Vega II AK -17 - Geskiedenis

Vega II AK -17 - Geskiedenis


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Vega II

(AK-17: dp. 11,320; 1. 401'1 ", b. 64'0", dr. 20'0 ", s. 11,6 k; kpl. 227; a. 2 6"; cl. Sirius)

Libanon-'n enkelschroefvliegtuig met staalskroef wat in 1919 gebou is onder 'n kontrak van die United States Shipping Board op Hog Island, Pa., Deur die American International Shipbuilding Co.-is op 2 Desember 1921 deur die vloot aangeskaf. die klassifikasie van AK-17, het sy ingeskakel vir vlootdiens en op 21 Desember 1921 in diens van die Boston Navy Yard, luitenant William H. Newman, USNRF, in bevel.

Vega, wat aan die Naval Transportation Service toegewys is, het die vloot voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van Atlantiese Oseaan na die Stille Oseaan bedien op vragbane, insluitend oproepe na beide die oostelike en westelike hawens, sowel as besoeke aan die Verre Ooste en die Karibiese Eilande. Gedurende die eerste drie jaar van haar vlootdiens het Vega ses reise heen en weer van San Francisco na die Asiatie-waters voltooi voordat sy in Oktober 1924 teruggekeer het huis toe. In opeenvolgende somers van 1925 tot 1928 het die vragskip tussen Seattle, Wash. hawens, wat voorraad en winkels vervoer na vlootradiostasies in St. Paul en Dutch Harbour. Boonop het Vega en die susterskip Sirius (AK-16) algemene vrag, swaar gewere en munisipale onderdele vervoer ter ondersteuning van mariene vredesaktiwiteite in Nicaragua. Onder die vaarte van Vega was reise in 1928 met voorrade vir die Buro vir Visserye, die Departement van Handel om rookerye op Pribilof en ander Alaskan -eilande te seël. Sy het teruggekeer met robvelle wat tydens moord onder toesig versamel is.

Vega het tot in die dertigerjare in onglamoureuze maar lewensbelangrike logistieke pligte gewerk toe die vloed van oorlog nader na die Verenigde State gekom het. Op 6 Desember 1941 het Vega in Honolulu, Hawaii, aangekom, met ammunisie belaai vir die Naval Ammunition Depot, Pearl Harbor, en 'n weermagboot van die weermag wat op sleepweg vasgemeer is na Pier 31 en op 07 Desember om 0100 met die aflaai van haar vrag begin het. Toe Japannese vliegtuie oor Oahu sweef, het Vega na die algemene kwartaal gegaan, terwyl burgerlike stewedores die moeisame taak om haar gevaarlike vrag af te laai, voortgesit het. Aangesien die Japannese op soek was na 'n groter wedstryd, het die Hog Islander en haar belangrike vrag ongeskonde uit die aanval gekom.

Vega het tot op 3 Januarie 1942 op die Hawaiiaanse eilande gebly, toe sy met 'n vrag burgermotors en pynappels aan die gang was. Sy het 10 dae later in San Francisco aangekom en binnekort by Mare Island Navy Yard ingegaan vir opknapping. Sy keer op 10 Maart terug na die Hawaïese waters. Nadat sy haar sleep, Progress (AMc-98) losgemaak het en konstruksietoerusting afgelaai het, laai die vragskip nog 'n vrag pynappels en toerusting vir burgerlike afhanklikes en begin op 20 Maart aan die weskus.

Vega is op 9 April oorgeplaas na die operasionele beheer van Commandant, 13th Naval District, en het San Francisco na Tacoma, Washington, vertrek. Sedertdien tot 9 Januarie 1944 het die vragskip uit Tacoma en Seattle opereer, wat noodsaaklike konstruksiemateriaal bevat en Amerikaanse operasies teen die Japannese indringers op die Aleoetiese Eilande ondersteun het. Op 'n keer het Vega 'n vrag vlootwinkels en ammunisie gelewer, asook 'n paar 20 millimeter vuurwapens vir die garnisoen in die Nederlandse hawe-slegs 'n paar dae voor die verwoestende bombardement van die basis deur 'n Japannese taakspan vroeg in Junie 1942.

Die skip het vroeg in 1944 na San Francisco teruggekeer en is gou aan Service Squadron (ServRon) 8 gestuur. Gedurende die volgende jaar het die vragskip drie groot amfibiese operasies ondersteun-in die Marianas, die Westelike Karolines, en in Okinawa, wat noodsaaklike voorrade bevat. en konstruksiemateriaal om die beroemde "Seabees" te help met die vestiging van die basisse wat so nodig is vir die vlotte werking van die vloot. Sy haal haar eerste vrag pontonbote by Pearl Harbor op en begin op 31 Januarie na die Gilbert -eilande. Haar bevele is egter onderweg verander en haar na die Marshalls gestuur. Sy het op 6 Maart by die Kwajalein -atol aangekom, die bakke afgelaai en teruggekeer na San Francisco vir nog 'n vrag. Sy vertrek op 18 Mei uit San Francisco en laai af by Guam voordat sy terugstap na die Russells om nog 'n vrag op die Banika -eiland op te laai.

Op 23 Oktober 1944 begin Vega met leë koperblikkiesblikke by Ulithi in die Carolines, terwyl sy 'Seabee' bataljon aanpak-die 1044ste gemonteerde selfaangedrewe bakke wat in SS Claremont uitgebring is. Daarna vaar die vragskip na Eniwetok, waar sy op 30 Desember 'n ander vrag koperblaas aan boord neem, op pad na die westelike kus. Sy maak die hawe by San Francisco, 'n bekende eindpunt vir die skip, op 18 Januarie 1946. Vega vertrek op 9 Maart met 'n ander vrag bakke, via Eniwetok en Ulithi, na die weskus na Ryukyus. Vega het op 13 Junie anker by Okinawa laat val, en Vega het begin om pontonbote te monteer; en drie dae later, tydens 'n Japannese lugaanval op haar ankerplek, het die vragskip 'n tweemotorige bomwerper neergeslaan voordat sy vlieënier sy bomme kon laat val.

Die vragskip het op 6 Julie uit Okinawa vertrek en via Pearl Harbor na die weskus gevaar en kort daarna by San Pedro aangekom. Vega het leë koper wat by Pearl Harbor afgehaal is, afgelaai en 'n vrag droë winkels na San Francisco vervoer voordat sy na Oakland, Kalifornië, gegaan het, waar sy op 15 Januarie 1946 ontmantel is. aan die Maritieme Kommissie op 1 Julie. Die veteraan vragvaartuig is op 6 Augustus aan die National Metals and Steel Corp.

Vega het vier strydsterre ontvang vir haar diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Chevrolet Cosworth Vega

Die Chevrolet Cosworth Vega is 'n sub-kompakte motor met vier passasiers wat deur Chevrolet vir die modeljare 1975 en 1976 vervaardig is. Dit is 'n beperkte produksie weergawe van die Chevrolet Vega, met 'n hoër prestasie.

Chevrolet het die motor se aluminium-inline-vier 122 cu in (1,999 cc) enjin ontwikkel, en die Britse maatskappy Cosworth Engineering het die DOHC-silinderkop ontwerp. 5 000 enjins is gebou.

3 508 motors is gemaak. Hulle was byna dubbel die prys van 'n Vega -basis en slegs $ 900 onder die Chevrolet Corvette van 1975. [1]


Vuurwapengeskiedenis, tegnologie en ontwikkeling

In ons laaste paar poste het ons gekyk na sekere soorte staallegerings wat gebruik word in die bou van vuurwapens. In die pos van vandag sal ons kyk na 'n ander soort staallegering wat in 1912 uitgevind is en in sommige vuurwapens gebruik is: vleklose staal.

Vlekvrye staal is 'n staallegering wat 'n hoë persentasie chroom bevat (groter as 10,5 gew.%). Anders as gewone koolstofstaal, het dit goeie weerstand teen korrosie en roes. Dit is as gevolg van die hoë chroominhoud. Wat gebeur, is dat die chroom op die oppervlak van die voorwerp met die suurstof in die lug reageer om 'n dun laag chroomoksied te vorm. Hierdie chroomoksiedlaag verhoed dat suurstof die binneste staal bereik en blokkeer dus roes en korrosie. Daar moet onthou word dat, hoewel vlekvrye staal roesbestand is, dit wel is nie roesbestand nie.

Dit is gepas dat die uitvinding van vlekvrye staal eintlik verband hou met vuurwapens. Harry Brearley, 'n Engelse apteker, werk in 1912 in Sheffield, Engeland, vir Brown Firth -navorsingslaboratoriums, en probeer 'n nuwe staal vind wat erosie as gevolg van hoë temperature van geweervate kan weerstaan. Dit was toe reeds bekend dat die toevoeging van 'n bietjie chroom aan staal die smeltpunt van staal verhoog. Hy probeer die verband tussen smeltpunte en chroominhoud van verskillende staalmonsters presies vasstel. As deel van hierdie studie moes hy die mikrostruktuur van die verskillende staallegeringsmonsters bestudeer, en om dit te doen, moes hy eers die monsters poets en ets. Die standaard manier om dit te doen was om 'n swak oplossing van salpetersuur en alkohol te gebruik om die ets te doen, maar soos mnr. Brearley gevind het, was sommige monsters buitengewoon bestand teen hierdie chemikalieë. Na 'n bietjie ondersoek het hy vasgestel dat die hoë chroominhoud van hierdie monsters verantwoordelik is vir die buitengewone weerstand teen suur. Uit hierdie navorsing het 'n hele nuwe industrie vir die vervaardiging van vlekvrye staal rondom die Sheffield -omgewing ontstaan.

Net soos chroom-moly staal, is daar ook verskillende grade van vlekvrye staal en slegs enkele grade word gebruik vir die vervaardiging van vuurwapens. SAE -grade 410 en 416 word byvoorbeeld vir vuurwapenvate gebruik. Hulle is albei staallegerings met 'n hoë chroominhoud (11,5 - 13,5% vir 410 vlekvrye staal en 12-14% vir 416 vlekvrye staal). Die belangrikste verskil is dat 416 vlekvrye staal 'n bietjie meer swael bevat, wat dit makliker maak om te verwerk as 410 vlekvrye staal, wat die vate goedkoper maak om te vervaardig. 410 vlekvrye staal behou egter sy taaiheid beter en presteer beter in vriestoestande. Sommige maatskappye vervaardig pasgemaakte legerings, soos Crucible Specialty Metals '416R, wat spesiaal ontwerp is vir presisie -staalvate. 'N Ander legering van vlekvrye staal wat deur sommige vervaardigers gebruik word, is 17-4 PH (PH staan ​​vir neerslagverharding).

Sommige van die ander dele van die gewere is ook gemaak van 400 of 300 reeks vlekvrye staal. Die 300 -reeks is meer bestand teen korrosie as die 400 -reeks staal, maar kan nie so maklik verhard word nie, daarom word dit gebruik vir dele wat nie aan groot kragte blootgestel word nie.

Die voordeel van vlekvrye staallegerings bo chroom-molige staallegerings is dat dit makliker is om te masjien en beter hitte-erosie te weerstaan. Hulle is egter 'n bietjie duurder en kan nie met behulp van konvensionele metodes gebruik word nie. Die Amerikaanse weermag verkies chroom-moly-vate, maar die meeste mededingende doelskieters verkies vate van vlekvrye staal, omdat hulle meer presies verwerk kan word en hul akkuraatheid langer kan hou. Dit is die rede waarom die meeste vate van ooreenstemmende graad van vlekvrye staal gemaak is.


Vega die afgelope jaar

Vega het aan die einde van die negentigerjare bekend geword in die populêre kultuur na die roman van Carl Sagan "Kontak "(1985, Simon & amp; Schuster) is verwerk in 'n Hollywood -film. Met die rolprent Jodie Foster, volg die film 'n sterrekundige wat besig was met die soeke na buitenaardse intelligensie (SETI), wat 'n sein ontdek wat van Vega af kom.

Teleskopiese waarnemings in 2006 het aan die lig gebring dat Vega so vinnig rondbeweeg dat sy pale etlike duisende grade warmer is as sy ewenaar. Die ster, wat elke 12,5 uur draai, is op 90 persent van sy kritiese rotasiesnelheid, oftewel die snelheid waarmee die voorwerp homself sou skeur.

Vroeg in 2013 het sterrekundiges aangekondig dat hulle 'n asteroïdegordel rondom Vega ontdek het, wat dui op die moontlikheid van planete binne die rotse. Die uitleg (wat lyk soos dié wat naby die ster Fomalhaut gevind is) dui daarop dat daar twee gebiede is: 'n buitenste gebied met ysige asteroïdes en 'n gebied nader aan die ster, waar warmer ruimte gesteentes voorkom.

Wetenskaplikes ondersoek helder sterre soos Vega nader met behulp van NASA se TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) -missie, wat in 2018 van stapel gestuur is om 'n hemelruimopname te doen. Terwyl die primêre missie van TESS is om na eksoplanete te soek, sal die satelliet ook na tekens van sterveranderlikheid soek. TESS se ondersoek van Vega en soortgelyke sterre sal wetenskaplikes help om meer te leer oor die vroeë stadiums van ster evolusie.


Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska

Amerikaanse en Kanadese soldate het 'n amfibiese landing op die eiland Kiska gedoen, 16 Augustus 1943. Die infanteriste van die 13de Kanadese Infanterie Brigade -groep vertoon tydens die operasie COTTAGE, die inval in Kiska.

Library and Archives Canada, toetredingsnommer 1967-052 NPC, item Z-1995-31

Hierdie hulpbrongids is ontwerp om studente en onderwysers te help om die geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska te ondersoek. Alaska se rol as slagveld, oordragstasie vir uitleen en vesting in die Noordelike Stille Oseaan is in die na-oorlogse dekades dikwels deur historici oor die hoof gesien, maar die afgelope jare het die bewustheid van Alaska se oorlogstyd al hoe groter geword. Hierdie hernieude belangstelling bied opwindende opvoedkundige geleenthede vir studente en onderwysers wat hierdie hoofstuk in die geskiedenis van ons staat ondersoek. Min mense weet dat die enigste stryd van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op Amerikaanse bodem in Alaska plaasgevind het of dat die Japannese magte meer as 'n jaar twee Aleoetiese eilande beset het. Nog minder weet van die Russiese vlieëniers wat in Fairbanks opgelei het, die werkers wat hul lewens gewaag het om die Alaska -snelweg te bou, of die Alaska -verkenners wat die kus van die Bering -see gepatrolleer het. Die lewens van Alaskane is vir ewig verander deur die ervaring van oorlog, en die geskiedenis van daardie dramatiese era word nog steeds geskryf.

'N Kaart van belangrike terreine van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, gevolg deur 'n opsomming van die ervaring van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska, is ingesluit. Inligting oor nasionale historiese monumente en monumente wat verband hou met die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska is ook ingesluit. Die geselekteerde bibliografie wat volg, is in twaalf dele verdeel om studente -navorsers te help met die keuse van onderwerpe:

  • Oorlog kom na Alaska
  • Aleoetiese veldtog
  • Alaska snelweg en Canol pyplyn
  • Konstruksie uit die oorlog
  • Inheemse verdedigers
  • Vliegtuie en vaartuie
  • Aleut Ontruiming
  • Kanadese deelname
  • Japannese-Amerikaanse internering
  • Verhuringsprogram
  • Japannese vlootmag
  • Takke en eenhede

Hierdie bibliografie bevat boeke, tydskrifte en videobande wat in Alaska se biblioteke gevind kan word of deur middel van 'n interbiblioteeklening verkry kan word. Die aangehaalde artikels is gekies op grond van relevansie vir 'n spesifieke tema en kan (met enkele uitsonderings) in Alaskan -tydskrifte gevind word. Die bibliografie is nie bedoel om omvattend te wees nie, maar is eerder 'n poort tot verdere navorsing.

Inligting oor die biblioteke en museums van Alaska volg, met beskrywings van versamelings wat relevant is vir die geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska en 'n lys van aanlynbronne. Die individuele museums en biblioteke word volgens stad georganiseer. Die hulpbrongids word afgesluit met 'n inleiding tot die National History Day -program en History Day in Alaska.

Militêre terreine van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska

Verken die Tweede Wêreldoorlog se noordelike Stille Oseaan -veldtog deur webwerwe in Alaska

Opsomming van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska

Geboue brand na die Japannese aanval op die fort by die Nederlandse hawe, 3 Junie 1942. 'n Tweede, meer skadelike aanval het die volgende dag plaasgevind, alhoewel die P-40 Aleutian Tigers gesukkel het om die vyand van 'n geheime basis (Fort Glenn) op te vang Umnak -eiland.

Argief en manuskripte Departement, Universiteit van Alaska Anchorage

Japannese aggressie in China
In 1931 het Japan aanvalle in die ooste van China geloods in 'n poging om beheer oor die oostelike provinsie, Mantsjoerije, te neem. Amerikaanse agterdog en wantroue teenoor Japan het toegeneem toe Japanse militêre magte 'n Amerikaanse olietenkwa konvooi en die USS Panay, 'n Amerikaanse vlootgeweerboot wat die konvooi begelei het, in 1937 aanval. Drie mense is dood in die aanval en 11 ernstig beseer toe Japannese vliegtuie het op reddingsbote geskiet en oorlewendes aan wal.

Amerikaanse Noordelike Verdediging
Met toenemende vyandighede in China, het die Amerikaanse regering bekommerd geraak oor die moontlikheid van aanval van regoor die Stille Oseaan. In 1935 het brigadier -generaal William Mitchell die kongres aangespoor om 'n sterk noordelike lugverdediging aan te neem, en verklaar: "Ek glo in die toekoms sal hy wat Alaska besit, die wêreld hou." In 1939 het die kongres 'n verdedigingsdriehoek van Panama-Hawaii en Alaska ingestel om die kwesbare westelike kus van Amerika te beskerm. Alaska, die grootste en die minste versterkte van die drie, het gou die bou van vlootbasisse by Sitka, Dutch Harbour en Kodiak gebou.

Oorlog kom na Alaska
Ses maande na die aanval op Pearl Harbor het die Japannese die Amerikaanse Dutch Harbour Naval Operation Base en die Amerikaanse weermag Fort Mears, naby Unalaska -eiland gebombardeer en die Aleoetiese eilande Attu en Kiska beset. Vir baie dekades na die oorlog was die algemene begrip van die Japannese Aleoetiese operasie dat dit slegs 'n afleidingsmaatreël van hul Midway -operasie was. Onlangse navorsing kom egter tot die gevolgtrekking dat die Japannese 'n breër en langer termyn strategie gehad het om 'n oostelike verdedigingsgebied te vestig en uit te brei. In reaksie hierop het Amerikaanse militêre strateë geweet dat hulle nie die risiko sou loop om die Aleoetiërs oop te laat as stapstene vir Japannese aanvalle op die vasteland van die Verenigde State nie. Boonop was die besetting 'n beduidende propaganda -oorwinning vir die Japannese - die belediging kon nie onbeantwoord bly nie.

Aleoetiese veldtog
Omdat vliegtuie wat van Kodiak en Dutch Harbour vertrek het, nie die afstand van byna 1400 myl kon bereik om die Japannese by Attu en Kiska te betrek nie, het Amerikaanse troepe basisse op ander Aleoetiese eilande gebou as brandstof- en onderhoudstoppings, sodat hulle verder weswaarts kon toeslaan. Vlieëniers en grondtroepe het gou besef hulle staan ​​voor 'n tweede vyand, Moeder Natuur. Weer langs die Aleoetiese ketting is van die ergste ter wêreld, met digte mis, hewige seë en hewige windstorms wat williwaws genoem word. Vliegtuie wat nie akkurate navigasietoestelle of konstante radiokontak het nie, het in die berge, mekaar, die see neergestort-bloot om die vyand te vind was 'n lewe-en-dood-stryd. Vir soldate in die Aleoetiërs was kontak met die vyand ongereeld en vlugtig, maar die weer was 'n ewige teëstander.

Inheemse verdedigers
Toe die Alaska National Guard in September 1941 tot aktiewe diens geroep is, het goewerneur Gruening toestemming gekry om die Alaska Territorial Guard te herorganiseer en te stig. Baie inboorlinge van Alaska het by eenhede van die Alaska Territorial Guard aangesluit om die kus van Alaska te patrolleer en verkenningsmissies in gevegsgebiede te lei.

Aleut Ontruiming
Twee-en-veertig Aleoete wat op die eiland Attu en twee vlootweerwaarnemers op Kiska woon, is deur die Japannese gevange geneem en na Japan gestuur waar 17 gesterf het. In Junie en Julie 1942 ontruim die Amerikaanse weermag 881 Aleuts uit nege dorpe op verskeie eilande, waaronder die Pribilofs en Unalaska. Hulle is in 'n beknopte toestand deur 'n militêre vervoerskip na verlate blikkies- en mynkampe in Suidoos -Alaska geneem. Byna honderd sterf in die haglike omstandighede van hierdie kampe. Tydens hul afwesigheid het die Amerikaanse weermag baie van hul huise verbrand om die Japannese daarvan te weerhou, en godsdienstige ikone uit hul kerke verwyder.

Japannese internering
Onder 'n noodmaatreël wat in die westelike Verenigde State van krag was, is Alaskane van Japannese afkoms na interneringskampe in die onderste 48 gestuur. Die vrees vir skielike aanval het ook gelei tot sensuur van die media, voedselrantsoenering en verpligte onderbrekings in kusgebiede.

Verhuringsprogram
Die Lend-Lease Act is in 1941 aangeneem om militêre hulp aan bondgenote te bied. As deel van die Lend-Lease-program is meer as 8 000 Amerikaanse vliegtuie vanaf 1942 na die roete Alaska-Siberië (ALSIB) na Rusland oorgeplaas. Die ALSIB-roete het bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks nuwe vliegvelde wat in Alaska en Kanada gebou is, wat Amerikaanse vlieëniers in staat gestel het om te spring deur die Kanadese en Alaska -wildernis na Ladd Field in Fairbanks. By Ladd Field het Russiese vlieëniers gewag om die vliegtuie oor die Beringsee en Siberië na Rusland se Wesfront met Duitsland te vlieg.

Konstruksie uit die oorlog
Konstruksie in oorlogstyd het groot veranderinge in vervoer en kommunikasie met die buitewêreld en binne Alaska meegebring. Tot 1942 het passasiers en vrag op twee maniere in Alaska aangekom - per boot of vliegtuig. Een van die grootste prestasies van die oorlogstydbouprogram was die bou van die Alaska Canada Military Highway, 'n wildernisweg van 1,420 myl wat in minder as nege maande voltooi is. Ander konstruksies sluit telefoonlyne, oliepypleidings, spoorweë en ongeveer 300 militêre installasies in Alaska in.

Bevolking Boom
As gevolg van die oorlog het duisende mans en vroue na die ylbevolkte gebied verhuis, en baie het gebly. In 1940 het net meer as 72 000 mense Alaska die huis gebel. Teen 1950 het die bevolking byna verdubbel tot 129,000. Anchorage het sy bevolkingsballon van 3000 tot 47,000 gesien, terwyl Fairbanks van 4,000 tot byna 20,000 gegroei het. Terwyl baie militêre basisse na die oorlog gesluit het, het sommige oopgebly en selfs gegroei. Die militêre bevolking, wat in 1940 ongeveer 500 was, het in 1950 tot ongeveer 22 000 toegeneem.

Die oorlog van Alaska eindig
Op 11 Mei 1943 het Amerikaanse troepe op Attu geland en 'n opdraande stryd begin om die eiland weer in te neem. Na negentien dae se geveg het die beleërde Japannese soldate 'n laaste banzai -aanklag geloods in 'n poging om deur die Amerikaanse lyn te breek. Toe die geveg geëindig het, het slegs 29 gevangenes oorgebly uit 'n Japanse mag van ongeveer 2600. Drie maande later word die drama by Attu gekombineer deur 'n ewe dramatiese antiklimaks. Gure weer het die pogings van die Geallieerdes om Kiska terug te neem vertraag, en toe Amerikaanse en Kanadese magte uiteindelik op 15 Augustus land, was hulle verstom toe hulle agterkom dat die Japannese weg is - drie weke tevore ontruim onder die mis. Terwyl die gewere stil geraak het in die Aleoetiërs, was baie leër- en vlootgeriewe gesluit, alhoewel gevegte in die Stille Oseaan en in Europa nog twee jaar aangehou het.

Nasionale landmerke
Die minister van binnelandse sake het deur middel van die National Park Service stappe gedoen om die belangrikheid van Alaska se rol in die geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te erken deur agt terreine as nasionale historiese monumente aan te wys. Hierdie terreine sluit in voormalige weermag- en vlootbase, Aleoetiese slagvelde, vliegvelde en 'n gebied op Kiska -eiland wat eens deur die Japannese beset was. Die status van National Historic Landmark erken dat hierdie plekke een van die land se mees waardevolle hulpbronne is wat as bewaarwaardig geag word.

Alaska se Nasionale Historiese Landmerke van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Ulakta Head and Command Center, 'n funksie in die NHL in die Nederlandse hawe en die nasionale historiese gebied van die Aleoetiese Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office

Die minister van binnelandse sake het deur die National Park Service die volgende NHL -terreine aangewys om die belangrike gebeurtenisse en menslike drama van Alaska se rol in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te herdenk:

'N Deel van die National Park Service se rol is om die NHL -program te administreer. Beskikbare materiaal sluit in 'n boekie getiteld "WWII National Historic Landmarks: The Aleutian Campaign" en twee lesplanne uit die reeks Teaching with Historic Places getiteld "Attu: North American Battleground of World War II" en "Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Verdedig Alaska in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. ” Die NHL -program het 'n toekenning van die Amerikaanse slagveldbeskermingsprogram geïmplementeer wat uitgeloop het op die verslag "The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands" in 2012. Besoek die National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office se National Historic Landmarks-webblad vir afskrifte van hierdie materiaal op: https://www.nps.gov/akso/history/nhl-main.cfm.

Aleoese Nasionale Historiese Gebied van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Die inwoners van Aleoet het 'n onsekere toekoms in die gesig gestaar toe hulle vertrek het en teruggekeer het uit kampe in Suidoos -Alaska. Tydens die Aleoetiese veldtog is 881 Aleuts uit hul huise ontruim en het hulle byna drie jaar lank in tydelike "duur dorpe" gebly sonder behoorlike sanitasie, hitte of mediese aandag.

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association Inc.

Alhoewel die besoek van 'n ware historiese plek een van die beste maniere is om waardevolle insigte te verkry, is dit moeilik om toegang te verkry tot verskeie van die WWII -terreine in Alaska. Een bron om meer te wete te kom oor gebeure in die Aleoetiërs gedurende hierdie tydperk, is deur die Aleutiaanse WWII National Historic Area (NHA). Die NHA, wat in 1996 deur die kongres aangewys is, is die eiendom van die Ounalashka Corporation met historiese bewaringstegniese hulp wat deur die National Park Service-Alaska Regional Office verskaf word. Die NHA bevat die historiese voetspoor van Fort Schwatka, sowel as 'n besoekersentrum in die voormalige Tweede Wêreldoorlog -aerologiegebou, op die Unalaska -lughawe op die eiland Amaknak. Die doel van die NHA sluit in die opvoeding van die publiek oor die geskiedenis van die Aleoetiese mense en die rol van die Aleoetiese mense en die Aleoetiese eilande in die verdediging van die VSA in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Meer inligting kan gevind word op die volgende NPS -webwerf: http: //www.nps. gov/aleu/index.htm

Dapperheid in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Stille Oseaan Nasionale Monument

Attu, Aleoese Eilande. Landingsbote gooi soldate en hul toerusting op die strand by Massacre Bay. Dit is die suidelike landingsmag.

Afdeling Library of Congress Prints and Photographs, Washington, DC

In Desember 2008 het president George H. Bush, volgens Uitvoerende Orde, die Tweede Wêreldoorlog -dapperheid in die Stille Oseaan -monument opgerig. Die nuwe monument is gestig ter herdenking van hierdie 'pivitolperiode in die geskiedenis van ons volk' en het nege historiese plekke in Hawaii, Kalifornië en Alaska tot monumentstatus verhef. Die Alaska-eenheid bevat historiese gebiede op Attu en Kiska, en die ongeluksterrein van die Atka-eiland van 'n gekonsolideerde B-24D Liberator-bomwerper. Al die webwerwe in Alaska is op lande wat deur die Amerikaanse Fish and Wildlife Service bestuur word.

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Valor in the Pacific National Monument vertolk die verhale van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog, insluitend gebeure in Pearl Harbor, die internering van Japannese Amerikaners en die Aleoetiese veldtog. Die National Park Service en U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service het gesamentlik 'n grondslagverklaring vir die Alaska -eenheid van die monument ontwikkel. Die dokument bied 'n visie vir toekomstige besluitneming en die ontwikkeling van bestuurs- en implementeringsplanne wat die werking van die Alaska -eenheid, hulpbronbeskerming en besoekerservaring sal definieer. Soortgelyke fondamentdokumente word vir die eenhede in Hawaii en Kalifornië vervaardig. Saam sal hierdie dokumente die weg lê vir toekomstige beplanning en ontwikkeling van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog -dapperheid in die Stille Oseaan -monument. Die dokument kan besigtig en afgelaai word deur alaskamaritime.fws.gov/pdf/valor.pdf te besoek.

Geselekteerde bibliografie

Swart ingenieurs bou 'n skutbrug tydens die bou van die Alaska Canada Military Highway. Swart G.I.s het ongeveer veertig persent uitgemaak van die geskatte 11 500 weermag troepe wat binne net nege maande 'n wildernis snelweg voltooi het wat Alaska verbind met die aangrensende Verenigde State.

Anchorage Museum vir Geskiedenis en Kuns

Oorlog kom na Alaska

Alaska in oorlog. Aurora Films. [video -opname]. 60 min. Vervaardig deur Laurence Goldin. Geskryf deur Bradford Matsen en Laurence Goldin. Anchorage: Alaska Video Publishing for Alaska Historical Commission, 1987, 1993, 2005.

Alaska Geographic. Fairbanks, vol. 22, nee. 1. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska, vol. 22, nee. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Antonson, Joan M. en William S. Hanable. Erfenis van Alaska. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, nr. 133. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1985.

Chandonnet, Fern, red. Alaska at War, 1941-1945: Die vergete oorlog onthou. Referate van die Alaska at War Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, 11-13 November 1993. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Cohen, Stan. Die vergete oorlog: 'n beeldgeskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska en Noordwes -Kanada. [4 vol]. Altona, Manitoba: D.W. Friesen en seuns, 1981.

Drawing the Lines of Battle: Military Art of World War II Alaska. Anchorage: Anchorage Museum vir Geskiedenis en Kuns, 1989.

Garfield, Brian. Die Duisend-myl-oorlog: Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska en die Aleoetiërs. Fairbanks: Universiteit van Alaska Press, 1995.

"Duitse krygsgevangenes in Alaska: die krygsgevangenekamp by Excursion Inlet." Alaska Journal 14 (1984): 16-20.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. "The Silent Years in Alaska: The Military Blackout during World II II." Alaska Journal 16 (1986): 140-147.

Lawler, Pat. "Buckner en sy seuns val Alaska binne - neem die gebied stormagtig." Alaska Journal 2 (1981): 84-99.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse vlootoperasies in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, vol. 7, Aleoetiërs, Gilberts en Marshalls, Junie 1942-April 1944. Boston: Little, Brown en Co., 1951.

Naske, Claus-M. en Herman Slotnik. Alaska: 'n Geskiedenis van die 49ste staat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Aleoetiese veldtog

Alaska Geographic. Die Aleoetiërs, vol. 7, nee. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1980.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, vol. 19, nee. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1992.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, eiland van verandering, vol. 4, nee. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1977.

Alaska Geographic. Unalaska/Nederlandse hawe, vol. 18, nee. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Alaska, vol. 22, nee. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Aleoetiese inval: Tweede Wêreldoorlog op die Aleoetiese eilande. Opgestel deur die studente van die Unalaska High School. Unalaska: Unalaska High School, 1981.

Die Aleutians-veldtog, Junie 1942-Augustus 1943. Washington: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1993.

Hulle Bloedige Aleoetiërs. [video -opname]. 50 min. New York: A & ampE Television Network, 2001.

The Capture of Attu: Tales of World War II in Alaska, soos vertel deur die manne wat daar geveg het. Edmonds, Alberta: Alaska Northwest Publishing, 1984.

Denfeld, Colt D. Die verdediging van Dutch Harbor, Alaska van militêre konstruksie tot basisopruiming. Anchorage: Amerikaanse weermagkorps van ingenieurs, 1987.

Ellis, Dan. "Springfield -gewere en vergete mans." Alaska Journal 10 (Herfs 1980): 54-59.

Lorell, John A. Die Slag van die Komandorski -eilande. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Morgan, Lael. "'N Kunstenaarsoorlog in die Aleoetiërs." Alaska Journal 10 (Somer 1980): 34-39.

Murray, Robert Haynes. Die enigste pad huis toe. Waycross: Brantley Printing Company, 1986.

Rearden, Jim. "Kiska: One Island's Moment in History." Alaska (September 1986): 18-21, 49-51.

Rearden, Jim. Vergete krygers van die Aleoetiese veldtog. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 2005.

Rooi, wit, swart en blou. [video -opname]. 86 min. Regie deur Tom Putnam. Vervaardig deur Tom Putnam, Jeff Malmberg, Matt Redecki en Michael Harbour. Arlington: PBS Home Video, 2007.

Verslag van die Aleoetiërs. [video -opname]. 47 min. Regie deur John Huston. Weermag se prentdiens. Burbank: Viking Video Classics, 1986.

Verslag van die Aleoetiërs: Hook Down, Wheels Down. [videorecording]. 117 min. U.S. Army Signal Corps, 2001.

Rourke, Norman E. Oorlog kom na Alaska: die Nederlandse hawe-aanval, 3-4 Junie 1942. Shippenburg: Burd Street Press, 1997.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. Die kulturele landskap van die slagveld van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van Kiska, Aleoetiese eilande. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2011.

Spennemann, Clemens en Kozlowski. "Littekens op die toendra: die kulturele landskap van die Kiska -slagveld, Aleoetiërs". Alaska Park Science. Anchorage: National Park Service. (Junie 2011). Aanlyn: https://www.nps.gov/akso/nature/science/ ak_park_science/PDF/2011Vol10-1/APS_Vol10- 1_0-48-complete-issue.pdf

Seiple, Samantha. Ghosts in the Fog: The Untold Story of Alaska's WWII Invasion. New York: Scholastic Reference, 2011.

Webber, Bert. Aleoetiese hoofpyn: Dodelike Tweede Wêreldoorloggevegte op Amerikaanse grond. Medford: Webb Research, 1993.

Alaska snelweg en Canol pyplyn

Die Alaska-snelweg, 1942-1992. [videorecording]. 58 min. Geskryf en vervaardig deur Tom Morgan vir Alaska Public Television, KAKM TV. Anchorage: Alaska Public Television, 1992.

Brebner, Phyllis Lee. The Alaska Highway: 'n Persoonlike en historiese verslag van die bou van die Alaska Highway. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. The Alaska Highway: Papers of the 40th Anniversary Symposium. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. Die snelweg van Alaska in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: die Amerikaanse besettingsleër in die noordweste van Kanada. Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Coates, Kenneth. Noord na Alaska! Vyftig jaar op die wêreld se merkwaardigste snelweg. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1991.

Coates, Kenneth and Judith Powell. “Whitehorse and the Building of the Alaska Highway, 1942-1946.” Alaska History 4 (Spring 1989): 1-26.

Cohen, Stan. ALCAN and CANOL: A Pictorial History of Two Great World War II Construction Projects. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Duesenberg, H. Milton. Alaska Highway Expeditionary Force: A Roadbuilder’s Story. Clear Lake: H&M Industries, 1994.

Gage, S.R. A Walk on the Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1990.

Griggs, William E. The World War II Black Regiment that Built the Alaska Military Highway: A Photographic History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Hollinger, Kristy. The Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2003.

Karamanski, Theodore J. “The Canol Project: A Poorly Planned Pipeline.” Alaska Journal 9 (Autumn 1979): 17-22.

Krakauer, Jon. “Ice, Mosquitoes and Muskeg – Building the Road to Alaska.” Smithsonian (July 1992): 102-112.

Morgan, Lael. “Forgotten Pioneers.” Alaska (February 1992): 33-34.

Morgan, Lael. “Writing Minorities Out of History: Black Builders of the Alcan Highway.” Alaska History 7 (Fall 1992): 1-13.

Naske, Claus-M.. Paving Alaska’s Trails: The Work of the Alaska Road Commission. New York: University Press of America, 1986.

Rimley, David. Crooked Road: The Story of the Alaska Highway. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1976.

Twichell, Heath. Northwest Epic: The Building of the Alaska Highway. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Wartime Construction

The Army’s Role in the Building of Alaska. Pamphlet 360-5. United States Army, 1969.

Building the Navy’s Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineering Corps, 1940-1946. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

Bush, James D., Jr. Narrative Report of Alaska Construction, 1941-1944. Anchorage: Alaska Defense Command, 1943.

Cook, Linda. Elmendorf Air Force Base, vol. 1, Historic Context of World War II Buildings and Structures. Anchorage: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1999.

Decker, Julie and Chris Chiei. Quonset Hut: Metal Living for a Modern Age. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005.

Dod, Karl C. The Corps of Engineers: The War Against Japan. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, 1987.

Fowle, Barry, ed. Builders and Fighters: U.S. Army Engineers in World War II. Fort Belvoire: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1992.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Native Defenders

Delkettie, Buck. “An Alaskan Scout Remembers.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Hendricks, Charles. “The Eskimos and the Defense of Alaska.” Pacific Historical Review 1 (1985): 271-295.

Hudson, Ray. “Aleuts in Defense of the Homeland.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Marston, Marvin R. Men of the Tundra: Alaska Eskimos at War. New York: October House, 1969.

Morgan, Lael. “Minority Troops and the Alaskan Advantage during World War II.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Castner’s Cutthroats: Saga of the Alaska Scouts. [novel]. Prescott: Wolfe Publishing, 1990.

Salisbury, C.A. Soldiers of the Mists: Minutemen of the Alaska Frontier. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Wooley, Chris and Mike Martz. “The Tundra Army: Patriots of Arctic Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Warplanes and Seacraft

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Blair, Clay. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.

Freeman, Elmer. Those Navy Guys and their PBYs: The Aleutian Solution. Spokane: Kedging Publishing, 1992.

Carrigan, Paul E. The Flying Fighting Weathermen of Patrol Wing Four, 1941-1945, U.S. Navy: Kodiak, Dutch Harbor, Umnak, Cold Bay, Adak, Amchitka, Kiska, Shemya, Attu, and The Empire Express to Paramushiro: Memoirs of Paul E. Carrigan. Forked River: Regal-Lith Printers, 2002.

Dickrell, Jeff. Center of the Storm: The Bombing of Dutch Harbor and the Experience of Patrol Wing Four in the Aleutians, Summer 1942. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 2002.

Mills, Stephen E. Arctic War Planes: Alaska Aviation of World War II: A Pictorial History of Bush Flying with the Military in the Defense of Alaska and America. New York: Bonanza Books, 1978.

Rearden, Jim. Koga’s Zero: The Fighter that Changed World War II. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Cracking the Zero Mystery: How the U.S. Learned to Beat Japan’s Vaunted World War II Fighter Plane. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1990.

Stevens, Peter F. Fatal Dive: Solving the World War II Mystery of the USS Grunion. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2012.

Aleut Evacuation

Aleut Story. [DVD]. 90 minutes. A Sprocketheads Production. Lincoln, NE: Aleutian-Pribilof Heritage, Inc., 2005.

Aleut Evacuation: The Untold Story. [videorecording]. 60 min. Directed by Michael and Mary Jo Thill. Girdwood: Gaff Rigged Productions for the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1992.

Breu, Mary. Last Letters from Attu: The True Story of Etta Jones, Alaska Pioneer and Japanese POW. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 2009.

Golodoff, Nick. Attu Boy. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Kirkland, John C. The Relocation and Internment of the Aleuts during World War II. 8 vol. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1981.

Kohlhoff, Dean. “’It Only Makes My Heart Want to Cry’: How Aleuts Faced the Pain of Evacuation.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Kohlhoff, Dean. When the Wind was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II. Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1995.

Mobley, Charles M. World War II Aleut Relocation Camps in Southeast Alaska. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Smith, Barbara Sweetland. Making it Right: Restitution for Churches Damaged and Lost during the Aleut Relocation in World War II. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1993.

Canadian Participation

Adleman, R.H. and G. Walton. The Devil’s Brigade. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1966.

Bezeau, M.V. “Strategic Cooperation: The Canadian Commitment to the Defense of Alaska in the Second World War.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Coyle, Brendan. War On Our Doorstep: The Unknown Campaign on North America’s West Coast. Surrey, B.C.: Heritage House, 2002.

Dziuban, Stanley W. Military Relations between the United States and Canada, 1939-1945. United States Army in World War II, Special Studies. Washington: Department of the Army, 1959.

Neely, Alastair. “The First Special Service Force and Canadian Involvement at Kiska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Perras, Galen R. “Canada’s Greenlight Force and the Invasion of Kiska, 1943.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Japanese-American Internment

Daniels, Roger, et al., ed. Japanese Americans from Relocation to Redress. Hersiene uitgawe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Inouye, Ronald K. “For Immediate Sale: Tokyo Bathhouse – How World War II Affected Alaska’s Japanese Civilians.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Inouye, Ronald K. “Harry Sotaro Kawabe: Issei Businessman of Seward and Seattle.” Alaska History 5 (Spring 1990): 34-43.

Kobayashi, Sylvia K. “I Remember What I Want to Forget.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Naske, Claus-M. “The Relocation of Alaska’s Japanese Residents.” Kwartaalliks in die Stille Oseaan Noordwes 74 (July 1983): 124-132.

Lend-Lease Program

Brandon, Dean R. “War Planes to Russia.” Alaska (May 1976): 14-17.

Denfeld, Colt D. Cold Bay in World War II: Fort Randall and Russian Naval Lend-lease. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alaska District, 1988.

Guide to the Ladd Field National Historic Landmark and Ladd Air Force Base Cold War Historic District. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army Garrison Fort Wainwright, 2011. 13

Hays, Otis E., Jr. The Alaska-Siberia Connection: The World War II Air Route. Texas A&M University Military History Series, 48. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. “White Star, Red Star.” Alaska Journal 12 (1982): 9-17.

Lake, Gretchen. “Photo Essay: The Russians are Coming, the Russians are Coming, Fifty Years Ago, the Russians were Coming.” Alaska History 8 (Spring 1993): 33-41.

Long, Everett A. and Ivan Y. Neganblya. Cobras Over the Tundra. Fairbanks: Arktika Publishing, 1992.

Moor, Jay H. World War II in Alaska: The Northwest Route: A Bibliography and Guide to Primary Sources. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 175. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1985.

Price, Kathy. The World War II Heritage of Ladd Field, Fairbank, Alaska. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2004.

Smith, Blake W. Warplanes to Alaska: The Story of a WWII Military Supply Lifeline to Alaska and Russia through the Canadian Wilderness. Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House, 1998.

Japanese Naval Power

Agawa, Hiroyuki. The Reluctant Admiral: Yamamoto and the Imperial Navy. New York: Kodansha International, 1979.

Dull, Paul S. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1978.

Francillon, Rene J. Japanese Navy Bombers of World War Two. Garden City: Doubleday, 1971.

Fuchida, Mitsuo and Okumiya Masatake. Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1955.

The Japanese Navy in World War II. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1969.

Lorelli, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Marder, Arthur Jacob. Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy: Strategic Illusions, 1936-1941. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Parshall, Jonathan and Anthony Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles: Potomac Books, Inc., 2007.

Takahashi, Hisashi. “The Japanese Campaign in Alaska as Seen from a Strategic Perspective.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Watts, Anthony J. Japanese Warships of World War II. Garden City: Doubleday, 1967.

Branches and Units

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Benedict, Bradley H. Ski Troops in the Mud, Kiska Island Recaptured: A Saga of the North Pacific Campaign in the Aleutian Islands in World War II with Special Emphasis on its Culmination Led by the Forerunners of the 10th Mountain Division. Littleton: H.B.&J.C. Benedict, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile. The Aleutian Warriors: A History of the 11th Air Force & Fleet Air Wing 4. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile and Michael F. Monaghan. Top Cover for America: The Air Force in Alaska, 1920- 1983. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1984.

Goldstein, Donald M. The Williwaw War: The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War II. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992.

Johnson, Robert Erwin. Bering Sea Escort: Life Aboard a Coast Guard Cutter in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Leahy, Joseph M. “The Coast Guard at War in Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Montgomery Watson, prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Kodiak Coastal Defense System at Fort Greely during World War II, Anchorage, Alaska, 1999 (?).

Woodman, Lyman. Duty Station Northwest: The U.S. Army in Alaska and Western Canada, 1867-1987. Vol. 2. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1997.

Museums and Libraries

“Headquarters, camouflage Umnak” by Ogden Pleissner.

Anchorage Museum of History and Art

Alaska Aviation Museum
4721 Aircraft Drive
Anchorage,AK 99502
Phone: (907) 248-5325
Website: http://www.alaskaairmuseum.org/

The Alaska Aviation Museum displays a wide variety of Japanese and American WWII memorabilia from the Aleutian Campaign. The collection also includes a Catalina PBY and the wreck of a P-40 Warhawk fighter, both used in the Aleutian Campaign.

Alaska Veterans Museum
333 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 227 Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: 907-677-8802
Website: http://www.alaskaveterans.com

Stories of Alaska’s servicemen and women are available through oral histories, documentaries, artifacts, military uniforms, weapons, photos, and models, including a 1/72 scale model of the USS Essex , complete with fighter planes.

The Anchorage Museum
625 C Street
Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: (907) 929-9200
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.anchoragemuseum.org

The Alaska Gallery of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art is home to three displays portraying WWII Alaska. These include the uniform and rifle of an Alaska Scout and details about the Alaskan Territorial Guard a diorama of aircraft used during the Aleutian Campaign and a vision of life inside a Quonset hut.

Consortium Library
University of Alaska Anchorage
3211 Providence Drive Anchorage,AK 99508
Phone: (907) 786-1848
Website: http://consortiumlibrary.org

Consortium Library contains an impressive collection of books relating to Alaska’s WWII history. Its Archives and Manuscripts Department frequently exhibits material drawn from extensive collections of photographs, personal records, and government documents relating to Alaska’s war experiences.

National Archives and Records Administration Pacific Alaska Region
654 West Third Avenue
Anchorage,AK 99501-2145
Phone: (907) 261-7820
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: https://www.archives.gov/anchorage/

The National Archives contain vast collections of U.S. government records and material entrusted to the National Archives by various agencies. All aspects of Alaska’s WWII experience are represented in military records, municipal records, census information, and historical photographs.

Z.J. Loussac Library
Anchorage Municipal Libraries
3600 Denali Street
Anchorage, AK 99503-6093
Phone: (907) 343-2975
Website: http://www.muni.org/departments/library/pages/loussaclibrary.aspx

The Loussac Library’s Alaska collection contains
the majority of the books and articles cited in this bibliography, and is also home to a microfiche collection of Alaska’s newspapers. It is one of the best places to find material on Alaska during WWII, either in person or by interlibrary loan.

Pioneer Air Museum
Interior and Arctic Alaska Aeronautical Foundation Location: Alaskaland Park
2300 Airport Way
Fairbanks,Alaska 99701
Phone: (907) 451-0037
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.pioneerairmuseum.org

The Pioneer Air Museum has on display photographs, Russian uniforms, and other memorabilia related to the Lend-Lease Program, which ferried aircraft to the Soviet front via Alaska. The Museum is also home to a single- engine Norseman plane used during the War for cargo delivery and search-and-rescue missions.

Elmer E. Rasmuson Library
University of Alaska Fairbanks 310 Tanana Loop
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6800 Phone: (907) 474-7481
Website: http://library.uaf.edu

Rasmuson Library includes an extensive Alaska collection containing many of the works cited in this bibliography. It is also home to the archives of the Alaska & Polar Regions Department, one of Alaska’s richest sources of historical materials related to WWII.

Alaska State Library
Location: 8 th floor, State Office Building Juneau, AK 99811-0571
Phone: (907) 465-2920
Website: http://library.alaska.gov

The Alaska State Library is an excellent place to begin searching for books and articles about WWII Alaska. In addition, the library’s historical collection contains one- of-a-kind material and rare books on the same theme.

Baranov Museum/Kodiak Historical Society
101 Marine Way
Kodiak, AK 99615
Phone: (907) 486-5920
Fax: (907) 486-3166
Website: http://www.baranovmuseum.org

The Baranov Museum houses both historical photographs and memoirs relating to the Aleutian Campaign and the role of the Kodiak Naval Operating Base in particular.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum
330 Harbor Drive
Sitka, AK 99835
Phone: (907) 747-6455
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.sitkahistory.org

The Sitka Historical Society and Museum holds WWII collections consisting of three-dimensional objects such as uniforms, medals, and military equipment, as well as an extensive photograph collection.

Museum of the Aleutians
314 Salmon Way
P.O. Box 648
Unalaska, AK 99685-0648
Phone: (907) 581-5150
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.aleutians.org

The Museum of the Aleutians collection includes weapons, historical photographs, uniforms, diaries, flightlogs, and Japanese flags from the Aleutian Campaign.

Aanlyn hulpbronne

“Among the Japanese placed guns on Kiska Island was this 125-mm (6-inch) pre-World War I British naval gun used by the Japanese to guard the entrance to Kiska Harbor.” Photo taken by NAS Adak, 7 September 1943.

NARA, Record Group 80-G-80384

Alaska Digital Archives - http://vilda.alaska.edu/index.php
This site presents a wealth of historical photographs, albums, oral histories, moving images, maps, documents, physical objects, and other materials from libraries, museums and archives throughout Alaska. This site has a large variety of digitized photos, interviews, documents, and films from World War II.

Alaska Library Web Pages - http://www.publiclibraries.com/alaska.htm
This site offers a list of links to library web pages throughout the state and to SLED, which provides access to library catalogs and related resources. Alaska Library Web Pages is maintained by the Alaska Library Association.

Alaska Library Directory - http://library.alaska.gov/forms/libraryDirectory.aspx
This site provides a list of basic user information for every library in Alaska. The site is maintained by the Alaska State Library.

Museums and Historical Societies in Alaska - http://museums.alaska.gov/list.html
Here you will find a complete list of Alaska’s museums and historical societies, each with user information and a description of facilities. The site is maintained by Alaska State Museums.

Statewide Library Electronic Doorway (SLED) - http://sled.alaska.edu/
SLED offers access to library catalogs and other resources of interest to Alaskans under the slogan “information resources for, about and by Alaskans.”

Internet Sites

Sitka Naval Operating Base, Easter Service, 1943.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum

The following sites contain information about WWII in Alaska. An Internet search under “World War II” will yield many others which examine the war as a global phenomenon or focus on specific events during the war years.

Aleutians Campaign, June 1942-August 1943: United States Navy Combat Narrative
http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/aleutians_campaign.htm
During WWII the U.S. Naval Historical Center began producing combat narratives of specific naval campaigns. This once- restricted document is offered by the NHC not as an official history but as a view through the eyes of the Navy in 1943.

The Aleutians Home Page
http://www.hlswilliwaw.com/aleutians/
This website began as a site to promote the sharing of anecdotes, photos, and links related to the post-World War II Shemya. Its content quickly grew to include experiences of World War II veterans of Shemya and other Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Islands: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II
http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/aleut/aleut.htm
This site contains a detailed U.S. Army article on the Aleutian Campaign. Included also are maps, illustrations, and a list of suggested reading.

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area
https://www.nps.gov/aleu/index.htm
This is the National Park Service website for the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area. It provides information on the Aleutian Campaign, Aleut Evacuation, interviews with veterans, and other information of interest to the general public, teachers, and students.

Forgotten Decades, WWII Alaskans Finally Get Their Due
http://www.npr.org/2013/05/28/186485619/forgotten-for-decades-wwii-alaskans-finally-get-their-due
This is a National Public Radio segment on Marvin “Muktuk” Marston and the more than 6,300 Alaska Natives that volunteered for the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II.

Kodiak Alaska Military History Museum
http://www.kadiak.org
This site includes a variety of documents relating to WWII in Kodiak, with both historic and more current day images. The Museum is housed in an historic Ammunition bunker at Miller Point, the former Fort Abercrombie, which today is a State Park in Kodiak.

LitSite Alaska
http://www.litsite.org
LitSite Alaska, showcases a living archive of lesson plans used in Alaskan classrooms and an extensive collection of excellent peer work by Alaskan students. It is a production of the University of Alaska Anchorage and has a number of sources discussing World War II in Alaska.

National Museum of the Air Force
http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/
This site is maintained by the National Museum of the Air Force on Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. It offers a series of short narratives concerning all aspects of the War in the Pacific, including the Aleutian Campaign.

Photos from the Aleutian Campaign
http://eubank-web.com/Donald/Aleutian/index.html
This site includes an impressive collection of WWII photographs taken in Adak and other Aleutian sites. The photos belonged to Dr. Will R. Eubank, an aviation medical examiner in the Army Air Corps. Together they help to tell the story of Eubank’s twelve month tour during the Aleutian Campaign.

Sitka’s WWII Site
http://www.sitkaww2.com/
This site, designed by a student named Mathew Hunter, is an excellent source for researching Sitka Naval Operating Base and Sitka’s military history. In addition to an historical narrative the site offers historic photographs, maps, and present-day snapshots of Sitka’s military installations.

Sources and Citation

Photograph by Sam Maloof, Master Sergeant with the 65th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion stationed on Kiska, 1943.

NPS Sam Maloof WWII in Alaska Photograph Collection courtesy of Beverly Maloof.

While this guide is intended primarily to assist teachers and students in finding information about the World War II in Alaska it also important to be able to identify types of sources and how to properly cite them in a bibliography or note. Below is some general guidance and some links to more specific guidance to help you in you research.

Types of Sources:

Primêre bronne
A primary source is a piece of information about a historical event or period in which the creator of the source was an actual participant in or a contemporary of a historical moment. Examples include historic photos, diaries, government documents, artifacts, and other written and tangible items created during the historical period you are studying.

Secondary Sources
A secondary source is a source that was not created first-hand by someone who participated in the historical era. Examples of secondary sources inlude journal articles and books written about historic events by historians, using primary and secondary sources. A secondary source is a person’s interpretation of what a primary source means.

Tertiary Sources
Tertiary sources are based on a collection of primary and secondary sources and may or may not be written by an expert. Tertiary sources are only used as exploratory sources and should never appear in your bibliography. These include dictionaries, encyclopedias, fact books, and guide books and are intended to give you ideas about what to research. Wikipedia is popular tertiary source that should not appear in your bibliography.

Citing Sources:

A key part of any research project is citing your sources. For historians there are generally three accepted styles of citation: Turabian, MLA, and Chicago Style. If you are doing a National History Day project Turabian or MLA must be used to cite your sources, however it is recommended that you ask your teacher before deciding which style to use. Below are the citations for each of the respective guides written in their bibliographic formats. Note the subtle differences in each.

MLA. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

Turabian, Kate L. 2013. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Chicago: Universiteit van Chicago Press.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition. Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2010.

National History Day

Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski visiting with Alaska’s National History Day students on the Capitol Steps in Washington, D.C.

One opportunity to research an Alaska World War II history topic is through the National History Day (NHD) program. NHD is an innovative curriculum framework in which students in grades 6-12 learn history by selecting topics of interest and launching into a year-long research project. The purpose of National History Day is to improve the teaching and learning of history in middle and high schools.

Following the school year, students

  • select a topic related to an annual History Day theme
  • select an entry category: website documentary exhibit research paper or performance
  • follow guidance for conducting historical research and create an original project

These projects are entered into competitions in the spring at local, state and national levels where they are evaluated by professional historians and educators. The program culminates with the national competition held each June at the University of Maryland at College Park.


Las Vegas: The Rise of the Mega-Casinos

In 1966 Howard Hughes checked into the penthouse of the Desert Inn and never left, preferring to buy the hotel rather than face eviction. He bought other hotels too—$300 million worth—ushering in an era in which mob interests were displaced by corporate conglomerates.

In 1989 longtime casino developer Steve Wynn opened the Mirage, the city’s first mega-resort. Over the next two decades the strip was transformed yet again: Old casinos were dynamited to make room for massive complexes taking their aesthetic cues from ancient Rome and Egypt, Paris, Venice, New York and other glamorous escapes.

Casinos and entertainment remained Las Vegas’ major employer, and the city grew with the size of the resorts and the numbers of annual visitors. In 2008, even as residents faced recession, rising unemployment and a housing price collapse, the city still received nearly 40 million visitors.


6. Does the U.S. military use AK-47s?

When the M16 rifle was first introduced in the Vietnam War, it had a number of issues. There were so many problems that American troops were killed in combat simply because they couldn't shoot back. Even after the kinks were worked out, a dirty M16 was (and is) much less likely to operate than a dirty AK-47. So U.S. troops were known to pick up AKs from their fallen enemies and keep them handy . just in case.

When the AK-47 was first introduced, it was such a great weapon that the Red Army actually hid it from the world. The U.S. didn't really know about its existence until the mid-1950s. Not that the American military would buy its standard-issue rifle from its main geopolitical foe and potential World War III adversary anyway.

These days, the U.S. does not field AK-47s, but some members of its military are trained to use them. Special operations forces from all branches might have to pick up an enemy AK-47 at some point because of the nature of their work -- sometimes help isn't coming.


Class 1 (Op) symbols: prefix operator (extensible) [ edit | wysig bron]

Accumulation operators: sum, integral, union, etc. [ edit | wysig bron]

These prefix operators accumulate the things they're prefixed to. "Extensible" means they have variable size to accommodate their operands, and their limits can appear below and above the operator.

   int
   oint
   igcap
   igcup

   igodot
   igoplus
   igotimes
   igsqcup

   iguplus
   igvee
   igwedge
   coprod

/>   prod
/>   sum

Die smallint command is not supported by the Wikia's LaTeX parser.

Named operators: sin, cos, etc. [ edit | wysig bron]

If your favorite operator, say, "foo", isn't listed, then you won't be able to use foo(x) in your LaTeX equation. But don't fret. You can get the same result with operatorname(x). If your made-up operator needs displayed limits, as in lim or max , then use operatorname* , as in the example in the following table.

   arccos
   arcsin
   arctan
   arg
   cos
   cosh
   cot
   coth
   csc
   deg

   det
   dim
   exp
   gcd
   hom
   inf
   injlim
   ker
   lg
   lim

   liminf
   limsup
   ln
   log
   max
   min
   Pr
   projlim
   sec
   sin

   sinh
   sup
   an
   anh
   varinjlim
   varprojlim
   varliminf
   varlimsup
   operatorname_0^1

The command operatorname* is not supported by the wikia's LaTeX parser.


Inhoud

Despite having defeated the Icon of Sin and halting Hell’s invasion of Earth, the Doom Slayer’s victory over the demons did not come without cost. The death of the Khan Maykr and Hell’s conquest of Urdak have given the demons a chance to dominate all dimensions and reinitiate their invasion of Earth. To prevent this, the Doom Slayer, along with Samuel Hayden and ARC scientists, embark on a mission to find and liberate the Slayer’s ally, the Seraphim. Traveling by sea on an ARC Carrier towards the UAC Atlantica Facility, the Slayer fights his way to the Seraphim's containment pod. When Hayden requests he be uploaded into the pod, it is revealed that he and the Seraphim are one and the same.

After returning to the ARC Carrier, the Seraphim tasks the Slayer to find and retrieve the Father’s life sphere from the Blood Swamps of Hell in order to return the Father to physical form. After fighting his way through the Blood Swamps, the Slayer finds and retrieves the Father’s life sphere. However, the Slayer chooses to destroy the sphere rather than hand it to the Seraphim and instead retrieves the Dark Lord’s life sphere before returning to the ARC Carrier.

Despite most of the Carrier’s crew evacuating upon seeing the Dark Lord’s life sphere, a lone intern stays to help the Slayer reach Urdak assuming that the Slayer intends to resurrect and destroy the Dark Lord, which in effect will destroy all demons. Upon reaching the corrupted Urdak, the Doom Slayer fights his way to the Luminarium where anyone who has a life sphere may activate it. However, the Slayer is confronted by the Seraphim upon reaching the Luminarium’s entrance. Consumed by Urdak’s demonic corruption, the Seraphim is transformed into a demon and after a lengthy battle is ultimately defeated by the Slayer and is teleported away by the Father. Despite being warned that bringing the Dark Lord into physical form is irreversible, the Doom Slayer proceeds to summon him, and the Primeval manifests as a copy of the Slayer himself.


Vega II AK-17 - History

This comprehensive military history collection includes more than 8.7 million records of men and women who enlisted to serve in the United States Army during World War II. These transcriptions include enlistments from 1938 to 1946. The original punch cards enlistees completed when they joined the army were destroyed after being microfilmed in 1947. This collection contains a listing that is still useful for genealogists to find ancestors who enrolled.

Individual entries may include:
• Army serial number
• First name
• Last name
• State and county of residence
• Place of enlistment
• Date of enlistment (day, month, year)
• Grade
• Branch
• Term of enlistment
• Source
• Nativity
• Year of birth
• Race
• Education
• Civilian occupation
• Marital status
• Army component

The information in this database was provided by the National Archives and Records Administration and was compiled from the World War II Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File. Nearly nine million men and women are included in the database, which is comprised of materials from the War Department Adjutant General’s Office. Due to record losses, the database is not a complete listing of all individuals who enlisted during World War II, but is the most complete database available. Original records from this collection can be found as part of the National Archives and Records Administration Series Record Group 64.



Kommentaar:

  1. Gwen

    Hierdie tema is eenvoudig vergelykbaar :), ek hou daarvan))))

  2. Ruanaidh

    Did you yourself come up with such an incomparable phrase?

  3. Kulbert

    Wat is die regte woorde ... super, wonderlike idee

  4. Dacio

    Ek is jammer, maar na my mening is jy verkeerd. Ek is seker. Ons moet bespreek. Skryf vir my in PM, praat.

  5. Eulises

    Na my mening is jy nie reg nie.

  6. Akigul

    I recommend that you visit the site, which has many articles on the topic that interests you.



Skryf 'n boodskap