Militêr van Wit -Rusland - Geskiedenis

Militêr van Wit -Rusland - Geskiedenis


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Wit -Rusland

Diensmanne: 401 250

Vliegtuie: 202

Tenks: 515

Gepantserde vegvoertuie: 2.321

Vloot: 0

Defense Budge $ 725,000,000


Regering en samelewing

'N Nuwe grondwet wat die republiek as 'n' demokratiese, sosiale staat 'gekenmerk het en 'n wye reeks regte en vryhede gewaarborg het, het in Maart 1994 in Wit -Rusland van krag geword. Dit was gebaseer op die skeiding van wetgewende, uitvoerende en geregtelike magte. Ingevolge die grondwet van 1994 is afgevaardigdes deur algemene stemreg vir volwassenes vir vyf jaar verkies tot die hoogste wetgewende liggaam van die regering, die Opperste Sowjet, wat die begroting bevestig het, nasionale verkiesings en referendum opgeroep het, en verantwoordelik was vir binnelandse, buitelandse en militêre beleid. Na die verloop van 'n referendum (wie se legitimiteit deur baie Wit -Russe en deur 'n groot deel van die internasionale gemeenskap bevraagteken is) in November 1996, is die grondwet egter hersien om die magte van die president aansienlik uit te brei. So het pres. Alexander Lukashenko, wat in 1994 tot die amp verkies is, het die reg gekry om sy ampstermyn te verleng en by besluit te heers. Die gewysigde grondwet het ook die bevoegdhede van 'n hersaamgestelde parlement, die tweekamer -nasionale vergadering, aansienlik verminder. Pro-Lukashenko-kandidate het oorheers in die daaropvolgende wetgewende verkiesings, wat deur internasionale waarnemers as onreëlmatig of ondemokraties beskou is.

Ingevolge die grondwet word die president, wat die staatshoof is, in die volksraad vir 'n termyn van vyf jaar verkies. Die president stel die premier aan, wat nominaal die regeringshoof is, maar in werklikheid ondergeskik is aan die president. Die Nasionale Vergadering bestaan ​​uit die Raad van die Republiek en die Huis van Verteenwoordigers. Lede van die Raad dien termyn van vier jaar, die meeste word deur streekrade verkies, maar 'n klein aantal word deur die president aangewys. Lede van die Huis word in die volksraad verkies om termyn van vier jaar te dien.


Wit -Rusland - Geskiedenis

Hoewel argeologiese bewyse ten minste 10 000 jaar gelede dui op vestiging in die huidige Wit -Rusland, begin die geskiedenis met die vestiging deur die Baltiese en Slawiese stamme in die vroeë eeue nC. In die middel van die eerste millennium dat die Slawiërs hulle hier gevestig het. Oos-Slawiese stamme van Krivichi, Dregovichi en Radimichi was die voorouers van die Wit-Russiese volk. Hulle vestig hulle rondom die Polota ('n westelike sytak van Dvina) en word later Polotchane genoem. Hulle het in die 8ste tot 9de eeu plaaslike owerhede gevorm, soos dié van Pinsk, Turov, Polotsk, Slutsk en Minsk. Dit was almal onder die algemene heerskappy van Kiëf-Rus, die eerste Oos-Slawiese staat, begin in die middel van die 9de eeu.

Hulle het heuning versamel, pelsjag en landbou begin. Handel het ontwikkel namate die Dnjepr deel was van die 'waterpad' vanaf Konstantinopel via Kiev en Novgorod na die Oossee. Met opvallende kenmerke teen die negende eeu, is die opkomende Wit -Russiese staat in die negende eeu deur Kievan Rus opgeneem. Wit -Rusland was later 'n integrale deel van die sogenaamde Litva, wat die huidige Wit -Rusland sowel as die huidige Litaue insluit. Handelsnedersettings het vermeerder en baie dorpe van die huidige Wit-Rusland is teen die einde van die 12de eeu gestig. Polotsk en Turov verskyn die eerste keer in historiese dokumente in onderskeidelik 862 en 980, Brest 1017, Minsk in 1067.

Die geografiese ligging van die land, die ontwikkeling van die handel lok Nederlandse haringsalters, Muscovite-vangmakers, Joodse finansiers, Hongaarse wynhandelaars, Turkse kruideniers, Tataarse leerlooiers en Chinese silwers wat in ruil bont, droë vis, sout, linne, seildoek gekoop het , toue, hout, teer en voedsel. Hierdie internasionale kontak het die mees kenmerkende kenmerke van die Wit -Russiese nasionale karakter - verdraagsaamheid en gasvryheid - beïnvloed.

Die voordelige geografiese ligging op die kruispad van oos na wes en van noord na suid het meer as een keer in nadeel geraak. Wit -Rusland was die arena van baie oorloë, invalle en aggressies. In die 11de eeu het die Tataar-Mongole die owerhede van Polotsk en Turov in die ooste en suide aangeval. In die 13de eeu het die kruisvaarders Wit -Rusland vanuit die weste binnegeval. Swede het die noorde van Wit -Rusland verower. Wit -Rusland was die tuiste van die Unie van Brest in 1597, wat die Grieks -Katolieke Kerk gestig het, vir lank die meerderheidskerk in Wit -Rusland totdat dit deur die Russiese ryk onderdruk is.

Alhoewel Wit -Russe tot die Oos -Slawiese etniese groep behoort, is daar 'n sterk mengsel van Baltiese en Skandinawiese elemente in hul ras-, taal- en kulturele agtergrond. Wit -Rusland was deel van die Groothertogdom Litaue (14de eeu), Pole en die Russiese Ryk (18de eeu). Dit was 'n agterlike provinsie waar 80% van die bevolking ongeletterd was. Mense het aan baie siektes gely en daar was slegs een dokter per 7 000 pasiënte. Wit-Rusland is verwoes deur Russies-Poolse oorloë (16-18de eeu) en die inval van Napoleon (1812).

Die lewe het aan die begin van die 20ste eeu ten goede verander. Wit-Rusland, wat van die einde van die 18de eeu tot 1918 beset was deur die Russiese ryk, verklaar sy kortstondige Nasionale Republiek op 25 Maart 1918, net om met geweld deur die Bolsjewiste opgeneem te word in wat die Sowjetunie geword het (VSR). Op 1 Januarie 1919 word die Verklaring aangaande die vorming van die Wit -Russiese Sosialistiese Sosialistiese Republiek aanvaar. Die Sowjet-Poolse oorlog wat met Wes-Wit-Rusland geëindig het, het aan Pole afgestaan. In Desember 1922 het hy as een van sy stigters by die Unie van die Sowjet -Sosialistiese Republieke (die USSR) aangesluit. Wit -Rusland is in 1944 deur verwoestende bevolkingsverliese gely onder die Sowjet -leier Josef Stalin en die Duitse Nazi -besetting, waaronder massa -teregstellings van 800 000 Jode. vir vryheid en onafhanklikheid waartydens Wit -Rusland elke vierde burger verloor het. Al hierdie tragiese gebeure het vertraag, maar het nie die ontwikkeling van die land gestuit nie.

By die verbrokkeling van die USSR het Wit -Rusland sy soewereiniteit op 27 Julie 1990 aangekondig. In Desember 1991 was dit een van die drie Slawiese republieke van die voormalige USSR wat die GOS (die Gemenebest van Onafhanklike State) saamgestel het met die hoofkwartier in Minsk.

Wit -Rusland is deesdae 'n land van ontwikkelde nywerheid, landbou, wetenskap en kultuur. Die Wit-Russiese bedryf vervaardig swaar vragmotors en trekkers, groot vragmotors, yskaste, TV-toestelle, kunsmis, vleis en suiwelprodukte. Hulle voer die belangrikste uitvoer uit. Houtverwerking, meubelmakery, vuurhoutjie- en papiervervaardiging, tekstiel- en klerevervaardiging, voedselverwerking is die belangrikste nywerhede vir plaaslike verbruik.

Die grootste deel van die land het gemengde gewas- en veeboerdery met 'n sterk klem op vlasverbouing. Graan, hoofsaaklik gars, rog, hawer en aartappels, is die belangrikste veldgewasse, waarvan 'n groot persentasie vir veevoer gebruik word. Beeste en varke is ook belangrik.

Wit-Rusland is 'n land van goed ontwikkelde wetenskap, kultuur en opvoeding. Daar is 'n Akademie vir Wetenskappe, 37 hoëronderwysinstellings en baie teaters, museums en kunsgalerye. Die lang geskiedenis het Wit -Russe geleer om probleme te oorkom. Vandag is hulle optimisties omdat hul historiese ervaring hulle verseker dat hulle hul bes sal doen om hul unieke kultuur, taal en die industrie en landbou te laat herleef. Maar hulle is angstig oor die toekoms van hul kinders ná die ramp in Tsjernobil, 1986. En steeds hoop hulle op die beste.

Nasionale aktiviste het hul pogings gebaseer om 'n onafhanklike Wit -Russiese staat te stig wat gebaseer was op die Wit -Russiese taal, wat deur die eeue heen hoofsaaklik deur die boere aan die lewe gehou is. Die stadium was gereed vir die opkoms van 'n nasionale bewussyn deur die industrialisering en verstedeliking van die negentiende eeu en die daaropvolgende publikasie van literatuur in die Wit -Russiese taal, wat dikwels deur Russiese en later Poolse owerhede onderdruk is. Dit is dus ironies dat die eerste langlewende Wit-Russiese staatsentiteit, die Wit-Russiese Sosialistiese Sosialistiese Republiek (Wit-Russiese SSR), deur eksterne magte geskep is-die Bolsjewistiese regering in Moskou. En dit was dieselfde kragte, die kommuniste, wie se ondergang in 1991 die bestaan ​​van 'n onafhanklike Wit -Rusland veroorsaak het, wat geskeur is tussen sy begeerte na onafhanklikheid en 'n hunkering na integrasie met die nuut onafhanklike Rusland.

Wit -Rusland verklaar onafhanklikheid in Augustus 1991 na die mislukte staatsgreep in Moskou. In Desember 1991 word Wit -Rusland 'n stigterslid van die Statebond van Onafhanklike State (GOS). In Maart 1994 het die Kommunisties-gedomineerde Hoogste Sowjet die eerste post-Sowjet-grondwet van Wit-Rusland aangeneem. Dit het die land verander van 'n parlementêre na 'n presidensiële regeringsvorm, waaronder die president in die volksmond verkies word. Dit verklaar sy soewereiniteit op 27 Julie 1990 en onafhanklikheid van die Sowjetunie op 25 Augustus 1991. Dit word sedert 1994 deur die outoritêre leier Alyaksandr Lukashenka bestuur.

Owerhede het 'n selektiewe benadering tot die geskiedenis. 'N Monument op die terrein van die Slutsk -getto in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bevat die datum van die slagting van Slutsk se Jode, maar dit word "aan die slagoffers van fascisme" vermeld sonder dat daar spesifiek melding gemaak word van die Holocaust. Die plaaslike geskiedenismuseum in Slutsk, geleë in die gebou waar Wit -Russiese nasionaliste besluit het om 'n opstand teen die Sowjet -owerhede in 1920 te begin, maak geen melding van die Slutsk -opstand nie.


Die oorspronklike Wit -Russiese Militsiya is op 4 Maart 1917 gestig tydens die gebeure van die Februarie -rewolusie, toe die prominente Bolsjewistiese leier en politikus Mikhail Frunze aangestel is as tydelike polisiehoof van die plaaslike burgerlike burgermag in Minsk. Slegs drie dae later het verskillende Wit -Russiese stede begin met die oprigting van polisiedepartemente. Die voorlopige regulasies oor die polisie is op 17 April 1917 uitgevaardig om die Militsiya as 'n uitvoerende liggaam van staatsmag te vestig. In Wit -Rusland, sowel as in die nuutgestigte Russiese SFSR as geheel, het die Militsiya die vorige Tsaristiese polisiedienste soos die Okhrana vervang. Op 10 November (28 Oktober, O.S.) 1917, dae nadat die Oktoberrevolusie plaasgevind het, het die Volkskommissariaat vir Binnelandse Sake (NKVD) 'n dekreet uitgevaardig oor die eerste normatiewe handeling wat die skepping van die Sowjet Militsiya omskryf het.

'N Enkele polisiestruktuur is ontwikkel vir die Sosialistiese Sowjetrepubliek Wit -Rusland in 1919, wat op 30 November 1920 in die vorm van die hoofpolisie -administrasie van die BSSR moontlik geword het. In Julie 1934 het die NKVD geheime polisiediens in die Wit -Russiese SSR aangeneem, en pligte is in Maart 1946 na die BSSR se ministerie van binnelandse sake oorgeplaas. Op 1 Maart 1991 het die Hoogste Sowjet van Wit -Rusland die wet "On the Police" uitgevaardig, wat die belangrikste regshandeling is wat die aktiwiteite van die interne aangeleenthede van 'n onafhanklike republiek reguleer. Op 17 Julie 2007 het die Nasionale Vergadering van Wit -Rusland 'n wet aanvaar wat die Wit -Russiese polisie effektief 'n fundamentele en vlagskipagentskap van die MVD/MUS maak. 4 Maart word vandag beskou as die verjaardag van die moderne Wit -Russiese polisiediens. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Sy sentrale agentskap vir wetstoepassing, die Militsiya, word beskou as die belangrikste polisie- en wetstoepassingsagentskap in Wit -Rusland, bestaande uit dienste soos:


Mannekrag

Die regeringsdirektiv van 20 Maart 1992 'On the establishment of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus' het die Wit -Russiese leër gestig. Die Sowjet -troepe van die BMD is vlot omskep in Wit -Russiese militêre eenhede. Tog was een van die eerste take van die Wit -Russiese regering 'n vermindering in sy getalle. 240 000 soldate en offisiere het in die Wit -Russiese militêre distrik gedien. Teen die begin van 2013 is die aantal militêre personeel byna viervoudig afgeskaal sedert 1991. In Februarie 2014 het Belorusskaya Voyennaya Gazeta, die amptelike publikasie van die Ministerie van Verdediging aan die lig gebring dat die Wit -Russiese weermag ongeveer 59.500 personeel bevat, waaronder 46.000 soldate en 13.000 burgerlikes . [27]


Wit -Russiese erfenis

Besoek die Wit -Russiese Heritage Page

Hierdie projek bevat inligting oor die historiese en kulinêre erfenis van die Wit -Russiese volk. Dit bevat webwerwe oor verskillende onderwerpe wat saamgestel is deur die & quotVirtual Guide & quot-time en skakels na ander bronne.

Hier kan jy
. begin met 'n reis deur pragtige en histories belangrike Wit -Russiese dorpe en stede, leer meer oor die geskiedenis van meer as 30 klein dorpe en groot stede, sien foto's van historiese monumente - antieke kerke, kastele en ruïnes - en landskappe - wat strek van die mere in die Braslau -streek in die noorde, die heuwels van Navahradak tot by die Palessie -moerasse in die suide.
. Op hierdie reis deur ons land leer u ook oor bekende verteenwoordigers van ons land oor verskillende eeue.
. u kan ook lees oor Wit -Russiese argitektuur, tradisionele kleding, kunsvlyt en meer.


Sentrum vir Militêre Geskiedenis van Wit -Rusland

Hoof van die sentrum — Doktor in Historiese Wetenskappe Aliaksey Litvin
Die geskiedenis van die strukturele eenheid:
• 1957 — Afdeling van die geskiedenis van die partydige beweging
• 1965 — Afdeling van die Groot Patriotiese Oorlog en die Partisan Beweging
• 1991 — Departement van Militêre Geskiedenis van Wit -Rusland van die Sowjet -tydperk
• 2005 — Departement van Militêre Geskiedenis en Interstate Betrekkinge
• 2016 — Departement van Militêre Geskiedenis van Wit -Rusland.
Vanaf 1 Januarie 2021 het#8212 die status van 'n sentrum ontvang.

Kontak: Instituut vir Geskiedenis van die National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,
220072, Minsk, str. Akademicheskaya, 1, kamer. 203.
Foon: +37517-378-24-21 e-pos: [email protected]

Die sentrum gebruik:
– Alexander L. Samovich, hoofnavorser, dokter, assistent -professor
– Irina R. Chikalova, toonaangewende navorser, dokter, professor
– Mihail M. Smolyaninov, PhD, toonaangewende navorser, assistent -professor
– Anatoliy A. Krivorot, PhD., Voorste navorser, assistent -professor
– Alexandra V. Kuznetsova-Timonova, PhD, senior navorser
– Dzmitry G. Kienka, navorser
– Yulia M. Bakhir, navorser.

Die belangrikste rigtings van wetenskaplike navorsing van die departement:

Die algemene onderwerp van navorsingswerk in 2016-2020:
"Wit -Rusland in die historiese proses aan die einde van die 17de - begin van die 21ste eeu: militêre konstruksie, deelname aan oorloë en militêre konflikte".

Die belangrikste resultate van wetenskaplike navorsing van die departement:

  • • komplekse nasionale en buitelandse dokumentêre en historiografiese bronne, wat die omvang en mate van deelname van die Wit -Russe en inboorlinge van Wit -Rusland aan die oorloë en konflikte van die 20ste eeu weerspieël
  • • die frontlyngevegte tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog op die gebied van Wit-Rusland word ondersoek
  • • die interaksie van die Wit -Russiese partisane en die Rooi Leër, hul invloed op die verloop van vyandighede tydens die gevegte tussen Stalingrad en Koersk, sowel as voor en tydens die Wit -Russiese strategiese operasie «Bagration» word getoon
  • • die impak van rampe op die militêre ontwikkeling van die Wit -Russiese staat, die plek en rol van Wit -Rusland in die internasionale betrekkinge van die 20ste eeu word bepaal

Die belangrikste resultate van die departement:

Пособие является результатом работы белорусских и российских историков в рамках масштабного проекта подготовки цикла совместных учебных пособий «Россия и Беларусь: страницы общей истории». В книге раскрываются подходы российских и белорусских историков к предпосылкам и причинам, характеру и ходу Второй мировой и Великой Отечественной войны, вкладу народов Советского Союза в общую победу. Пособие предназначено прежде всего для учителей истории Беларуси и России, но также представляет интерес для преподавателей исторических и других гуманитарных дисциплин в вузах, школьников и студентов, соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом, может быть использовано при преподавании истории в других странах СНГ. Настоящее издание пособия для удобства использования разделено на серию отдельных выпусков, к Первый выпуск пособия содержит тематические разделы, посвященные предпосылкам en причинам Верой

Работа подготовлена ​​vir 75-jaar oud Победы советского народа в Великой Отечественной войне. В книге собраны статьи российских и белорусских историков о партизанском движении на территории Белоруссии в годы Великой Отечественной войны воспоминания партизанов и подпольщиков, членов их семей, документы и материалы из личных архивов ветеранов, государственных и общественных деятелей БССР, раскрывающие неизвестные ранее имена и факты о Великой Отечественной войне 1941 � гг. Основная цель издания & # 8212 сохранение памяти о Великой Победе советского народа над немецко-фашистскими захватчиками, в том числе о роли партизанского освободительного движения, о боевом братстве народов СССР, отстоявших свою свободу. К

У выданні прадстаўлены ўспаміны і дакументальныя матэрыялы, сабраныя ў Інстытуце гісторыі НАН Беларусі ў рамках ініцыяванай Нацыянальнай акадэміяй навук Беларусі ўсебеларускай акцыі «Народны летапіс Вялікай Айчыннай вайны: успомнім усіх!». Разлічана на шырокае кола чытачоў: прафесійных гісторыкаў, выкладчыкаў устаноў вышэйшай і сярэдняй спецыяльнай адукацыі, настаўнікаў агульнаадукацыйных устаноў, студэнцкую і вучнёўскую моладзь, рэкамендаваны для выкарыстання ў навукова-даследчай рабоце і навучальным працэсе.

В монографии освещаются вопросы мобилизации в белорусских губерниях, формирования новых частей действующей армии и дружин государственного ополчения, эвакуации и беженства и др. Также впервые в историографии комплексно изложены итоги более глубокого исследования таких вопросов, как отступление российских войск на белорусские земли и сражения здесь в 1915 г., проведение наступательных (Нарочской и Барановичской) операций в 1916 г. и летнего наступления в районе Крево в 1917 г., а также повествуется об условиях заключения Брест-Литовского мирного договора, оккупационной политике германского военного руководства, о положении мирного населения и его сопротивлении оккупационному режиму на территории Беларуси.

В учебном пособии освещается история Второй мировой en Великой Отечественной подробно рисировиния Книга содержит богатый фактологический, документальный en иллюстративный материал. Рекомендуется учащимся старших классов, а также широкому кругу читателей.


Militêr van Wit -Rusland - Geskiedenis

Partydige verset in Wit -Rusland tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Die tragedie wat die Wit -Russiese mense tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ondergaan het, is so diep dat hierdie onderwerp selfs vandag nog in die alledaagse omgewing en kultuur van Wit -Russe vervat is. Na 60 jaar van vreedsame lewe, bly Tsjernobil, die aftakeling van die USSR, 14 jaar van soewereiniteit steeds die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 'n groot emosionele skeuring in die Wit -Russiese siel. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog maak BelarusFilm - die belangrikste Wit -Russiese filmstudio - films in die Wit -Russiese tragedie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, in so 'n mate dat sommige dit grappenderwys in PartisanFilm hernoem het. Selfs hierdie jaar handel die twee groot Wit -Russiese films wat uitgekom het - beide deur die staat geborgde en onafhanklike, verbied in Wit -Rusland - oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en Wit -Russiese partisane. Die literêre erfenis van die geliefde Wit -Russiese skrywer - Vasil 'Bykau, wat deur baie mense as die bewussyn van die Wit -Russiese nasie genoem word - was volledig op die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gefokus. Die optog van steeds afnemende getal veterane van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Minsk op 9 Mei is 'n gekoesterde nasionale geleentheid wat nie net in Wit -Rusland uitgesaai word nie, maar ook in baie buurstate. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog -onderwerp is emosioneel te moeilik, en ek vermy dit jare lank om daaroor te skryf in die virtuele gids vir Wit -Rusland. Selfs nou sal ek dit waarskynlik beperk tot droë statistieke terwyl ek hierdie reëls op 'n sonnige Kaliforniese Saterdag van 24 Julie 2004 met 'n knop in my keel skryf.

1930's in Wit-Rusland en oor die algemeen in die USSR was nie die gelukkigste jare nie. Die stalinistiese leer het gegroei, miljoene mense is vervolg deur NKVD. Vrees en agterdog het in elke huis gepak. "Swart kraaie" - die NKVD -swart motors kom na die huise van u buurman om hom middernag op te laai, net om hom nooit weer te sien nie. Die gedwonge organisasie van kollektiewe boerderye - kolkhozes - uit individuele boergesinne het baie konflikte veroorsaak en baie slagoffers tot gevolg gehad. 1937 is in die geskiedenis van die USSR geskryf as miskien die bloedigste jaar ooit. Miljoene teregstellings is uitgevoer tydens 'n permanente jag op verraaiers en vyande. 'N Paar jaar voordat Khatyn tereggestel is deur Hitler Duitsland, het gruwelike teregstellings van Katyn en Kurapaty deur Stalin se USSR plaasgevind. In 1939 het Duitsland en die USSR die Molotov -Ribbentrop -verdrag aangegaan waarin hulle Oos -Europese lande tussen hulle verdeel het - Wes -Wit -Rusland, Wes -Oekraïne en Baltiese state is deur die USSR beset. Die onderdrukking van Pole en anti-kommuniste op die besette gebiede was 'n agtergrond waarin Wit-Rusland in 1941 aangekom het.

Dit is nie verbasend dat die Duitsers op 22 Junie 1941 die USSR (Wit -Rusland) aanval nie, maar die reaksie van die plaaslike bevolking meer as ambivalent was.

Generaalkommissaris Wilhelm Kube (links) ontvang die mag as hoof van die nuutgestigte Minsk -Duitse administrasie, 31 Augustus 1941. Toe Kube in 1943 deur die ondergrondse weerstand van Minsk vermoor word, het Duitsers 1.000 gyselaars - burgers van Minsk - as vergelding doodgemaak.

Sommige mense het probeer om verder in die USSR terug te trek, terwyl ander Duitsers met blomme in hul beste klere ontmoet het met die hoop op bevryding van die onderdrukking van Stalin. Dit was destyds 'n wye samewerkingsbeweging wat in Wit -Rusland ontstaan ​​het. Na raming het 120 000 Wit -Russe saamgewerk (gewillig of onwillig) met Nazi's.

Duitse offisiere en Oekraïense Collaborationist -polisie in Sarig, naby Kiev, Oekraïne - 1942

Na 'n dekade waarin ek vervolging beleef het van alles wat Wit-Russies as 'burgerlike' Wit-Russiese onderdane gehoop het om die besetting te benut as 'n geleentheid om die Wit-Russiese nasie te herbou. 'N Tweede All-Wit-Russiese kongres in 1944 het selfs in Julie 1944 'n soewereine Wit-Russiese staat uitgeroep, teen Duitse wil. Hier moet onthou word dat die eerste Wit -Russiese staat in die nuwe geskiedenis - Wit -Russiese Demokratiese Republiek (BDR) - geskep is tydens die Duitse besetting van Wit -Rusland tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1918 deur die & quotFirst All -Belarusian Congress & quot. Radaslau Astrouski, wat die Wit-Russiese nasionale beweging tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gelei het, was eintlik lid van die regering van BDR in 1918. Baie van hierdie nasionaliste het antisemities geword vanweë hul geloof in die Joodse oorsprong van Bolsjewisme. Maar selfs die hardnekkigste nasionaliste is geraak deur afskuwelike slagtings van Wit -Russiese Jood, marteling en wreedheid met gevange krygsgevangenes van die Rooi Leër en massale teregstellings van die algemene bevolking.

Teregstelling van vroue en kinders naby Mizoch, 14 Oktober 1942. Joodse werkkolom - Mahilyow, 1941.

Himmler het 'n plan uiteengesit waarvolgens 3/4 van die Wit -Russiese bevolking aangewys is vir kwotering en kwotasie van rassistiese bevolking (blou oë, ligte hare) sou toegelaat word om Duitsers as slawe te dien. Massa -teregstellings van hele dorpe was 'n algemene Nazi -praktyk. Terwyl Duitsers aanvanklik toegelaat het dat boere vee uit Kolkhoz kon neem, is al hierdie beeste later op treine gelaai en na Duitsland gestuur. Baie Wit -Russiese jeugdiges is as slawe na Duitsland gestuur.

Jong Wit -Russe het as dwangarbeiders na Duitsland gestuur, 1942.

Teen die somer 1942 was die sentiment in die Wit-Russiese bevolking sterk anti-Nazi. Dit is op hierdie stadium 'n ernstige partydige en ondergrondse versetstryd wat op die besette gebied in Wit -Rusland rem. Reeds in die somer van 1941 het ongeveer 12 000 Wit -Russiese partisane militêre operasies teen Duitse bewoners uitgevoer. Destyds het die partydige magte meestal bestaan ​​uit soldate van die Rooi Leër wat omring of uit die Duitse gevangenskap ontsnap het. Teen 1 Januarie 1943 was daar 448 Wit -Russiese partydige afdelings en 64 afleidingsgroepe. Hulle het ongeveer 58 000 partydige vegters getel. Terselfdertyd het Oekraïne met 4 keer groter bevolking as Wit -Rusland 68 partydige afdelings met 9 000 mense in. Die Smaliensk -streek in Rusland, net oos van Wit -Rusland, het 120 partydige afdelings en 9 afleidingsgroepe getel - in totaal 10 000 mense.

Wit -Russiese partisan in 'n bosuitgrawing saam met sy gesin, 1944

Terwyl die meerderheid van die partydige en ondergrondse beweging gedryf is deur 'n heldhaftige poging van die Wit -Russiese mense om hul vaderland van Nazi's te bevry, was daar ook negatiewe dinge wat verband hou met sommige partydige afdelings. Die gerugte oor misdade van partydiges het nog altyd in Wit -Rusland bestaan. Gewone dorpenaars was dikwels net so bang vir Sowjet -partydiges as vir Nazi's. In 'n poging om die dorpe teen beide die dorpsleiers te beskerm, het dit dubbele agente van beide Nazi's en Partisane geword. Dit is duidelik dat die meerderheid van die partydiges nie tegelyk kon veg en hulself kon voed nie, en soveel keer het hulle Wit -Russiese dorpenaars gedwing om hul voedselvoorraad en beeste prys te gee. Dit sou dorpsbewoners op die ou end lewensgevaarlik vir die Duitsers in gevaar stel, aangesien hulle as partnermanne as medewerkers geïdentifiseer kan word.

Slagoffers van anti -partydige strafoperasie - Minsk -streek, 1943. 17 jr. Wit -Russiese Joodse (Masha Bruskina 17y.o. Joodse partisan aan die linkerkant) partydige publiek wat deur Nazi's opgehang is.

Die standaard van die SS -praktyk was om die hele bevolking van die dorp, waar partydige aanval plaasgevind het, tereg te stel. Meer as 600 dorpe soos Khatyn is verbrand deur Nazi's met hul hele bevolking. Nie alle partydige afdelings het ongerepte sedes nie - tirannie van bevelvoerders, swaar drink, anargie, plundering van voedsel en klere, selfs verkragting - is aangemeld. Dit is bekend dat hierdie optrede plaasgevind het in partydige afdelings van Lunin, Charkasau, groep Muhin. Die hoof van die sentrale hoofkwartier van die partydige beweging - brigade -kommissaris Konkin het partydige afdelings van Miciuhin en Zaharau & quotbandit formations & quot. Die onlangse onafhanklike rolprent Mysterium Occupation, wat vandag in Wit -Rusland verbied is as 'historiese waarheid' verdraai, lewer presies hierdie taboe -inligting oor partydige beweging in Wit -Rusland. In baie opsigte was die samelewing wat in die 1930's deur die kommunistiese totalitêre regime van Stalin beheer is, reeds gemilitariseer en het 'n dissipline van vrees gevestig. En so het die ontwikkeling van die netwerk van 1 200 Kommunistepartyselle in partydige afdelings rondom 1943 die dissipline aansienlik verbeter en die situasie skoongemaak.

1943 was 'n jaar van ongekende Wit -Russiese partydige stryd teen Nazi's. Gedurende die tydperk van 1418 dae van die Duitse besetting van Wit -Rusland is 1,255 partydige afdelings gevorm en het militêre aksies in Wit -Rusland gelei met 374,000 vegters. Boonop ondersteun ongeveer 400 000 inwoners die partydige beweging. In die stede was 70 000 mense betrokke by die ondergrondse verset. Gedurende die drie jaar van die oorlog op die besette gebied van Wit -Rusland (Junie 1941 - Julie 1944) het Wit -Russiese partisane en ondergrondse weerstandsvegters meer as 500 000 Nazi's vermoor of ongeskik gemaak. 11,128 Duitse treine na die Russiese Oosfront, asook 34 gepantserde gevegstreine is deur Wit -Russiese partisane opgeblaas of ontspoor. 29 treinstasies, 948 militêre hoofkwartier, 18 700 motors en vragmotors, 819 spoorweë en 4 710 motorbrûe is deur Wit -Russiese partisane vernietig. Die partydige beweging was so oorweldigend dat daar in 1943-44 groot streke was in die besette Wit-Rusland, waar die Sowjetregering diep binne die Duitse besettingsgebied gevestig was. Die ten volle funksionele partytjiekolke was om te boer en beeste te kweek om partydiges te ondersteun.

Bladsye van die Moskou propagandakoerant gepubliseer vir Wit -Russiese partisane & quotSquish the Fascist Beast & quot. Interestingly in an effort to appeal to Belarusian patriotism it is all published in Belarusian - the very language that was prosecuted by Soviets just before WWII and is prosecuted by Lukashenka regime in today's Belarus.

The most known partisan detachments acting in Belarus were led by U.E. Labanok, R.N. Machul'ski, K.S. Zaslonau, V.I. Kazlou, V.Z. Korzh, K.T. Mazurau, M.V.Zimianin, P.M. Masherau. Many of these commanders have become party and government leaders of Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic after WWII.

Over 500,000 Belarusians were drafted in the Red Army during 1941 retreat. Overall 1.3 million Belarusians fought in Red Army against Nazi, including 194,000 partisan detachment members, who enlisted after liberation of Belarus in 1944.

Red Army infantry attack supported by T-34 tank. Red Army woman-sniper in Belarus, July 1944

Belarusians have received over 300,000 combat Orders and Medals for the courage in the battles of WWII. 396 Belarusians received the USSR highest military reward - the golden star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. Four Belarusians - P.Ya. Halavachou, I.I. Husakouski, S.F. Shutau and I.I.Yakubouski - were honored the title of the Hero of Soviet Union twice. 63 Belarusians became Cavaliers of Order of Glory of all three stages. Belarusian partisans and underground resistance members received 140,000 combat orders and medals during the WWII. 88 of them have become Heroes of the Soviet Union for heroic deeds.

Red Army soldiers liberating Belarusian City, 1944

The USSR did not join Geneva convention in 1929. This convention was signed even by Germany in 1934. It is hard to guess what strange ideas governed Stalin - a dictator of the USSR at that time - in not signing the convention. The official pretext was that Geneva Convention does not go far enough in protecting POWs. But most likely Stalin did not expected anyone to become a prisoner. He treated all Soviet POWs as traitors. Because of this Red Army POWs were not supervised by International Red Cross or any international organizations and were treated by Nazis many times worse than Western allies. Millions of Soviet POWs and Belarusian forced laborers transported to Germany have paid for this Stalin's attitude with their suffering, tortures and often lives. Even worse, on their return to the USSR they were met with suspicion, NKVD interrogations, treated as traitors and deserters. Many of them served long times (25 years was the usual term) in Stalin's Gulags in Siberia.

German POWs marched by Red Army through Belarusian city. Four women partisans in liberated Minsk, 1944.

Different statistics are given for the number of WWII victims in Belarus. The situation is distorted by the secret Stalin's mass executions that occurred in Belarus few years before the war. It is now a common belief that every forth citizen of Belarus has perished in the World War II, reaching every third in some regions (Vitebsk region). Per capita Belarusians lost more lives during WWII than any other nation. The Nazi occupation forces were responsible for 2.2 Million Belarusians dead, while 380,000 young Belarusians were sent to Germany for forced labor - "Ostarbeiters". Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in War to "3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus). & quot

The material losses of Belarus reached 75 Billion Rubles, which equals to 35 annual state budgets of Belarus of 1940. More than 209 cities and towns (out of 270 total), 9,000 villages were destroyed. 10,000 industrial enterprises were either destroyed or evacuated to Germany. The capital of Belarus was ruined by bombings to such extent that for a while it was considered more reasonable to build it in a different place. But emotions took over reason and Minsk was re-built in it's old place, just as entire Belarus was. In about 5 years after war Belarus was rebuilt and Belarusian industry exceeded pre-war levels through an extraordinary effort of the youth delegated by other Soviet Republics of the USSR. Many of those delegates settled in Belarus and were quite disturbed by the rising nationalism in Belarus of the early 1990-ies. But amidst the hurricane of ethnic conflicts that swept Eastern Europe and former USSR republics in 1990-ies Belarus was the only former soviet republic that has never lost one human life to ethnic differences.

Over the centuries of our bloody history Belarusians have learned that Peace is a #1 priority of Life.

References used in this page:

  • & quotBolshevik System of Power in Belarus" ("Bal'shavickaia sistema ulady na Belarusi") by M. Kasciuk, Minsk - 2000, Publishing house "Ekaperspektyva". ISBN 985-6102-30-8
    - This is the main source used in this page. It gives perhaps most balanced picture on the WWII events and partisan struggle in Belarus.
  • "Belarus. From Soviet Rule to Nuclear Catastrophe" by David R. Marples, New York - 1996, Publishing house "St. Martin's Press". ISBN 0-312-16181-6
  • "Collaboration in the Holocaust. Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-1944" by Martin Dean, New York - 2000, Publishing house "St. Martin's Press" ISBN 0-312-22056-1
  • "Belorussia 1944. The Soviet General Staff Study" red. David M. Glantz, Harold S. Orenstein, London-Portland, Or - 2001, Publishing house "Frank Cass" . ISBN 0-7146-5102-8
  • La Resistenza Partigiana in Belarus (In Italian)
    This page covers p artisan resistance in Belarus during WWII and has an interesting photogallery of histarical photos of WWII. The page is run by an Italian Chernobyl charity - Progetto Humus.
  • History of Belarus @ World IQ
    Since the early days of the occupation, a powerful and increasingly well-coordinated partisan movement emerged. Hiding in the woods and swamps, the partisans inflicted heavy damage to German supply lines and communications, disrupting railway tracks, bridges, telegraph wires, attacking supply depots, fuel dumps and transports and ambushing German occupation soldiers. In the greatest partisan sabotage action of the entire Second World War, the so-called Osipovichi diversion of 30 July 1943, for instance four German trains with supplies and Tiger tanks were destroyed. To fight Soviet partisan activity, the Germans had to withdraw considerable forces back behind their front line.
  • "Partisan War" - an article by "Moscow Times" about recent Belarusian independent movie - "Mysterium Occupation":
    Occupied by various powers throughout its history, Belarus has plenty of painful memories connected with the World War II period, during which a quarter of its population died, and its aftermath, when thousands more were sent to Soviet labor camps on charges of collaboration. Indeed, much of the country's national mythology is tied to those experiences
  • How many Belarusians perished during the war? an article at Open.by
    The ESC's report stresses that 810,091 military prisoners were killed and tortured to death on the Belarusian territory. We do not have to forget that the most part of them were not Belarusians or natives of the republic. For some reasons, for 54 years this number had been representing the considerable part of Belarus' demographic losses.It results, according to incomplete data, that demographic losses of Belarus during the war amounted to 3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus). Of course, this problem requires further investigation and it is too early to put the final point in this case.
  • A Partisan's StoryBy Boris Kozinitz, Dokshitz-Tel-Aviv
    When we neared the monastery which was only 200 meters from the ghetto gate, we talked to Sagalchik about freeing the ghetto. According to the plan we were supposed to take from the ghetto only men vital to us: A doctor with his equipment medicines the dentist Simchelevitch and others, but with Sagalchik we talked about freeing the whole ghetto.
  • WWII Pictures of Simon Wiesenthal Center.
    Bear in mind, when they say Russians they most likely refer to Belarusians
    .
  • Republic-Partisan - an article in Russian in "Sovetskaia Rossia" about Partisan Movement in Belarus.
    This is already more modern interpretation of partisan war in Belarus, slightly departed from Soviet black&white doctrine
  • Eurozine: Between brotherly Russia and peaceful Europe byAndrej Dynko
    The Belarusians consider peace to be the highest value. The notorious phrase, "Anything rather than war," is the basis of their political behavior. In the period between the 1950s and 1980s, Belarusian culture created a rich pacifist tradition. A humanistic message was contained in fine art masterpieces such as Mikhas Savitski's Partisan Madonna. Even mass culture could not avoid the anti-war theme. A lot of pacifistic songs appeared. "We want the peaceful sky not to know the fire of war. We wish friendship and sincere brotherly love to peoples," - these are lines from the unofficial anthem "Radzima Maya Darahaya" (My Dear Motherland), the tune of which serves as the station designator of Belarusian Radio. Literature, whose role was extremely important in society at that time, was the determining factor in creating the pacifistic sentiments. Essays by Ales Adamovich, novels by Vasil Bykaw and Ivan Shamyakin gained prominence for their deromanticization of warfare. Pacifism and tolerance were questioned by none of the more or less significant authors of that time. The presence of this theme in works of art was even intrusive. The authorities tolerated that pacifism. In Soviet Belarusian culture, it was one of the manifestations of conformism, a substitute for open dissent, upon which nobody among the front-rank figures of Belarusian culture ventured. That pacifism was so popular and consistent that it became one of the cultural and political canons and turned into a consciousness-determining phenomenon. Pacifism harmonized with the historic memory of people and came from previous cultural traditions. Incidentally, the influence of high culture, in particular literature, on the formation of the Belarusians' consciousness in the Soviet era is frequently underestimated, above all because change has now occurred in the methods of mass communication. For it is no longer the written word but sight and sound that dominate the communications industry. Anyway, pacifism and the propagation of tolerance in the Belarusian culture of the Soviet era are worth of certain consideration. The replacement of the first lines of the state anthem, "We, Belarusians, with brotherly Russia," for "We, Belarusians, are peaceful people," which was initiated by Alyaksandr Lukashenka, on the surface looked like the result of search for a solution that would insult nobody. But this choice in fact reveals the intuition and opportunism generally characteristic of Lukashenka's political style

This file is a part of the Virtual Guide to Belarus - a collaborative project of Belarusian scientists and professionals abroad. VG brings you the most extensive compilation of the information about Belarus on the Web.
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About Belarus

The WWI broke out in 1914 and one quarter of the western Belarusian territories were occupied by German troops in 1915. The Russian regime launched a huge propaganda campaign among the local population, calling it upon the war for the Tsar and Motherland. Of all political parties and movements only the Bolsheviks were against this war. The defeats of the Russian army in 1915-1916, tremendous losses of lands, manpower and materiel caused anti-governmental uprisings. The threat of the German occupation caused a forced displacement of the eastern Belarusians by the Russian government that used them as a cheap labor force for the needs of the front. Endless requisitions brought Belarusian villages beyond the brink of poverty. Added to the fact that most factories increased their military output and therefore food and consumer goods considerably increased in price, this caused the February Revolution of 1917.

In February 1917 tsarist government was toppled, but several issues like land ownership and national issue were unresolved. In autumn 1917 the development of the Soviet governmental bodies began. The new soviet authorities conducted nationalization of the industry and land that belonged to the landlords, introduced an 8-hour long working day and pronounced equality of all nations and the right of each of them for self-determination.

In 1918 Germany renewed the war at the Eastern Front to liquidate the Soviet government and restore the reign of the landlords. Since there was no regular Soviet army, the Bolshevik government had to sign the Brest Peace Treaty with Germany, leaving the largest part of western Belarus under the German occupation. Germany lost the WWI in 1918 and the Brest Treaty was denounced with the Soviet government spreading throughout the whole territory of Belarus until 1919.

The territories of Western Belarus went to Poland according to the Riga Treaty of 1921. They were called eastern kresy &ndash eastern outskirts of Rech Pospolita &ndash and occupied the territory of 98 815 square kilometers with over 3 million people (over 50% of which were Belarusians) residing there. In terms of economy Western Belarus became an agrarian region supplementing industrial regions of Poland. Natural resources, in particular those in Belavezhskaya Reserve were extensively exploited. The majority of the population was employed in agricultural sector &ndash over 80%. Landlords who constituted less than 1% of the total population of Western Belarus owned about one half of its territory.

Compared to Soviet Belarus the output of the industry of Western Belarus was 9 times as low, although their territories and population were almost equal. About 80% of the enterprises were small businesses that majored in food and woodworking industries. The social security of the employees was absent &ndash the working day was 12-14 hours long, there were no paid sick leaves, etc. The average wage of a Belarusian in Western Belarus was about 68% of that of a worker in Central Poland. The world economy crunch of 1929-1933 exacerbated the state of the working class, leaving 46% of them unemployed. Unlimited exploitation and severe economic conditions caused waves of immigration to Canada, USA, Western Europe and Latin America.

Another indicator of discrimination by the Poles was their new national-religious policy that aimed at non-recognition and destruction of the Belarusians as an ethnic group. Education establishments that used Belarusian language were closed and local teachers were replaced by Polish ones, the number of Belarusian libraries, clubs, reading and publishing houses was reduced. It was prohibited to use Belarusian in state institutions and the citizens who didn&rsquot write in Polish were stripped of their voting rights. The Orthodox churches were closed or converted into Catholic ones. The drive of the Polish government to turn the new eastern territory and its population into an ethnic Polish region was stopped by the Soviet Army in 1939.

In the Soviet Republic of Belarus (Eastern Belarus) the state of the villagers was exacerbated by successive requisitions of food by the Red Army. In the USSR industrialization was launched aiming to develop industrial and rural material infrastructure. In the course of the industrialization collective farms were established across the whole of the Soviet Union with the property of the rich farmers confiscated and distributed among the poorer villagers who were united into communes.

The WWII in Belarus

In 1939 the USSR and Germany signed a Non-aggression Treaty with secret protocols to it, according to which the Baltic States and Belarus were to become Soviet territories. After the WWII broke out on 1 September 1939 the Soviet troops moved into Western Belarus, following the provisions of the secret protocols.

However, the peace treaty was short-lived and on 22 June 1941 the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union. In the USSR and modern Belarusian history this conflict is referred to as the Great Patriotic War. In the first months of this war Belarus witnessed the retreat of the Red Army, caused by the shortcomings of the Soviet military doctrine, massive repressions of the top army ranks and outdated armament.

The country became the arena for advancing troops of the Nazi Army Group Center that established harsh occupation regime. The new order of the Nazi liquidated the Soviet government, got down to pillaging the national riches and resources, discrimination and extermination of the Soviet people. The ideological basis for their actions was the antihuman race theory that stipulated that the Nazi, the descendants of the Arians, were a superior nation and could govern other nations to secure their own space for life. The Belarusians were to be exterminated by 75 per cent, with the rest ones being kept as labor force.

The Belarusians didn&rsquot surrender and their input into the victory in the WWII was immense. 1.3m Belarusians fought at the fronts. The workers of the factories that were relocated to the east worked extended shifts on extremely poor rations to supply the army with everything it required. The local population that launched the partisan movement against the Nazi disrupted their rare infrastructure and communications.

Belarus: modern days

When the great patriotic war was over for Belarus, the population got down to its restoration. The war left the whole country in ruins: at least 2.3m Belarusians were killed, 209 out of 290 cities and towns were destroyed, 9600 towns and townships were destroyed with a part of their population, 618 villages were flattened to the ground along with their population (186 of them have never been restored)&hellip With the aid of other sister republics and foreign donors Belarus managed to rise from the ashes, rebuilding the economy and enterprises almost from scratch. It restored its prewar population level of 10m people by 1974. The economy of the Soviet Belarus was based on multiple enterprises and therefore the country was named the assembly plant of the USSR.

Today the Republic of Belarus is a modern European state, whose independence and sovereignty have been recognized by the international community after the USSR dissolved. The Declaration of the State Sovereignty was pronounced in 1990, the new country name &ndash the Republic of Belarus &ndash was adopted in 1991 and the new Constitution was adopted in 1994. The country&rsquos first president was elected in the same year. In 2005 Belarus had diplomatic relations with 153 countries and was a member of over 60 international organizations. The relations between the former Soviet countries take place in the framework of the CIS &ndash Commonwealth of Independent States.


Belarus history


Minsk in the early 20th century
Gubernatorskaya Street

The history of Belarus dates back to the Stone Age. This timeline of Belarus shows how Belarusian historical events have shaped the country today.

Belarus in the Stone Age (100,000-3,000 BC)

The first signs of settlements in ancient Belarus date back approximately 100,000-35,000 years .

The most significant Stone Age settlements have been discovered in the Gomel region . Sites discovered from the Palaeolithic period in the village of Yurovichi (Kalinkovichi area) existed approximately 26 000 years ago. Sites discovered in the village of Berdysh (Chechersk area) date back 23,000-24,000 years. Ancient cultural relics have also been discovered in the Mogilev , Grodno and Minsk regions .

Belarus in the Bronze Age (8th-6th Century BC)

Artefacts dating back to the Bronze Age have been found in settlements across Belarus.

Belarus in the Iron Age and Middle Ages (8/7th Century BC-8th Century AD)

At the beginning of the Iron Age there were 3 main settlements in Belarus around the major river basins of the Dneiper, Dvina, and Pripyat rivers.

First states to be formed on Belarusian territory (7th-13th Century AD)

Belarus colonization by the Slavs began in the early centuries AD. Over the next few centuries they had settled over the entire region, replacing the earlier Baltic culture.

In the 6th to 9th centuries East Slavs formed the first political associations – the unions of tribes.

The 9th century gives us the first recorded accounts of Polotsk and the Polotsk Duchy in the territory of modern Vitebsk and the northern part of the Minsk regions. It remained the dominating force in the region until the 13th century.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus and Samogotia (13th-16th Centuries)

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus and Samogotia was a powerful state spanning Belarus, Lithuania , the Kiev, Chernigov and Volyn areas of the Ukraine and western Russia from the Baltics to the Black Sea.

The Grand Duchy began its rise to power under the reign of Mindovg ( Mindaugas) in the 13th century and only began to lose its authority after a number of wars in the 16th century.

In 1569 the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland signed the Union of Lublin : on equal terms the Duchy and the Crown united in a federative state – Rzecz Pospolita. It signified the start of a new chapter in Belarusian history.

Rzecz Pospolita (1569-1795)

This was a particularly turbulent time in Belarusian history. The state was drawn into wars in Europe and with Russia including:

Rzecz Pospolita led to long wars which weakened the state, and it lost its independence. In 1772 the western provinces of Belarus were annexed to the Russian Empire and in 1795 Rcecz Pospolitsa was divided between Russia, Austria and Prussia .

The Russian Empire (1772-1917)

As a result of the division of Rzecz Pospolita into three parts, Belarus land became part of the Russian Empire. In these new territories the Russian Government started to pursue a policy of russification.

1794 to the First World War – a string of conflicts including:

In the 1880s the revolutionary organisation Gomon was established by Belarusian students in Saint Petersburg. This was the precursor to the first Belarusian national political party Gromada, formed in 1903 .

In 1906 the Stolypin agrarian reform began. Mass displacement of the peasant classes (from 1906 – 1916) saw more than 33,000 move from Belarusian territory to Siberia.

World War 1 (1914-1918)

1915 - 1916 – Belarusian territory was the scene of bloody battles between German and Russian forces.

3rd March 1918 – signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , marking Belarus’ exit from World War One. The Belarusian territories were occupied by German forces until 1918.

Revolution in Russia (1917-1919)

March 1917 – Revolution in Russia resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.

November 1917 – Bolsheviks seized power in Russia.

March 1918 – the Belarusian People’s Republic declared independence. This lasted until the German withdrawal later that year.

1 January 1919– creation of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic .

Russo-Polish War (1919-1921)

1921 – the Riga Peace Treaty resulted in the partitioning of Belarus between the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic and Poland .

1921-1941

1921-1928 – New Economic Policy (NEP) introduced across Belarus.

1921-1930s – the Polish part of Belarus subjected to Polonisation.

1922 – Belarusian SSR became a part of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

1932-1933 – famine brought about by Soviet economic policy and introduction of collective farming (Kolkhoz ).

1936-1940 – the Great Purge. More than 86,000 Belarusians suffered political oppression and over 28,000 were sentenced to death at Kuropaty camp near Minsk.

Wereld oorlog 2

17 September 1939 – two weeks after the outbreak of World War Two, the Red Army moved into West Belarus.

June 1941 – the start of the Great Patriotic War in Belarus.

June-July 1941 – resistance in Brest against German invaders lasted 6 weeks. The city was occupied until Soviet troops liberated it in 1944.

September 1941 – Belarus fully occupied by the German army . Invaders start to establish so-called “new order” based on terror.

June 1941 – Germans established Minsk ghetto and moved Belarusian, German and Czech Jews in. Mass executions of prisoners from the Minsk ghetto in Tuchinki occurred until October 1943.

End of 1941 – Partisan movement begins in Belarus and becomes the biggest movement in Europe before 1944.

1943 – German General Commissioner Kube assassinated in Minsk.

End of June - July 1944 – Operation Bagration saw the liberation of Belarusian SSR by the Red Army from fascist invaders. On 3 July, Minsk is liberated .

February 1945 – Yalta conference expelled Poles from the western region of Belarus. The region was officially recognised as part of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic .

1945 - 1994

May 1945 – The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people against fascist aggressors ended.

1945 – Belarus becomes a member of the Organisation of the Incorporated Nations (United Nations)

1954 – Belarus enters the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

April 1986 – Chernobyl Nuclear reactor disaster pollutes large areas of Belarusian territories.

27 July 1990 – The Supreme Council of the Belarusian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic.

25 August 1991 – The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was given the status of constitutional law. The move virtually proclaimed the independence of the Belarusian SSR.

19 September 1991 – The name of the state was adopted – the Republic of Belarus.

8 December 1991 – The dissolution of the Soviet Union was officially announced at a meeting of the heads of state of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in Viskuli, Brest Oblast.

15 March 1994 – Belarus' new Constitution was adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus, with presidency introduced.

1994 – The first presidential election in the independent republic was held. Aleksandr Lukashenko became the first President of the Republic of Belarus . The head of state was inaugurated on 20 June 1994.

14 May 1995 – Parliamentary elections and the first referendum in the history of independent Belarus were held. The referendum took care of giving the Russian language an equal status with the Belarusian language, establishment of a new national flag and a new national emblem of the Republic of Belarus, economic integration with the Russian Federation.

7 June 1995 – A Belarus President decree approved the new State Emblem and State Flag of the Republic of Belarus .

2 April 1996 – Presidents of Belarus and Russia Aleksandr Lukashenko and Boris Yeltsin signed the Treaty on establishing the Community of Belarus and Russia, and on April 2, 1997 the treaty on the Union of Belarus and the Russian Federation was signed. This date is celebrated as the Day of Unity of the Peoples of Belarus and Russia .

19-20 October 1996 – the 1st All-Belarusian People’s Congress was held. It became a strong social institution afterwards. The representatives from all over the country gathered to discuss the main tendencies of social and economic development in the country.

24 November 1996 – A referendum was held. Amendments and addenda were introduced to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus to create a bicameral parliament, expand the powers of the President. The Independence Day was moved to 3 July – the day of Belarus’ liberation from the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War.

8 December 1999 – the treaty to set up the Union State of Belarus and Russia was signed, an action program to implement the agreement was adopted.

10 October 2000 – Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan signed the treaty on establishing the Eurasian Economic Community ( EurAsEC ).

27 November 2009 – The heads of state of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia signed documents to create the Customs Union as from 1 January 2010.

18 November 2011 – The declaration on the Eurasian economic integration was adopted. The treaty signed by Belarus, Russia, and Kazakhstan to set up the Single Economic Space came into force on 1 January 2012.

22 July 2012 – the Belarusian satellite ( BKA ) designed to enable the remote sensing of the Earth was launched into outer space from the Baikonur space launch site.

29 May 2014 – The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) treaty was signed by Belarus President Aleksandr Lukashenko, Russia President Vladimir Putin, and Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev in Astana. The document took effect on 1 January 2015.


Kyk die video: Vojska Jugoslavije na Kosovo i Metohiji - neposredno pred bombardovanje SRJ


Kommentaar:

  1. Zeki

    Jy is reg.

  2. Delvin

    the phrase Excellent and it is timely

  3. Tugul

    Ek vra om verskoning, maar na my mening is jy nie reg nie. Ek is verseker. Ek stel dit voor om te bespreek. Skryf vir my in PM.

  4. Kahlil

    Maak foute. Ek kan dit bewys. Skryf vir my in PM, dit praat met u.

  5. Gole

    Ek stem saam met u, dankie vir u hulp in hierdie saak. Soos altyd is alles vernuftig eenvoudig.



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