan boord van hul stoomskip na Bergen, Noorweë, gegaan het. Hulle het 'n soortgelyke ontvangs in Bergen ontvang toe hulle op 12 Julie aankom en weer 'n paar dae later in Oslo, Noorweë. Nadat hy 'n paar maande in Noorweë sy verslag van die ekspedisie geskryf het, Eerste vlug oor die poolsee, Amundsen keer in November 1926 terug na die Verenigde State vir 'n lesingreis. Hier vind hy uit dat die nuut gepromoveerde generaal Nobile, onder leiding van Mussolini, 'n 13-stadige Amerikaanse lesingreis gehou het met sy eie weergawe van die ekspedisie.

Twee jaar later

Van die begin af was daar wrywing tussen Nobile en Amundsen. Amundsen en Ellsworth was leiers van die ekspedisie, Amundsen vir die ontstaan ​​en organisering daarvan en Ellsworth vir sy hulp by die finansiering. Die Noorse Aero Club wat die reis geborg het, het die lugskip van Italië en Mussolini gekoop. Nobile en die Italiaanse bemanning is aangestel om dit te bestuur en te bestuur. Nobile dring daarop aan dat hy ook 'n ekspedisieleier moet wees, maar kry in plaas daarvan die titel lugvaartbevelvoerder. Sy kontrak het hom verbied om verslag te doen van die ekspedisie aan nuusdienste omdat dit die eksklusiewe ooreenkomste wat Amundsen aangegaan het om die ekspedisie te finansier, sou oortree. Maar Nobile het die kontrak oortree en sy eie rekeninge aan nuusagentskappe en in lesings verskaf. Hy het ook vertrek na King's Bay vertraag en gewigbeperkings opgelê aan almal behalwe sy eie bemanning. Teen die einde van die ekspedisie was die verhouding tussen Amundsen en Nobile gespanne en het in die daaropvolgende maande erger geword namate hul vete in die pers toegeneem het.

In Junie 1928 het Nobile sy eie vlug oor die Noordpool in die lugskip gelei Italia. Hy wou bewys dat hy suksesvol kan wees sonder die hulp van Amundsen en die Noorweërs tot eer van Italië en Mussolini. Hulle het die Noordpool suksesvol bereik uit King's Bay, maar het met hul terugkeer neergestort. Toe hy van die ongeluk hoor, verlaat Amundsen onmiddellik sy huis in Oslo met 'n Franse soekvliegtuig om Nobile en sy bemanning te red, maar die vliegtuig het verlore gegaan tydens die vlug van Tromso, Noorweë, na King's Bay en is nooit gevind nie. Amundsen se aftrede was van korte duur. Edele en oorlewende bemanningslede is uiteindelik gevind en gered, maar sy reputasie is aangetas.

Gemeenskapserfenisprojek in Snohomish County

Roald Amundsen aankom in Seattle op dek van SS Victoria, 27 Junie 1926

Lincoln Ellsworth (1880-1951), ca. 1933

Umberto Nobile in uniform, ca. 1926

Norge 1926 poskaart vir die herdenking van die Noordpool

4,5-duim koperbak ter herdenking van Amundsen Ellsworth Norge se vlug van die Noordpool in 1926

Norge en grondpersoneel, ca. 1926

SS Victoria, Skagway, Alaska, na 1924

SS Victoria vertrek na Nome uit Seattle

Bronne:

"Wilkins sal nie met die lug na die noordpool kom nie, beweer Amundsen," Seattle Daily Times, 12 Februarie 1926, bl. 14 "Amundsen sê dat hy die paal sal bereik," Ibid., 20 Februarie 1926, bl. 3 "Kaptein Amundsen om die reeks lesings in Everett af te sluit," Everett Daily Herald, 23 Februarie 1926, p. 7 "Explorer Amundsen gee besonderhede van Dash aan die paal," Ibid., 24 Februarie 1926, bl. 1 "Amundsen vertrek na New York om na Noorweë te vaar," Ibid., 25 Februarie 1926, bl. 4 "Seattle aan die kapt. Amundsen en metgeselle" Seattle Daily Times, 26 Junie 1926, bl. 2 "Amundsen Guest Here Today Ellsworth, Nobile with Him," Ibid., 27 Junie 1926, bl. 11 "hy ken die weg ... (Great Northern Ad), Ibid., 28 Junie 1926, bl. 4 "Welkom ontdekkingsreisigers!" Ibid., 28 Junie 1926, bl. 6 "Amundsen sê Arktiese reise en verkenning het pas begin," Ibid., 28 Junie 1926, bl. 19 "Lede van die Amundsen -ekspedisie is welkom in Seattle," Ibid., 28 Junie 1926, bl 22 "Trouklokke kan vir Amundsen lui," Ibid., 7 Julie 1926, bl. 1 Roald Amundsen en Lincoln Ellsworth, Eerste kruising van die poolsee (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc, 1928), 158-166 117-122 124 135-151 161-168 Stephen R. Brown, The Last Viking: The life of Roald Amundsen (Boston: Da Capo Press, 2012), 277 280 282 287 290 301 305 307 308 Jeff Maynard, Antarktika se verlore vlieënier (New York: Pegasus Books Ltd, 2019), 22 26 27 29 30 31 37-38 Jeff Maynard, Vlerke van ys (Sydney: Random House Australia, 2010), 110-111 172-173 Beekman H Pool, Polar Extremes The World of Lincoln Ellsworth (Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 2002), 197-198.


Maud en Amundsens se polêre geskiedenis

Roald Amundsen was die eerste man wat die Suidpool bereik het. Na hierdie ekspedisie beplan hy 'n reis na die Arktiese gebied. Sy skip Maud is nou terug na Vollen en kan in die hawe van Tofte bewonder word. Kombineer die poolgeskiedenis en Maud met 'n besoek aan die Oslofjord -museum vir 'n lekker daguitstappie buite Oslo.

Roald Amundsen se poolskip Maud is terug na Asker

101 jaar na die bekendstelling van Maud in Vollen, het die poolskip teruggekeer huis toe na 'n lang seereis van Cambridge Bay in Kanada en word dit nou in Tofte gestoor.

Amundsen - die eerste man wat die Suidpool bereik het

Roald Amundsen het die Suidpool -ekspedisie in die geheim beplan toe hy die skip & quotFram & quot gebou het en die lede van die ekspedisie die eerste in die geskiedenis geword het wat op 4 Desember 1911 die Suidpoolpunt bereik het, vyf weke voor die ekspedisie van Robert F. Scott dit bereik het met sy tweede poging.

Van Vollen na die Noordpool

Die poolskip Maud is by die skeepswerf van Christian Jensen in Vollen gebou. Die kliënt was Roald Amundsen wat 'n ekspedisie na die Arktiese gebied beplan het, waar die doel was om navorsing in hierdie gebiede te doen en hopelik die Noordpool te bereik. In 7 Junie 1917 is Maud voltooi en gelanseer waar die Oslo Fjord Museum vandag geleë is. In die somer van 1918 vaar & quotMaud & quot uiteindelik van Oslo na die noordoostelike gang. Daar is gepoog om sonder sukses oor die Arktiese Oseaan te dryf, en ander pogings is aangewend om die Noordpool per vliegtuig te bereik. Die boot het agtergebly, en na 80 jaar op die seebodem in die noordwestelike gang, is die skip in Augustus 2018 huis toe vervoer.
Die wetenskaplike resultate van die ekspedisie is steeds relevant, maar Roald Amundsen het verskeie struikelblokke teëgekom en die skip het nooit die Noordpool bereik nie. Amundsen het in 1925 bankrot geraak en Maud is op dwangveiling verkoop. Uiteindelik sak sy in Cambridge Bay, Kanada, waar sy 80 jaar op die seebodem lê. Maud is in berging in Sagene B & aringthavn op Tofte in afwagting van 'n permanente & laquoMaud -huis & raquo.

Die Oslofjord Museum

In die Oslofjord -museum kan u 'n indrukwekkende versameling ou houtbote sien, leer oor die lewe in die see en die geskiedenis wat verband hou met huurbote op die Oslofjord. Die kinders vind dit lekker om 'n boot te maak wat deur elastiek gedryf word wat in die swembad getoets kan word.

Toegang tot Vollen kan geskied met 'n geskeduleerde veerboot of bus. Die reis na Maud in Tofte word die beste met die motor gedoen. Fantastiese daguitstappie om te kombineer met besoeke aan plaaslike strande, restaurante en kusgalerye.


10. Fairweather -vriende

Amundsen sou miskien nie opgehou het met sy Noordpool -ekspedisie nie, maar sy finansiering het verdwyn. Die mense wat bereid was om die reis te ondersteun, het skielik teruggetrek toe hulle ontdek dat hy nie die eerste man sou wees om daar te kom nie. Alhoewel Amundsen verduidelik het dat daar nog wetenskaplike waarde vir die ekspedisie was, was hulle slegs bereid om sy reis te finansier as hy die kans sou kry om die eerste te wees.

Ek is seker dat dit nie veel nodig was om 'n manier te vind om sy geld te behou nie.

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Noordpool

Roald Amundsen in 1925 sy oë op die Noordpool gevestig, alhoewel daar bewerings was dat dit reeds deur Frederick Cook en Robert Peary ondersoek is. Hy het besluit om 'n vlieënde boot te gebruik vir hierdie verkenning, en daarom het Lincoln Ellsworth, vlieënier Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen en drie ander met twee Dornier Do J vlieënde bote na die N-24 en N-25 versamel, na 87 & deg 44 en eerste noord. Die N-24 is beskadig en het die N-25 agtergelaat wat die ses vir die reis gebruik het. Hulle het 'n landingsbaan voorberei om van ys af te gaan. In 1926 het saam met 16 ander lede, waaronder Lincoln Ellsworth, vlieënier Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, Oscar Wisting en 'n Italiaanse vliegtuigbemanning onder leiding van 'n lugvaartingenieur, Umberto Nobile op die lugskip Norge, die eerste lugtrek deur die Arktiese gebied gemaak. Die span het op 11 Mei 1926 Spitzbergen verlaat en binne twee dae in Alaska geland. Hulle het sedertdien die eerste gedokumenteerde ontdekkingsreisigers geword wat die Noordpool bereik het. Alle eise deur ander ontdekkingsreisigers voorheen word betwis en word as bedrog of twyfelagtige akkuraatheid beskou.


Inhoud

Die uitkomste van die twee ekspedisies was soos volg.

  • Prioriteit op die Suidpool: Amundsen het Scott met 34 dae na die Suidpool geklop.
  • Sterftes: Scott het vyf mans verloor, waaronder homself wat van die paal teruggekeer het, uit 'n span van 65. Amundsen se hele span van 19 keer veilig terug na Noorweë.
  • Sommige skrywers (insluitend Huntford en Fiennes) verbind tot twee verdere sterftes (die verdrinking van Robert Brissenden en die selfmoord van Hjalmar Johansen) met die twee ekspedisies, maar dit het buite die Antarktiese Sirkel gebeur.

Histories is verskeie faktore bespreek en baie bydraende faktore beweer, [1] insluitend:

  • Prioriteit by die paal: Scott het geskryf dat Amundsen se honde sy eie polêre aspirasies ernstig bedreig het, want honde, wat koudtolerant is as ponies, sou vroeër in die seisoen kon begin as Scott se gemengde vervoer van honde, ponies en motors. [2]
  • Cherry-Garrard in Die ergste reis ter wêreld stem saam, maar voeg by dat honde volgens sy ervaring nie die Beardmore -gletser sou kon bestyg nie. [3]
  • Met betrekking tot die oorsake van die dood van Scott en sy metgeselle, bestee Cherry-Garrard hoofstuk 19 in sy boek om die oorsake te ondersoek. Onder verskeie ander faktore vermoed hy dat die rantsoene van Scott se span onvoldoende was en nie genoeg energie vir die manne bied nie. [4]
  • Die grootste deel van Scott se vervoer moes deur ponies gedoen word, wat ongeskik is om op sneeu en ys te werk sonder sneeu-skoene. Hulle relatief klein hoewe en groot gewig het veroorsaak dat hulle in iets anders as baie stewige sneeu of ys gesak het. Oates was gekant teen sneeuskoene en het die meeste in die basiskamp gelaat.
  • Ponies se jasse word maklik deur sweet deurdrenk tydens inspanning, wat konstante aandag met komberse vereis om onderdrukking deur verdamping te vermy. Honde daarteenoor het nie sweetkliere nie - hulle verkoel hulself deur hyg, wat hulle minder kwesbaar maak vir die koue. Met ponies erken Scott dat hy eers op 1 November 1911 kon vertrek wanneer die weer warmer sou wees, wat hom minder tyd laat om die reis te voltooi.
  • Die verlies van ponies, waarvan verskeie verdrink het toe die see-ys besig was om te verval, het die voorraad beperk wat na die depots vervoer kon word. Van die 19 ponies wat suid gebring is om te help met die neerlê van depots op die Ross -ysplank (wat gedurende die eerste en laaste kwartale van die trek deurgeloop is), het nege verlore geraak voordat die reis begin het. Anders as honde wat die oorvloedige rob en pikkewynvleis wat in Antarktika gevind is, kon eet, moes die ponie se kos van die skip af weggevoer word, wat die winkels wat vervoer moes word, aansienlik vergroot terwyl Scott se ekspedisie na die paal beweeg.
  • As die depot van een ton op 80 ° S. op die breedtegraad geplaas is, sou Scott en sy twee oorlewende metgeselle soos beplan dit op hul terugtog kon bereik. Omdat Scott geweier het om die ponies na hul dood te dryf, ondanks die dringende advies van Oates om dit te doen, is die depot ongeveer 50 kilometer daarvandaan geplaas. Scott se party is 11 myl suid van die depot dood.
  • Die toevoeging van luitenant Henry R. Bowers op die laaste minuut tot die beplande vierman-paalparty het moontlik die rantsoeneringsplan gespanne, hoewel die dood van onderoffisier Evans weke later die partytjie weer tot vier verminder het.
  • Die rantsoene was gebrek aan B- en C -vitamiene. [5] Die party het 'n paar weke nadat hy die paal bereik het, verswak, ondanks Scott se wedrenambisies voor die terugtog, en geskryf: "Nou vir 'n desperate stryd om die nuus eers deur te bring [voordat Amundsen die kabelkop in Australië bereik]. Ek wonder of ons kan dit doen."
  • Daar is bevind dat die blikkies kookbrandstof wat langs die terugreis geberg is, gedeeltelik leeg was, wat die mans gedwing het om bevrore kos te eet. Tekort aan brandstof om water te smelt, het waarskynlik veroorsaak dat die mans ontwater het. Blykbaar het die son se hitte 'n deel van die brandstof verdamp, sodat dit by die kurkproppe kon ontsnap. Amundsen het geweet van hierdie 'kruip', en het die brandstofblikke laat soldeer tydens die reis na Antarktika, sien hieronder.
  • Dit lyk asof die weer op die terugtog ongewoon sleg was. Veral toe die partytjie die Great Ice Barrier bereik het, was die temperatuur baie laer as wat verwag is vir die seisoen, wat die oppervlak baie minder geskik maak vir die slee hardlopers. Verder het die agterwind wat hulle verwag het om hulle by die huis te help, nie verskyn nie. Scott skryf in sy laaste "Message to the Public": "ons wrak is beslis te danke aan hierdie skielike koms van erge weer."
  • Die kompleksiteit van die vervoerplan het dit kwesbaar gemaak. Dit was deels afhanklik van motorslee, ponies, honde en suidewinde om die slee (wat met seile toegerus was) te help. Die helfte van die afstand was bedoel om deur mensevervoer te word (en vaar wanneer toestande dit toelaat). Scott se daaglikse optogte was beperk tot die uithouvermoë van die stadigste span, die sleepwaens wat opdrag gekry het om 15 myl per dag te vorder. Die ponies het snags opgeruk en gerus toe die son warmer was, en Meares het baie ure lank in die kamp gebly met die baie vinniger honde voordat hulle aan die einde van die dag ingehaal het. [6]

Sullivan sê dat dit waarskynlik die laaste faktor was wat deurslaggewend was. [1] Hy verklaar:

Die mens is 'n arm lasdier, soos blyk uit die verskriklike ervaring van Scott, Shackleton en Wilson in die suide van 1902–3. Scott het egter in 1911–12 hoofsaaklik staatgemaak op mensvervoer, want ponies kon nie die gletser halfpad na die pool klim nie. Die Noorweërs het reg geraai dat honde spanne die hele pad kon bereik. Verder het hulle 'n eenvoudige plan gebruik, gebaseer op hul eie vaardighede met ski's en op hondebestuurmetodes wat beproef is. Die maan sal bereik word deur 'n opeenvolging raketfases af te brand en dit af te gooi. This, in effect, is what the Norwegians did with their dogs, the weaker animals being sacrificed to feed the other animals and the men themselves.

Scott and his financial backers saw the expedition as having a scientific basis, while also wishing to reach the pole. However, it was recognised by all involved that the South Pole was the primary objective ("The Southern Journey involves the most important object of the Expedition" – Scott), and had priority in terms of resources, such as the best ponies and all the dogs and motor sledges as well as involvement of the vast majority of the expedition personnel. Scott and his team knew the expedition would be judged on his attainment of the pole ("The . public will gauge the result of the scientific work of the expedition largely in accordance with the success or failure of the main object" – Scott). He was prepared to make a second attempt the following year (1912–13) if this attempt failed and had Indian Army mules and additional dogs delivered in anticipation. In fact the mules were used by the team that discovered the dead bodies of Scott, Henry Robertson Bowers, and Edward Adrian Wilson in November 1912, but proved even less useful than the ponies, according to Cherry-Garrard.

Amundsen's expedition was planned to reach the South Pole. This was a plan he conceived in 1909. [7] Amundsen's expedition did conduct geographical work under Kristian Prestrud who conducted an expedition to King Edward VII Land while Amundsen was undertaking his attempt at the pole.

Amundsen camped on the Ross Ice Shelf at the Bay of Whales at approx. 78°30′S, which is 52 nautical miles (96 km) closer to the pole than Scott's camp (at 77°38′S) which was 350 nautical miles west of Amundsen, on Ross Island. Amundsen had deduced that, as the Trans-Antarctic Mountains ran northwest to southeast then if he were to meet a mountain range on his route then the time spent at the high altitude of the Antarctic plateau would be less than Scott's. [8] Scott's base was at Cape Evans on Ross Island, with access to the Trans-Antarctic mountain range to the west, and was a better base for geological exploration. He had based his previous expedition in the same area. However, he knew it to be poor as a route to the pole as he had to start before sea ice melted and had suffered delay in returning while waiting for the sea ice to freeze. They also had to make detours around Ross Island and its known crevassed areas which meant a longer journey. The crossing of the Ross Ice Shelf was an onerous task for the ponies. Scott had advanced considerable stores across the ice shelf the year before to allow the ponies to carry lighter loads over the early passage across the ice. Even so, he had to delay the departure of the ponies until 1 November rather than 24 October when the dogs and motor sledges set off. [9] Consequently, the Motor Party spent 6 days at the Mount Hooper Depot waiting for Scott to arrive. [10]

Motor sledges Edit

The major comparison between Scott and Amundsen has focused on the choice of draft transport —dog versus pony/man-hauling. In fact Scott took dogs, ponies and three "motor sledges". Scott spent nearly seven times the amount of money on his motor sledges than on the dogs and horses combined. They were therefore a vital part of the expedition. Unfortunately, Scott decided to leave behind the engineer, Lieutenant Commander Reginald William Skelton [11] who had created and trialled the motor sledges. This was due to the selection of Lieutenant E.R.G.R. "Teddy" Evans as the expedition's second in command. As Evans was junior in rank to Skelton, he insisted that Skelton could not come on the expedition. [11] Scott agreed to this request and Skelton's experience and knowledge were lost. [12] One of the original three motor sledges was a failure even before the expedition set out the heavy sledge was lost through thin ice on unloading it from the ship. The two remaining motor sledges failed relatively early in the main expedition because of repeated faults. Skelton's experience might have been valuable in overcoming the failures. [13]

Ponies vs dogs Edit

Scott had used dogs on his first (Discovery) expedition and felt they had failed. On that journey, Scott, Shackleton, and Wilson started with three sledges and 13 dogs. But on that expedition, the men had not properly understood how to travel on snow with the use of dogs. The party had skis but were too inexperienced to make good use of them. [14] As a result, the dogs travelled so fast that the men could not keep up with them. The Discovery expedition had to increase their loads to slow the dogs down. [14] Additionally, the dogs were fed Norwegian dried fish, which did not agree with them and soon they began to deteriorate. [14] The whole team of dogs eventually died (and were eaten), and the men took over hauling the sleds. [14]

Scott's opinion was reinforced by Shackleton's experience on the Nimrod expedition, which got to within 97.5 nautical miles (180.6 km 112.2 mi) of the pole. Shackleton used ponies. Scott planned to use ponies only to the base of the Beardmore Glacier (one-quarter of the total journey) and man-haul the rest of the journey. Scott's team had developed snow shoes for his ponies, and trials showed they could significantly increase daily progress. However, Lawrence Oates, whom Scott had made responsible for the ponies, was reluctant to use the snow shoes and Scott failed to insist on their use. [15] : 85

There was plenty of evidence that dogs could succeed in the achievements of William Speirs Bruce in his Arctic, Antarctic, and Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, Amundsen in the Gjøa North West passage expedition, Fridtjof Nansen's crossing of Greenland, Robert Peary's three attempts at the North Pole, Eivind Astrup's work supporting Peary, Frederick Cook's discredited North Pole expedition, and Otto Sverdrup's explorations of Ellesmere Island. Moreover, Scott ignored the direct advice he received (while attending trials of the motor sledges in Norway) from Nansen, the most famous explorer of the day, who told Scott to take "dogs, dogs and more dogs". [16]

At the time of the events, the expert view in England had been that dogs were of dubious value as a means of Antarctic transport. [17] Broadly speaking, Scott saw two ways in which dogs may be used—they may be taken with the idea of bringing them all back safe and sound, or they may be treated as pawns in the game, from which the best value is to be got regardless of their lives. [17] He stated that if, and only if, the comparison was made with a dog sledge journey which aimed to preserve the dogs' lives, 'I am inclined to state my belief that in the polar regions properly organised parties of men will perform as extended journeys as teams of dogs.' [17] On the other hand, if the lives of the dogs were to be sacrificed, then 'the dog-team is invested with a capacity for work which is beyond the emulation of men. To appreciate this is a matter of simple arithmetic'. [17] But efficiency notwithstanding, he expressed "reluctance" to use dogs in this way: "One cannot calmly contemplate the murder of animals which possess such intelligence and individuality, which have frequently such endearing qualities, and which very possibly one has learnt to regard as friends and companions." [17]

Amundsen, by contrast, took an entirely utilitarian approach. [17] Amundsen planned from the start to have weaker animals killed to feed the other animals and the men themselves. [1] He expressed the opinion that it was less cruel to feed and work dogs correctly before shooting them, than it would be to starve and overwork them to the point of collapse. [14] Amundsen and his team had similar affection for their dogs as those expressed above by the English, but they "also had agreed to shrink from nothing in order to achieve our goal". [18] The British thought such a procedure was distasteful, though they were willing to eat their ponies. [1]

Amundsen had used the opportunity of learning from the Inuit while on his Gjøa North West passage expedition of 1905. He recruited experienced dog drivers. To make the most of the dogs he paced them and deliberately kept daily mileages shorter than he need have for 75 percent of the journey, [19] and his team spent up to 16 hours a day resting. His dogs could eat seals and penguins hunted in the Antarctic while Scott's pony fodder had to be brought all the way from England in their ship. It has been later shown that seal meat with the blubber attached is the ideal food for a sledge dog. Amundsen went with 52 dogs, and came back with 11. [14]

What Scott did not realise is a sledge dog, if it is to do the same work as a man, will require the same amount of food. Furthermore, when sledge dogs are given insufficient food they become difficult to handle. The advantage of the sledge dog is its greater mobility. Not only were the Norwegians accustomed to skiing, which enabled them to keep up with their dogs, but they also understood how to feed them and not overwork them. [14]

Walking vs skiing on snow Edit

Scott took the Norwegian pilot and skier Tryggve Gran to the Antarctic on the recommendation of Nansen to train his expedition to ski, but although a few of his party began to learn, he made no arrangements for compulsory training for the full party. Gran (possibly because he was Norwegian) was not included in the South Pole party, which could have made a difference. Gran was, one year later, the first to locate the deceased Scott and his remaining companions in their tent just some 18 km (11 miles) short of One Ton depot, that might have saved their lives had they reached it.

Scott would subsequently complain in his diary, while well into his journey and therefore too late to take any corrective action and after over 10 years since the Discovery expedition, that "Skis are the thing, and here are my tiresome fellow countrymen too prejudiced to have prepared themselves for the event". [20]

Amundsen, on his side, recruited a team of well experienced skiers, all Norwegians who had skied from an early age. He also recruited a champion skier, Olav Bjaaland, as the front runner. The Amundsen party gained weight on their return travel from the South Pole.

Scott and Shackleton's experience in 1903 and 1907 gave them first-hand experience of average conditions in Antarctica. Simpson, Scott's meteorologist 1910–1912, charted the weather during their expedition, often taking two readings a day. On their return to the Ross Ice Shelf, Scott's group experienced prolonged low temperatures from 27 February until 10 March which have only been matched once in 15 years of current records. [15] : 286 The exceptional severity of the weather meant they failed to make the daily distances they needed to get to the next depot. This was a serious position as they were short of fuel and food. When Scott, Wilson, and Bowers died (Petty Officer Edgar Evans and Lawrence Oates had died earlier during the return from the South Pole) they were 18 kilometres (11 mi) short of One-Ton Depot, which was 230 kilometres (140 mi) from Corner Camp, where they would have been safe.

On the other hand, Cherry-Garrard had travelled nearly 500 kilometres (300 mi) in the same area, during the same time period and same temperatures, using a dog team. [21] Scott also blamed "a prolonged blizzard". But while there is evidence to support the low temperatures, there is only evidence for a "normal" two- to four-day blizzard, and not the ten days that Scott claims. [15] : 318–319

During depot laying in February 1911, Roald Amundsen had his first (and last) 290 kilometres (180 mi) of his route marked like a Norwegian ski course using marker flags initially every eight miles. He added to this by using food containers painted black, resulting in a marker every mile. From 82 degrees on, Amundsen built a 6 ft (1.8 m) cairn every three miles with a note inside recording the cairn's position, the distance to the next depot, and direction to the next cairn. [22] In order not to miss a depot considering the snow and great distances, Amundsen took precautions. Each depot laid out up to 85 degrees (laid out every degree of latitude) had a line of bamboo flags laid out transversely every half-mile for five miles on either side of the depot, ensuring that the returning party could locate the designated depot.

Scott relied on depots much less frequently laid out. For one distance where Amundsen laid seven depots, Scott laid only two. Routes were marked by the walls made at lunch and evening stops to protect the ponies. Depots had a single flag. As a result, Scott has much concern recorded in his diaries over route finding, and experienced close calls about finding depots. [23] It is also clear that Scott's team did not travel on several days, because the swirling snow hid their three-month-old outward tracks. With better depot and route marking they would have been able to travel on more days with a following wind which would have filled the sail attached to their sledge, and so travel further, and might have reached safety.

By the time they arrived at the pole, the health of Scott's team had significantly deteriorated, whereas Amundsen's team actually gained weight during the expedition. Although Scott's team managed to maintain the scheduled pace for most of the return leg, and hence was virtually always on full rations, their condition continued to worsen rapidly. (The only delay occurred when they were held for four days by a blizzard, and had to open their summit rations early as a consequence. [24] )

Apsley Cherry-Garrard in his analysis of the expedition estimated that even under optimistic assumptions the summit rations contained only a little more than half the calories actually required for the man-hauling of sledges. [4] A carefully planned 2006 re-enactment of both Amundsen's and Scott's travels, sponsored by the BBC, confirmed Cherry-Garrard's theory. The British team had to abort their tour due to the severe weight loss of all members. [25] The experts hinted that Scott's reports of unusually bad surfaces and weather conditions might in part have been due to their exhausted state which made them feel the sledge weights and the chill more severely.

Scott's calculations for the supply requirements were based on a number of expeditions, both by members of his team (e.g., Wilson's trip with Cherry-Garrard and Bowers to the Emperor penguin colony which had each man on a different type of experimental ration), and by Shackleton. Apparently, Scott didn't take the strain of prolonged man-hauling at high altitudes sufficiently into account.

Since the rations contained no B and C vitamins, the only source of these vitamins during the trek was from the slaughter of ponies or dogs. This made the men progressively malnourished, manifested most clearly in the form of scurvy. [5]

Scott also had to fight with a shortage of fuel due to leakage from stored fuel cans which used leather washers. This was a phenomenon that had been noticed previously by other expeditions, but Scott took no measures to prevent it. Amundsen, in contrast, had learned the lesson and had his fuel cans soldered closed. A fuel depot he left on Betty's Knoll was found 50 years later still full. [26] : 553

Dehydration may also have been a factor. Amundsen's team had plenty of fuel due to better planning and soldered fuel cans. Scott had a shortage of fuel and was unable to melt as much water as Amundsen. At the same time Scott's team were more physically active in man-hauling the sledges.

Present-day explorer Ranulph Fiennes and others have asserted that Scott's team was appropriately dressed for man-hauling in their woolen and wind-proof clothing and that Amundsen's, because they were skiing, was appropriately dressed in furs. Skiing at the pace of a dog team is a strenuous activity, yet Amundsen never complained about the clothing being too hot. That is because the furs are worn loosely so air circulates and sweat evaporates. Scott's team, on the other hand, made regular complaints about the cold.

Amundsen's team did initially have problems with their boots. However, the depot-laying trips of January and February 1911 and an abortive departure to the South Pole on 8 September 1911 allowed changes to be made before it was too late.

Scott's team suffered regularly from snow blindness and sometimes this affected over half the team at any one time. [27] By contrast, there was no recorded case of snow blindness during the whole of Amundsen's expedition. On the return journey, Amundsen's team rested during the "day" (when the sun was in front of them) and travelled during the "night" (when the sun was behind them) to minimise the effects of snow blindness.

In 1921, 'Teddy' Evans wrote in his book South with Scott that Scott had left the following written orders at Cape Evans. [28]

About the first week of February I should like you to start your third journey to the South, the object being to hasten the return of the third Southern unit [the polar party] and give it a chance to catch the ship. The date of your departure must depend on news received from returning units, the extent of the depot of dog food you have been able to leave at One Ton Camp, the state of the dogs, etc . It looks at present as though you should aim at meeting the returning party about March 1 in Latitude 82 or 82.30. [29]

He did however place a lesser importance upon this journey than that of replenishing the food rations at One Ton Depot.

He continued his instructions in the next paragraph "You will of course understand that whilst the object of your third journey is important, that of the second is vital. At all hazards three X.S. units of provision must be got to One Ton Camp by the date named (19th January), and if the dogs are unable to perform this task, a man party must be organised." [30] with that qualification he closed his notes regarding his instructions for the dogs.

Expedition member Apsley Cherry-Garrard did not mention Scott's order in his 1922 book Die ergste reis ter wêreld. However, in the 1948 preface to his book, [31] he discusses Scott's order. Cherry-Garrard writes that he and Edward Atkinson reached Cape Evans on 28 January. Scott had estimated Atkinson would reach camp by 13 January. [29] Atkinson, now the senior officer discovered that the dog handler Cecil Meares had resigned from the expedition and that neither Meares nor anyone else had resupplied dog food to the depots. Cherry-Garrard also wrote "In my opinion he [Atkinson] would not have been fit to take out the dogs in the first week of February".

On 13 February, Atkinson set off on the first lap southwards to Hut Point with the dog assistant, Dimitri Gerov, and the dogs to avoid being cut off by disintegrating sea ice. Atkinson and Gerov were still at Hut Point when, on 19 February, Tom Crean arrived on foot from the Barrier and reported that Lt Edward Evans was lying seriously ill in a tent some 55 kilometres (35 mi) to the south, and in urgent need of rescue. [32] Atkinson decided that this mission was his priority, and set out with the dogs to bring Evans back. This was achieved the party was back at Hut Point on 22 February.

Atkinson sent a note back to the Cape Evans base camp requesting either the meteorologist Wright or Cherry-Garrard to take over the task of meeting Scott with the dogs. Chief meteorologist Simpson was unwilling to release Wright from his scientific work, and Atkinson therefore selected Apsley Cherry-Garrard. It was still not in Atkinson's mind that Cherry-Garrard's was a relief mission, and according to Cherry-Garrard's account, told him to "use his judgement" as to what to do in the event of not meeting the polar party by One Ton, and that Scott's orders were that the dogs must not be risked. Cherry-Garrard left with Gerov and the dogs on 26 February, carrying extra rations for the polar party to be added to the depot and 24 days' of dog food. They arrived at One Ton Depot on 4 March and did not proceed further south. Instead, he and Gerov, after waiting there for Scott for several days, apparently mostly in blizzard conditions (although no blizzard was recorded by Scott some 100 miles further south until 10 March), they returned to Hut Point on 16 March, in poor physical condition and without news of the polar party.

On the return journey from the pole, Scott reached the 82.30°S meeting point for the dog teams three days ahead of schedule, around 27 February 1912. Scott's diary for that day notes "We are naturally always discussing possibility of meeting dogs, where and when, etc. It is a critical position. We may find ourselves in safety at the next depot, but there is a horrid element of doubt." By 10 March it became clear that the dog teams were not coming: "The dogs which would have been our salvation have evidently failed. Meares [the dog-driver] had a bad trip home I suppose. It's a miserable jumble."

Around 25 March, awaiting death in his tent at latitude 79.40°S, Scott speculated, in a farewell letter to his expedition treasurer Sir Edgar Speyer, that he had overshot the meeting point with the dog relief teams, writing "We very nearly came through, and it's a pity to have missed it, but lately I have felt that we have overshot our mark. No-one is to blame and I hope no attempt will be made to suggest that we had lacked support." (Farewell letter to Sir Edgar Speyer, cited from Karen May 2012.) [28]

Geology samples Edit

Scott's team continued to haul over 14 kg (30 lb) of rock samples. This would appear to be a major handicap when pulling a sledge in a race against the weather and a shortage of food and fuel. Scott could have left the samples at one of the cairns along the way to be picked up later. However, Ranulph Fiennes has suggested that the extra weight would not have been a major handicap. [33] Tryggve Gran on the other hand thought "they might have saved themselves the bother". [34]

Final five-man team Edit

Scott's planning, equipment and rations had been based on three sledge teams of four men ascending the Beardmore, with a team turning back every 10 days or so as rations required finally leaving one four-man team to attempt the pole. At the last moment when down to two teams (Scott's and Evans's) Scott decided to send a returning party of three, and take on five. This increased the cooking time for the team of five and affected the fuel supply. [35] It also meant the Evans party of three had to try to split the ration pack (at a time when they were cold and tired and later when one member was suffering from scurvy) to leave an allowance for the fifth man in Scott's party. This also will have affected the seepage of fuel from cans which were opened and then re-closed and left for several weeks before Scott's team got to them. Moreover, for some unexplained reason Scott had ordered Evans's team to cache their skis a week before, so Bowers (the fifth man) walked to the pole and back to the cached skis (360 miles) while the rest of Scott's team skied.

Misuse of the dog team Edit

For no clear reason Scott took the dogs on 140 miles further than originally planned. This meant killing the ponies early (and starting man-hauling earlier) to feed the dogs for no obvious benefit to the overall expedition. Scott also gave conflicting and changing orders for their use to each returning party. It was only in late February 1912 that it was discovered that the final supplies needed by Scott's returning party had not been delivered to One Ton Depot. Cherry-Garrard was sent with these supplies on 25 February 1912 and he was relieved to discover that he had beaten Scott's team to the depot. [21] He also found that promised supplies of dog food were not in place. Cherry-Garrard remained at the depot, within 100 kilometres (60 mi) of Scott, 4–10 March 1912 when he could possibly have saved Scott, Wilson, Bowers, and Oates if the management of the dog team had been better.


After 100 Years, Roald Amundsen’s Polar Ship Returns to Norway

By the year 1917, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had already conquered the South Pole and Northwest Passage, establishing his reputation as a Polar powerhouse. But he wasn’t just about setting records—he was also interested in science and wanted to gather data on the Arctic Ocean and polar ice. To that end, he had a polar research vessel, which he named Maud after the queen of Norway, built hoping to drift it over the North Pole. Now, reports the AFP, that ship has finally returned to its home port in Norway.

Because World War I made crossing the Atlantic hazardous, the handful of travelers who embarked upon the 1918 voyage decided to try to reach the pole via the Northeast Passage, a route passing north of Europe and Russia. But the trip, called the Maud Expedition, did not start well. That first winter, Amundsen fell through the ice, broke his arm in two places, was attacked by a polar bear and almost died from carbon monoxide poisoning. Ice conditions proved worse than the crew had anticipated, and it ultimately took the ship three years just to make it to Nome, Alaska.

From Alaska, the idea was to drift the ship over the North Pole, but poor ice conditions ultimately forced Maud south to Seattle to undergo extensive repairs. Een keer Maud was repaired, rather than try to ice drift again, Amundsen got distracted by the idea of flying an airplane over the North Pole and instead used Maud to haul aircraft to Alaska for the attempt. It never worked out, and by 1925 Amundsen was broke and forced to sell the ship to the Hudson’s Bay Company. The firm rechristened it the Baymaud and used it as a floating warehouse and later a radio station, one of the first in the Arctic, before the ship sank in the pack ice in 1930 in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut.

In 1990, Asker County in Norway, where the ship was constructed, bought the wreck from the Hudson’s Bay Company for just $1 with plans to raise the ship and move it home. But those plans, and several other schemes for getting the ship to Norway fell flat. In 2011, Canada decided it wanted to preserve the ship as a historic site itself since it had importance in the history of its Arctic regions. But before it could be given back to Canada, Asker launched one more attempt at getting it home, transferring the project to a private company called Tandberg Eiendom, which got things moving.

After several years of preparation, the ship was raised from the seabed in the summer of 2016. In 2017, the crew worked to prepare and stabilize the ship for an Atlantic crossing, towing it to western Greenland. According to the Maud Returns Home project’s Facebook page, the ship began its final journey to Scandinavia in June, reaching the waters of Norway on August 5 and finally making it to Vollen in Asker, where it will have its own museum, on August 7.

“It feels absolutely fantastic to know that Maud is finally back in Norway after nearly 100 years,” Jan Wangaard, manager of the project, tells The Local.no. “It brings joy to our hearts to see Maud, still proud after all these years, see her old homeland once again.”

Amundsen’s two other ships, the Gjoa en Fram are currently housed at the Norwegian Maritime Museum in Oslo. Maud didn't accomplish her primary mission, but the oceanographic info the ship's crew collected and its role in the development of the Canadian Arctic are still significant. And while Amundsen never managed to drift over the North Pole with Maud, in 1926 the explorer did at least get to fly over the pole in a dirigible.

Oor Jason Daley

Jason Daley is 'n in Madison, Wisconsin gebaseerde skrywer wat spesialiseer in natuurgeskiedenis, wetenskap, reis en die omgewing. Sy werk het verskyn in Ontdek, Populêre wetenskap, Buite, Mansjoernaal, en ander tydskrifte.


Frank Sherman "Dad" Land is Born

Today in Masonic History Frank Sherman "Dad" Land is born in 1890.

Frank Sherman "Dad" Land was an American youth leader.

Land was born in Kansas City, Missouri. As a young man he gained a reputation as the "Boy Preacher" at his Sunday school. He attended the Kansas City Art Institute and at the age of 21 he was elected President of the Municipal Art Club of Kansas City.

By the age of 28, Land was already a leader in his community. He had a business history of being a successful restaurateur. It was around this time he was asked to act as the director of the Masonic Relief and Employment Bureau of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Under Land the charity help hundreds of Families. He was also the Secretary of the Social Services Bureau of the Scottish Rite.

In 1919, Land's life changed along with millions of young men throughout the United States and Internationally. Land was visited by Louis G. Lower. Lower had come to Land initially for assistance from the Masonic Fraternity. Lower had recently lost his father who was a member of Land's lodge. After conversing with Lower, Land asked him to gather some of his friends in the area who were in a similar circumstance and to bring them to dinner at Land's house. From that initial meeting the Order of DeMolay grew.

As the DeMolay organization was beginning, Land received his nickname of "Dad". The young men felt that calling Land by his first name was too personal and calling him "Mr. Land" was too formal. They decided on Dad Land and the name stuck. To this day advisors in DeMolay are referred to as "Dad" advisors in honor of Land.

In 1922, Land left his position with the Scottish Rite and become the Secretary General at the DeMolay headquarters in Kansas City.

Among other positions and honorarium Land held are president of the Kansas City School Board, honorary member of the University of Missouri chapter of Acacia Fraternity (a Masonic affiliated college fraternity), director of the Columbia National Bank, and at the time of his death a trustee of the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library Museum.

Land passed away on November 8th, 1959. To this day, DeMolay's recognize November 8th as Dad Land day and special events are held throughout the world in his honor.

Land was initiated into Ivanhoe Lodge No. 446 on June 29th, 1912. In 1925 he was coroneted a 33°Scottish Rite Mason. In 1951 he received the first Gold Service Medal from the General Grand Chapter of York Rite for work in Humanities. From 1954 to 1955 he was Imperial Potentate of the of Ancient Arabic Order of the Noble and Mystic Shrine of North America. In 1955 he received the Grand Cross of the Southern Masonic Jurisdiction, an additional honorarium given to 33° Masons.


Polar explorer Roald Amundsen disappeared – 1928.

His fateful last expedition set out using a Latham 47 seaplane on a rescue operation towards the Arctic, to find the lost Italian airship Italia by explorer Umberto Nobile.

On June 18, 1928, the famous Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen disappeared without a trace. He had previously made a name for himself with an expedition in which he was the first researcher in history to conquer the South Pole (1911). In addition, he took part in the first expedition to cross the North Pole in history (1926), which is also considered the first expedition whose arrival to that pole is unquestionable (for earlier expeditions to the North Pole, it is questionable whether they really reached it). ). Amundsen, therefore, was famous before his disappearance as the conqueror of both poles of the Earth, and at the same time he was the first person in history to succeed in such a double venture.

His fatal last expedition, during which he disappeared, set out with a Latham 47 seaplane on a rescue operation towards the Arctic. Their goal was to find the lost Italian airplane Italia, which, under the leadership of Italian explorer Umberto Nobile, disappeared on its way back from the North Pole. Amundsen took off with a seaplane crew from the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen, and it is assumed that their spacecraft then crashed in fog in the Barents Sea area, roughly between the said island and the North Pole. Although a rescue expedition was then organized behind them, none of the people traveling in that seaplane were found. Roald Amundsen was 55 at the time of his disappearance.

Subsequent searches for Amundsen’s downed aircraft were organized even in the 21st century, but also yielded no results. A monument to Amundsen, meanwhile, has been erected on the northern edge of the island of Spitsbergen, and a large polar station at the South Pole is named after him, as well as a massive crater on the Moon near the moon’s south pole. He is generally considered to be the leading polar explorer in all of human history.


Kyk die video: EXPLORERS - Roald Amundsen, introduced by David Attenborough