Hoe het mense in die woestyn in die verlede koel gebly?

Hoe het mense in die woestyn in die verlede koel gebly?


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Om lae klere aan te trek, geïsoleerde skuilings te bou of bloot 'n vuur aan te steek, is 'n paar eenvoudige, maar effektiewe maniere om warm te bly. Mense het getoon dat hulle redelik goed is om hulself warm te hou, selfs deur die laaste groot ystydperk te oorleef, sowat 11 700 jaar gelede.

Uiteindelik het die aarde begin opwarm en mense bevind hulle byna oral. As jy dink aan die warmste plekke op aarde, sou jy 'n woestyn voorstel. Die grootste van die warm woestyne is die Sahara met 'n gemiddelde temperatuur van ongeveer 45 ° C of 113 ° F. Die Sahara is so groot dat dit 10 lande dek, een van die oudste is Egipte wat sedert 3000 vC bestaan ​​het. Soos hieronder gesien, is daar afbeeldings van bediendes wat aanhangers dra, hoewel waarskynlik slegs die adel hierdie luukse sou hê. Egipte was ongetwyfeld warm en dit sou 'n paar duisend jaar duur voor die uitvinding van elektriese waaiers en lugversorging. So, hoe het almal in daardie tye die hitte bestry en koel gebly?


Homo sapiens het naby die ewenaar ontwikkel, en het altyd met warm temperature te doen gehad. Daar is baie artikels oor hoe mense koel gebly het in die dae voor lugversorging:

  1. Bly uit die son op die warmste tye en moontlik slaap of verminder aktiwiteit (die siesta in Spanje)
  2. Geboue met dik mure om die hele jaar deur koel te bly (klip of modder sal dit doen)
  3. Boutegnieke om skaduwee te bevorder, soos stoepe, stoepe, balkonne, brise-soleils, portieke, skaduryke binnehowe, mure, bome, ens (klein vensters/nie heeltemal uit glas nie, help ook)
  4. Geboue wat ontwerp is om ventilasie te bevorder, met hoë plafonne, lugweë om deur te waai, windtorings en windopvangers (torings wat ontwerp is om koel lug na die grond te lei); en sit op die stoep stel jou ook bloot aan wind
  5. Water, nie net om te drink nie, maar versprei op dakke, op gordyne, ens., Om af te koel terwyl dit verdamp
  6. Pas goed aan (dikwels lang los klere, gewoonlik wit)

Bronne:

  • Accu Weather: 5 maniere waarop mense koel gebly het voordat lugversorging uitgevind is
  • Forbes: Hoe het mense intense hitte hanteer voordat lugversorging gewild geword het?
  • Woonstelterapie: hoe het mense oorleef voor lugversorging?
  • The National (VAE): Tradisionele maniere om koel te bly gedurende die somer

KORT ANTWOORD

Antieke Egiptenare het koel gehou deur onder andere te gebruik

  • Modder baksteenmure om huise koel te hou
  • Vensters vir kruisgang
  • Vents in die dak om lug te help sirkuleer
  • Mat vir vensterskerms
  • Vog riete en waterpotte vir ingedampte water om die lug af te koel
  • Dakke om in die nag op te slaap
  • Eenvoudige, ligte klere, maar klere is ook bepaal deur mode en status
  • 'N Hoofsteun in die nag om die sirkulasie rondom die kop te verbeter
  • 'N Nat kombers om in te slaap
  • Boomryke paadjies

Opmerking: die eertydse Egiptenare het meestal langs die Nyl gewoon eerder as in die woestyn, wat, soos vandag, grootliks onbewoon was.


BEHUISING

Modderstene is algemeen gebruik om huise te bou:

Die songedroogde modderstene, bekend as djebat, is gebruik om mure te bou wat dan met modderpleister bedek was en in wit of sagte kleure versier is. Die baksteenmure was baie geskik vir die klimaat van Egipte, aangesien dit huise koel gehou het in die somer en warm in die winter.

Verder,

Windows was klein blokkies, hoog opgestel om die verstikkende somerhitte te versag en voorkom dat stof, glans en vlieë die huis binnedring. Vensters was teenoor mekaar gerangskik om 'n kruis of wind te laat ontstaan om deur te filter; ventilasiepunte in die dak het ook toegelaat dat lug sirkuleer. Losweg geweef mat is gebruik as vensterskerm om die hitte en die glans van die son te versmoor.

Water is ook gebruik:

mense het klam riete oor vensters gehang en geplaas water gevulde potte in gange. Namate die water verdamp, sou dit die lug afkoel.

Die armer klas

het in hutte met een kamer onder dakke van riet, strooi en gras gewoon. Dakke het ook gedien as slaapplek op warm somernagte

Nagte kan eintlik redelik koud word in en om die woestyn (as ek in Mali aan die rand van die Sahara reis, het ek 'n paar keer op die dakke geslaap; teen middernag was 'n kombers nodig).


KLERE

Alhoewel mode en status ook die manier waarop mense geklee was bepaal het,

In ooreenstemming met die temperatuur het die Egiptenare eenvoudige style en gemaklike materiale bedink om van die vroegste tydperke aan te trek. Katoen was 'n belangrike gewas, en linne, veral die spesiale materiaal genaamd BYSSUS, het die basis geword vir klere vir hoër klasse.

Bron: Margaret Bunson, Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Die massas het meestal ligte kledingstukke gedra, want die laaste ding wat u in 'n warm klimaat wil hê, is swaar. Kleredrag was eenvoudig vir die armes:

Gedurende die warm somermaande, slawe, rietversamelaars, messelaars, vissers, bootmanne en kinders het min of glad nie klere gedra nie. Naaktheid was in daardie dae nie 'n probleem nie.

Linne was die beste stof, vanweë die ligte, lugtige kwaliteit en gemak van mobiliteit.

'N Stukkie lap is soms gebruik om die kop te bedek om dit teen die son te beskerm.

Bron: Ou Egiptiese Boere


ANDER

Ou Egiptenare het snags ook 'n kopsteun gebruik om die kop koel te hou:

Die gebruik van 'n kopsteun verseker nie net 'n relatief gemaklike posisie terwyl u slaap nie, maar stel ook in staat om lug om die kop te sirkuleer, 'n ekstra voordeel in 'n warm klimaat soos dié van Egipte.

Sommige kopstutte is van hout gemaak, maar die armes het klip dikwels gebruik. Dit is ook in ander streke rondom die Sahara gebruik:

In die naburige Libië is ook kopstutte gevind onder die Garamantes wat tussen 500 v.C. en 700 n.C. in Fezzan regeer het. In Mali was hulle teenwoordig in die Tellem, van die elfde tot veertiende eeu na Christus, en ... Dogons, tot in die twintigste eeu. Negentiende-eeuse kopstutte wat tot die Bicharin en die Ababds in Nubië behoort, het nog steeds vorms wat soortgelyk is aan dié van hul ou eweknieë, ...

"Ou Egiptiese gesnede houtkopsteun (1550 vC tot 1186 vC". Bron: Finch & Co.

'N Aantal webwerwe, soos hierdie, let ook op die gebruik van 'n nat kombers om snags koel te bly. Mense

draai die komberse om hul lywe en gaan slaap. Deur die hele nag het die hitte veroorsaak dat die water van die komberse af verdamp, wat die persoon binne en koel gehou het.

Ou Egiptenare en ander wat in en om die woestyn woon, sou ook ongetwyfeld baie van die dinge gedoen het wat hul moderne eweknieë doen, soos afkoel in die Nyl (of die Niger, ens.) En voordeel trek uit die skaduwee wat daar teen bome is ( welgestelde Egiptenare het soms pragtige tuine met boomryke paadjies en lopende water). Tog is godsdienstige seremonies dikwels in die son gehou, en Egiptenare was blykbaar nie daaraan gewoond nie:

Baie seremonies is in die oop son gehou, 'n gebruik wat klagtes van buitelandse hooggeplaastes meegebring het. Hierdie ambassadeurs en erfenisse uit ander lande het die seremonies ter ere van Aten bygewoon en gevolglik hitte berokken.

Bron: Bunson


(al die hoogtepunte is myne)


Ander bron:

A. R. David, Die piramide -bouers van antieke Egipte


Gedurende die Middeleeue sou mans, veral outlaws, in die winter warm bly deur 'n linnehemp te dra met onderklere, wante van wol of leer en woljasse met 'n kappie oor 'n stywe pet wat 'n coif genoem word.

Selfs as die mans buite woon en dit reën, dra hulle nat wolklere om gesellig te bly. Hipotermie kan altyd voorkom wanneer die lugtemperatuur onder 60 (ja, 60) grade Fahrenheit is. Hierdie outlaw -mans moes die regte liggaamstemperatuur handhaaf om dit te vermy.

'N Beter opsie vir klere vir die winter was leer van 'n takbok of vark, wat mans sou gebruik om mantels of kappies van te maak.


Ontkenning van die mite van die ‘ Leë woestyn ’

Aboriginale mense woon in en om die woestyn vir ten minste 5000 jaar en doen dit steeds vandag.

Toe Europese ontdekkingsreisigers en wetenskaplikes in die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu die Simpson -woestyn begin aandurf, is daar algemeen geglo dat niemand moontlik in die harde, waterlose sandduine kan woon nie.

Bekende Europese ontdekkingsreisigers soos Charles Winnecke en dr Cecil Madigan het gehelp om hierdie mite te bevorder. In 1883 skryf Winnecke:

Ek is amper seker dat hierdie land nog nooit deur inboorlinge besoek is nie. ”

Aboriginale mense self, tesame met argeologiese en antropologiese navorsing, het egter bewys dat hierdie mite verkeerd is.

Persoonlike verslae en mondelinge geskiedenis van Aboriginale mense in die omgewing is geredelik beskikbaar om hierdie mite te ontken. Die bekendste hiervan is die verslag van Mick McClean (Irinijili) en sy suster, Topsy.

Luise Hercus, afgetrede taalkundige, het in die sewentigerjare uitgebreide werk met Mick en Topsy McClean gedoen, en nie net taal nie, maar ongelooflike besonderhede oor hoe Aboriginale mense in die Simpson -woestyn geleef en oorleef het.

Uit die belangrike en baie leesbare werk van Hercus is dit duidelik dat die Aboriginale Simpson -woestyn inderdaad permanent daar gewoon het.

Aboriginale put met dekstene

Wat nog meer is, dit is 'n aantal minder bekende Europese ontdekkingsreisigers, soos David Lindsay en Ted Colson, het ook geweet dat Aboriginale mense in die Simpson -woestyn woon en hul kennis gebruik het om die streek te verken.

Lindsay gebruik die netwerk van mikiri, of Aboriginale putte, as waterbronne op sy reis na die woestyn in 1886. Colson het die hulp van die Anterkarinya (plaaslike Aboriginale) man, Peter Ains, gebruik om die woestyn van wes na oos oor te steek en dan weer terug in 1933.

Die afgelope 30 jaar het argeoloë soos dr Mike Smith en dr Paul Tacon uitgebreide navorsing gedoen oor Simpson Desert Aboriginale mense en hul besetting van die woestyn.

Deur gebruik te maak van bewyse soos klipgereedskap, kampplekke, skuilings, mens- en dierbeenfragmente, kon argeoloë vasstel dat Aboriginals minstens 5000 jaar lank min of meer aanhoudend in die Simpsonwoestyn gewoon het.

Aangesien die Simpson -woestyn 'n gebied is waarop ek (Amanda) gespesialiseer het, kan ek ook bevestig dat mense saam met wie ek gewerk het, ook verhale gehad het van oupas en oumas en ander familie wat in die woestyn gewoon het.

Veldwerk met Aboriginale mense in die Simpson -woestyn

Wat nog meer, hulle kan plekke noem en die verhale vertel vir die hele Dreaming Tracks wat die woestyn oorsteek. Sommige van hierdie verhale kom van so ver as Port Augusta en Boulia.

Dit sou vir almal duidelik blyk dat die idee dat Aboriginale mense nie in die Simpsonwoestyn gewoon het nie, 'n fiksie is.

Niks meer as 'n mite om by te voeg tot die mistiek van die Simpson -woestyn self nie.


Omgewing

Woestyne is uiteenlopende en veranderlike omgewings, en dit is onmoontlik om tot 'n bondige definisie te kom wat in elke geval voldoen. Die belangrikste kenmerk daarvan is egter 'n tekort aan beskikbare vog vir plante as gevolg van 'n wanbalans tussen neerslag en verdamping. Hierdie situasie word vererger deur aansienlike wisselvalligheid in die tydsberekening van reënval, lae atmosferiese humiditeit, hoë dagtemperature en winde.

Gemiddelde jaarlikse neerslag wissel van byna nul in sommige Suid -Amerikaanse kuswoestyne en Libiese woestyne tot ongeveer 600 millimeter (24 duim) in woestyne in Madagaskar, hoewel die meeste erkende woestyne 'n jaarlikse reënval onder 400 millimeter het. Sommige owerhede beskou 250 millimeter as die boonste grens vir gemiddelde jaarlikse neerslag vir ware woestyne, en beskryf plekke met 'n gemiddelde jaarlikse reënval van tussen 250 en 400 millimeter as halfwoestyne. Hierdie droë gebiede is skaars bewerkbaar en dra slegs by tot die voedselproduksie van mense deur weivelde vir vee te voorsien.

Die dorre toestande van die groot woestyngebiede is die gevolg van hul posisie in subtropiese streke aan weerskante van die klam ekwatoriale gordel. Die atmosferiese sirkulasiepatroon, bekend as die Hadley -sel, speel 'n belangrike rol in woestynklimaat. In gebiede naby die ewenaar, waar die hoeveelheid inkomende sonenergie per oppervlakte -eenheid die grootste is, word lug naby die grond verhit, dan styg, brei dit af en verkoel. Hierdie proses lei tot die kondensasie van vog en neerslag. Op hoë vlakke in die atmosfeer beweeg die stygende lug weg van die ekwatoriale gebied om uiteindelik in die subtrope af te daal terwyl dit afkoel, dit beweeg terug na die ewenaar op lae hoogtes en voltooi die Hadley -selsirkulasiepatroon. Die lug wat oor die subtrope daal, het reeds die meeste vog verloor as reën tydens sy vorige styging naby die ewenaar gevorm het. As dit daal, word dit saamgepers en warmer, en die relatiewe humiditeit daal verder. (Vir verdere bespreking van relatiewe humiditeit, kyk biosfeer: humiditeit.) Warm woestyne kom voor in die streke noord en suid van die ekwatoriale gordel wat onder hierdie dalende, droë lugmassas lê. Hierdie patroon kan onderbreek word waar die plaaslike neerslag toeneem, veral aan die oostekant van kontinente waar winde aan die wal waai en vog oor die oseaan opneem. Omgekeerd kan woestyne elders voorkom, soos in die berg van bergreekse, waar lug gedwing word om op te staan, af te koel en vog te verloor as reën op die windhange val.

Reënval in woestyne is gewoonlik skraal. In sommige gevalle kan 'n paar jaar sonder reën verbygaan, byvoorbeeld, in Cochones, Chili, het geen reën in 45 agtereenvolgende jare tussen 1919 en 1964 geval nie. Gewoonlik val reën egter ten minste 'n paar dae per jaar in woestyne - gewoonlik 15 tot 20 dae. As neerslag voorkom, kan dit vir baie tydperke baie swaar wees. Byvoorbeeld, 14 millimeter het by Mashʾabe Sade, Israel, in slegs sewe minute op 5 Oktober 1979 geval, en in die suidweste van Madagaskar kom die hele jaarlikse reënval gereeld voor as reënbuie binne 'n enkele maand. Sulke reënval kom gewoonlik slegs oor klein gebiede voor en is die gevolg van plaaslike konveksieselle, met meer wydverspreide frontreën wat beperk is tot die suidelike en noordelike rand van woestyne. In sommige plaaslike woestynbuie verdamp die reën wat uit wolke val voordat dit die grond bereik. Streke naby die ekwatoriale marges van warm woestyne ontvang die meeste reën in die somer - Junie tot Augustus in die noordelike halfrond en Desember tot Februarie in die Suidelike halfrond - terwyl diegene naby die gematigde marges die grootste deel van hul reënval in die winter ontvang. Reën is besonder wisselvallig en ewe onwaarskynlik dat dit in alle seisoene in tussenstreke voorkom.

In sommige woestyne wat naby kus geleë is, soos die Namib -woestyn van suidwestelike Afrika en dié van die weskus van die Amerikas in Kalifornië en Peru, is mis 'n belangrike vogbron wat andersins skaars is. Vogdruppels sak uit die mis op plante en kan dan op die grond drup of direk deur plantlote opgeneem word. Dauw kan ook beduidend wees, alhoewel nie in woestyne in die sentrale dele van kontinente waar die humiditeit van die atmosfeer deurgaans baie laag is nie.

In die meeste woestyngebiede is die atmosferiese humiditeit gewoonlik te laag om mis of dou in 'n beduidende mate moontlik te maak. Die potensiële verdampingsnelheid (die verdampingsnelheid wat voortduur as daar voortdurend water voorkom) is ooreenstemmend hoog, gewoonlik 2,500 tot 3,500 millimeter per jaar, met soveel as 4,262 millimeter potensiële verdamping per jaar in Death Valley in Kalifornië. Winde is nie buitengewoon sterk of gereeld in vergelyking met aangrensende omgewings nie, maar die algemene gebrek aan plantegroei in woestyne vererger die effek van wind op grondvlak. Winde kan die erosie van fyn materiaal en die verdamping van vog veroorsaak en sodoende help om te bepaal watter plante in die woestyn oorleef.

Warm woestyne, soos hul naam aandui, ervaar bedags baie hoë temperature, veral in die somer. Absolute maksimum lugtemperature in alle warm woestyne is meer as 40 ° C (104 ° F), en die hoogste waarde wat in Libië aangeteken is, is 58 ° C (136,4 ° F). Die temperatuur van die grondoppervlak kan selfs verder styg as dié van die lug, met waardes tot 78 ° C (172 ° F) in die Sahara. Nagtemperature kan egter dramaties daal, omdat dieselfde gebrek aan wolkbedekking wat hoë vlakke van inkomende sonstraling gedurende die dag toelaat, ook vinnige energieverlies deur langgolfstraling in die nag moontlik maak. Absolute minimum temperature, behalwe in woestyngebiede naby die see, is oor die algemeen onder die vriespunt. Tipiese gemiddelde jaarlikse temperature is tussen 20 ° C (68 ° F) en 25 ° C (77 ° F).

Gematigde of koue woestyne kom voor in gematigde streke op hoër breedtegrade - en dus kouer temperature - as dié waar warm woestyne voorkom. Hierdie droë omgewings word veroorsaak deur die afstand tot die kus, wat lei tot 'n lae lugvogtigheid as gevolg van 'n gebrek aan wind op die wal, of die teenwoordigheid van hoë berge wat die woestyn van die kus skei. Die grootste gebied van gematigde woestyn lê in Sentraal -Asië, met kleiner gebiede in Wes -Noord -Amerika, Suidoos -Suid -Amerika en Suid -Australië. Terwyl hulle laer temperature ondervind as die meer tipiese warm woestyne, is gematigde woestyne soortgelyk aan droogheid en gevolglike omgewingskenmerke, insluitend landvorme en gronde.

Die eienaardige klimaatomgewing van woestyne het die ontwikkeling van sekere kenmerkende landvorme bevoordeel. Klipperige vlaktes wat regs of gibbervlaktes genoem word, is wydverspreid, die oppervlak bedek met woestynpaadjie wat bestaan ​​uit growwe gruis en klippe bedek met 'n patina van donker "woestynvernis" ('n glansende donker oppervlakbedekking wat uit ysteroksiede bestaan). Rotsagtige, rotsblare wat deur droë, gewoonlik steil walle, wadis, gesny is, kom ook in woestyne in baie dele van die wêreld voor. Die plaaslike topografiese en mikroklimatiese variasies wat deur hierdie ruwe oppervlak geproduseer word, en die geleenthede vir afloop - en op 'n paar plekke oppervlakte -ophoping - van reënwater, is belangrik vir die voorsiening van gelokaliseerde habitats vir plante en diere. Groot dele van los, mobiele sand bied die ergste en armste van die belangrikste woestyn habitat tipes.


Hoe het mense in die woestyn in die verlede koel gebly? - Geskiedenis

Ons roete deur die Kyzyl Kum -woestyn na Khiva

Ons het nou ons tweede Stan van die reis binnegekom – Oesbekistan. Omdat ons nie visums vir Iran of Turkmenistan gekry het nie, is ons noordwaarts na Kazakstan gedwing en Oesbekistan op die mees noordwestelike punt binnegekom. Ons verlaat Oesbekistan vanaf die mees suidoostelike punt na Tadzjikistan, wat beteken dat ons gedurende die volgende twee weke die hele lengte van die land sal oorsteek, insluitend die volle uitgestrektheid van die 1600 km lange Kyzyl Kum -woestyn. Maar met 'n groot oppervlakte van 300 000 km² is dit nog steeds net die derde grootste woestyn in Asië! Een plek agter is die Taklamaklan, wat in China op ons wag. Ons Oesbekistan -afdeling sou in drie dele verdeel word: die grens na Khiva ('n ou Silk Road -stad), Khiva na Bukhara ('n ander Silk Road -stad) en Bukhara na Dushanbe, Tadzjikistan.

Toe ons op 3 November afskeid neem van die Oesbekiese grenswagte, roep hulle ons agterna. “Som? (die plaaslike geldeenheid) Swart mark! ” Wys in die rigting van 'n paar mense wat tussen die rye vragmotors en 'n paar krotte ronddwaal. Geld en die swart mark sou prominent verskyn op ons reis deur Oesbekistan. Ons het die skaduryke karakters genader en gevra vir 'n koers, onbewus van wat dit moet wees. Ons het ons dollar oorhandig en hulle het letterlik weggehardloop. Ons kyk rond vir die polisie. Sou ons in hegtenis geneem word? Ons het vinnig weggetrap, maar niks het gekom nie. Namate ons wyser geword het, kon ons onderhandel vir beter en beter tariewe. Tariewe het blykbaar daagliks gewissel, of so het mense gesê: was dit waar of bedrogspul? Ons het nie regtig verstaan ​​hoe die swart markkoerse werk nie, so ons het bly jag totdat ons die koers gekry het wat ons wou hê. In een stad, na donker, is ons na 'n taamlik dodelike versameling woonstelblokke gelei om die enigste man te vind wat geld verruil het. Moenie noem nie ‘dollars ’ ons is gewaarsku toe ons nader kom. Een skerp Amerikaanse noot kan verruil word vir vier of vyf stukkies vuil note saamgevoeg met tou. Niemand in Oesbekistan het 'n beursie nie; u kan nie meer as 'n pond of so in een pas nie! In plaas daarvan draai die inwoners die gom in rekkies en gee tientalle note oor om vir middagete te betaal! Om sulke mal hoeveelhede uit te tel, veroorsaak plae van die plaaslike bevolking terwyl ons die een na die ander stadig deur die aantekeninge blaai. Dit neem amper soveel tyd om die geld vir ons uit te tel as om die ete te eet! Om die hoeveelheid te kontroleer, flikker die beskermheer moeiteloos deur die stapel terwyl ons met groot oë staar na sy behendigheid.

U kry baie vir u dollar

Die dag het baie koud geword toe die dwelmkontrole by die grens vertraag is. Ons het 20 km in Oesbekistan gekom, en ons het ons eerste Sentraal -Asiatiese cayhana gestruikel toe die sneeu begin val. Sneeu in 'n woestyn? Ja! En teen die oggend kan u vergewe word as u gedink het dat ons in die Antarktiese woestyn is, maar vir die kamele wat die plek van pikkewyne ingeneem het. Toe ons die cayhana binnekom, word ons begroet deur twee giggelende Oezbeeks meisies. Hulle het gesê dat ons kan eet en slaap, en dat dit ver is na die volgende nedersetting. Hulle was nie verkeerd nie!

Wat die vorige dag 'n dorre geelbruin landskap was, het 'n ongerepte wit tapyt daaroor gerol. Die toneel het nie minder onvrugbaar gelyk nie, maar die sneeu het 'n bietjie pret en opwinding bygevoeg. Die kinderlike waardering vir sneeu, 'n magiese stof uit die Kerstyd, ideaal vir speletjies en speel, het gou verval toe ons besef dat ons daardeur moet fietsry. Dit is wonderlik om 'n sneeuman te bou as jy weet dat jy 'n warm huis het om na terug te gaan, maar as jy nie weet waar die volgende gebou kan wees nie, hoe ver is jou volgende warm maaltyd, dan is sneeu baie minder lekker! Die pad was stadig, ons kon skaars bo 10 km per uur kom. Die Oesbekiese paaie was 'n groot verbetering op die Kazakse grondpaadjies, maar die aantal motors wat met modder na die vensters toe kom, dui daarop dat die teerpad nie om die draai was nie! Daar was nêrens om op hierdie pad te stop nie, so ons het nie. Ons het middagete op die saal geëet, brood en koekies in ons jas se sakke gedruk, terwyl ons trap, probeer om die slaggate te vermy, gapings in die pad en groot rante wat gevorm word deur vragmotors na vragmotors wat dieselfde lyn neem, en sny die ekwivalent van treinspore die pad in. Teen donker het ons nog niks gesien nie. Daar was natuurlik motors, maar afgesien daarvan was daar letterlik net woestynplantegroei, 'n treinspoor en pilare vir 'n 360 ° -uitsig. In sulke omstandighede voel dit baie asof jy glad nie beweeg nie. Slegs die draai van die wiele en die wind op u gesig herinner u aan u beweging. U sien hoe die pilare in die horison verdwyn en eindeloos strek. 'N Woestyn is 'n vreemde plek, nie êrens waar ek te veel tyd wil spandeer nie, veral alleen.

Die pad smelt in die sand in!

Ons het by die eerste van die vele politiese kontrolepunte aangekom. Plaaslik word hulle ‘YPX ’ genoem. Hulle is geleë op die pad op die grens van elke provinsie, sowel as op baie ander plekke langs die paaie. Daar is baie van hulle! Ons is nog steeds nie seker wat die doel van hierdie kontrolepunte is nie, aangesien dit motors willekeurig stop en ander sonder tjeks laat gaan. Gewoonlik, maar nie altyd nie, word ons afgetrek, paspoorte het deurgeloop, maar oor die algemeen niks meer nie. Soms word ons besonderhede neergeskryf, en ons moes een keer 'n koffer oopmaak en die inhoud verduidelik, gevolg deur nog 'n deeglike noodhulpkontrole. Dit lyk dikwels asof die polisie meer geïnteresseerd is in ons verhaal as om ons te ondersoek, wat tot lang vertragings kan lei as ons ons verhaal vertel. Ons baard is 'n groot gesprekspunt. Eerstens hou Oesbeke regtig nie van baard nie (blykbaar hou hulle van skoon gesigte en voel dat baarde met terroriste verbind word). Tweedens dink die polisie dat ons nie genoeg na ons paspoortfoto's lyk nie. In Oesbekistan kan 'n man deur 'n polisiebeampte beveel word om huis toe te gaan en te skeer, en dit is 'n groot probleem! Ons maak 'n grap dat die baard ons teen die koue moet beskerm en tot dusver weggekom het. Hulle wys gereeld na die waterbottels wat die inhoud bevraagteken, klop op die klok en skakel die voorste fakkel aan. Hulle is vriendelik genoeg, maar is nie in staat om ons te registreer nie, ondanks die feit dat hulle polisie is, so dit is nie te nuttig vir ons nie. In Oesbekistan moet buitelanders elke drie dae in 'n hotel registreer of die risiko loop dat hulle 'n boete kry wanneer hulle die land verlaat. Dit veroorsaak dat fietsryers in die drie dae groot afstande moet aflê om groot dele woestyn betyds oor te steek vir die volgende registrasie!

By hierdie geleentheid het die polisie ons ingelig dat daar 'n hotel in 6km is waar ons kan bly en goeie nuus! Ons het aangekom om Mongol Rally -plakkers te vind wat die voordeur van die herberg bedek. Almal wat daar verbybeweeg, moes hier stop, ons het geweet daar is nêrens anders vir 100km in enige rigting nie. Ons het 145km gery op ons eerste volle dag in Oesbekistan. Ons was absoluut uitgeput. Ons het geweet dat dit nie makliker sou word nie, aangesien ons nog baie woestyn het om te gaan en nie baie dae om na Khiva, ons eerste bestemming, te kom nie.

Ons het wakker geword van ligte motreën. Beter as sneeu? Kan wees. Maar sodra ons die skuiling van die eensame gebou verlaat het, het die motreën na swaar reën verander. Reën verander in sneeu, en in kombinasie met baie sterk teenwind kners ons tande en ry stadig na Khiva. Met vier dae oor het ons gehoop dat die weer sy deuntjie sal verander en ons kan help! As dit sonnig is en die pad goed is, vlieg die kilometers verby. In sneeuagtige, onstuimige toestande neem die kilometermerkers langs die pad egter 'n ouderdom om te verskyn. Elke kilometer skynbaar verder as die vorige. As die merkers van meer as 1000 aftel, en u daaraan herinner hoe ver die woestyn strek, voel dit asof u u saggies bespot en lag oor u ellende.

Nog net 1000 km woestyn!

In die woestyn is daar geen beskerming teen die elemente nie. Ons het geen skaduwee nodig vir die afwesige son nie. In plaas daarvan het ons skuiling nodig gehad teen die stormwinde en die reën. 'N Eenmalige geparkeerde vragmotor het ons die oomblikke van pouse gegee waarna ons verlang het voordat ons ons stryd teen Moeder Natuur kon voortsit. Die enigste ding wat ons aan die gang gehou het, was die wete dat daar iets is wat 'n silo in 50km genoem kan word, alhoewel ons nie 'n idee gehad het wat hierdie silo kan wees nie. So was dit in die Oesbekiese woestyn. Ons sal 'n rowwe afstand kry na die volgende skuiling deur 'n omgee motoris. Baie vriendelike mense het ons hysbakke aangebied, maar ons moes beleefd weier, ongeag hoe erg die omstandighede was. Die weer en padtoestande het gekom in swaaie en rotonde. Net soos ons gedink het dat ons nie kan aangaan nie, kan die swart wolke wegbrand, of die pad sou wonderbaarlik teerpad word. Net soos die slegte nie vir ewig bestaan ​​het nie, en die goeie ook nie! Maar daar was genoeg goed om te beteken dat die afstande hanteerbaar was, alhoewel ons diep in die donker ure moes ry.

Die horison in die woestyn lyk altyd ver weg, en kom nooit regtig nader nie. Dit is nog erger as dit snags op die horison lig. Fietsry in die donker is nie 'n stokperdjie wat ek na hierdie ekspedisie wil voortsit nie. Dit is redelik stadig en uiters vermoeiend, fisies en geestelik vermoeiend. Wat maklik sou wees om in die lig te ry, word 'n daad van groot konsentrasie terwyl u fokus op die kollig van die pad voor u. 'N Lig in die woestynag dui op die einde van die dag, warmte, kos en 'n bed. Maar daardie lig neem 'n eeu om te nader, skynbaar eindeloos ver. Ons meedoënloosheid is uiteindelik beloon toe die ligkorrel in 'n Amerikaanse eetplek in die middel van die woestyn verander het. Dit het plaaslike kos bedien eerder as hamburgers, maar dit het wel Wi-Fi, baie duur hotelkamers met swembad en sauna, en 'n oulike kind, die eienaar se seun, wat ons nommer een waaier geword het vir die dag, terwyl ons ons hoede probeer, helms, sonbrille en handskoene.

Na nog 'n dag van byna 150 km arriveer ons in Nukus, 'n grensdorp met Turkmenistan, ons oorspronklike beplande toegangspunt na Oesbekistan. Ons wou net eet en slaap voordat ons die volgende dag weer vroeg vertrek. 'N Rustige ete lagman (noedels) of plov (rys) was presies wat ons nodig gehad het. Die eerste restaurant wat ons binnegekom het, het 'n DJ -plakkaat by die deur gehad. Toe ons binnekom, kon ons die bas voel tril deur die hele plek. Om verder te beweeg, het begroetende technomusiek ons ​​begroet. Vier mans staan ​​op 'n piepklein dansvloer wat ongemaklik beweeg na die swaar maat. Twee mans het hul ete eenkant gesit en eet, sonder om te praat oor die geraas. Ons het dit die beste gevoel om aan te gaan. Die volgende plek wat ons probeer het, het 'n soortgelyke opset gehad, hierdie keer die musiek – Wat sê die jakkals? Club remix – blaas van bo af op. Die restaurant daaronder weerklink. Hulle bedien elke soort beesvleis denkbaar – Brits, Amerikaans, Japannees, Kanadese. Alles teen Londen pryse. Het hulle plaaslike kos bedien? “ Hier? Nee meneer! Dit is nie die soort plek nie. ” was baie die gevoel van hoe die kelner geantwoord het. Ons het verder gegaan. Soms in die mikrogolfoond en 'n pot tee in 'n hoekwinkel was die beste wat ons kon kry. Dit was darem stil!

Meer woestyn. As u na die satellietweergawe op Google Maps van Noordwes -Oesbekistan gaan, sal u sien hoe dit lyk! As dit onvrugbaar en taai op u monitor lyk, stel u voor dat u daardeur fietsry! Tot op hierdie stadium het ons nog steeds feitlik geen tekenposte in Oesbekistan gesien nie. Enige wegwysers wat daar was, het geen afstande gehad nie. Niemand het regtig geweet hoe ver enigiets was nie. 'N Restaurant in 10km kan 3km of 30km beteken. Dit was 'n tema vir ons woestynkruisings: Oesbekiese skattings op afstande is dikwels wilde raaiskote! Toe ons nader aan Turkmenistan kom, het ons deur weermagkontrolepunte gegaan. Ons was diep in Karakalpakstan, 'n streek van Oesbekistan wat onafhanklikheid verlang, maar nie regtig die middele het om daarmee voort te gaan nie. Militêre teenwoordigheid was meer voor die hand liggend en die kontrolepunte strenger. Terwyl ons na 'n blyplek soek, het 'n dronk man ons vasgehou, of meer spesifiek Nick. Hy het vir ons aangebied om by hom te bly. Die volgehoue ​​“Ek is lief vir jou Nick ” en sy algemene klewerigheid was genoeg om af te neem. Dit was nie so maklik om die boodskap oor te dra nie en hy was vasbeslote dat hy nie sonder ons huis toe sou gaan nie. Gelukkig, op die regte tyd, verskyn ons beskermengel, Koshiva, 'n Engelse onderwyser op die toneel. Ons is uitgenooi na haar huis en word as die vooraanstaande gaste beskou. Warm kos, beddens en tee met melk was baie welkom en dit was fantasties om 'n Engelssprekende te ontmoet wat al ons vrae oor Oesbekistan kon beantwoord. Interessant genoeg leer studente nou Engels as die tweede taal bo Russies – Brits Engels, aangesien die land baie anti-Amerika is. Die oggend is ons getrakteer op 'n heerlike ontbyt en het ons in die swaar mis uitgegaan.

'N Heerlike ontbyt saam met ons gashere

Ons was gretig om net 'n bietjie Turkmenistan te sien, en ons het 'n pad op die kaart gevind wat na die grens gelei het, maar dit was blykbaar nie 'n kruising nie. Ons ry langs die baan van die hoofweg af om 'n verlate grenspos van Oesbekistan te vind, vensters stukkend, deur ontbreek en geen versperring nie. Voor Oesbekistan was 'n Turkmeense wagtoring. A pretend soldier was propped against the railings. As we left Uzbekistan into no man’s land, Turkmen guards came out of the tower room rifles in hand. We stopped where we were. One came down and Nick went to have a chat. I turned the GoPro on – never miss an opportunity! Nick asked if we could cross the border, take a photo and come back. The soldier radioed the guard tower past the border. After much deliberation we were denied access, understandably, and we continued on our way. Turkmenistan eluding us once again. Just by the border we were invited in to a restaurant, which turned out to be a wedding banquet restaurant, for lunch. We explained that we couldn’t stay for the evening wedding. But we took lots of photos with the family working there, standing where the bride and groom would that evening, flashing neon lights, fake flowers and LED curtains providing the backdrop to the photos.

The location for your big day

As the sun set, on our final stretch into Khiva the great stone walls of the old town appeared in front of us, marking the end of our first leg in Uzbekistan. “We’ve cycled here from London!” we kept repeating. Following the ancient Silk Road, it seemed apt to be staying in one of the old towns, just as the caravans would have done all those years ago. A walled town filled with madrassahs, mosques and minarets, it was a beautiful location and a historic treasure.

On our much deserved rest day we explored the market, climbed the minarets and scrambled on the city walls. A huge event was taking place in the main square. We assumed a wedding, but found out that it was National Youth Day and students from all over Uzbekistan were gathered here in Khiva. National television was there to cover the event and were quick to ask us for an interview. We couldn’t decline an opportunity for publicity! We did have to pass when we were asked to dance the extremely technical national dance, leaving it instead to the nimble and much more skilful local girls.

With the TV crew and our translator

Bukhara is our next destination, another oasis town, the other side of yet more desert. Stay tuned for Nick’s Desert Days Part Two!


Why the Mormons Settled in Utah

In 1844, reeling from the murder of their founder and prophet, Joseph Smith, and facing continued mob violence in their settlement in Illinois, thousands of Latter Day Saints (better known as Mormons) threw their support behind a new leader, Brigham Young. Two years later, Young led the Mormons on their great trek westward through the wilderness some 1,300 miles to the Rocky Mountains𠅊 rite of passage they saw as necessary in order to find their promised land.

Young, and 148 Mormons, crossed into the Great Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. For the next two decades, wagon trains bearing thousands of Mormon immigrants followed Young’s westward trail. By 1896, when Utah was granted statehood, the church had more than 250,000 members, most living in Utah. Today, according to official LDS statistics, Utah is home to more than 2 million Mormons, or about one-third of the total number of Mormons in the United States.

U.S. Mormon leader and founder of Salt Lake City in Utah, Brigham Young. (Credit: Culture Club/Getty Images)

Joseph Smith is jailed and killed by an angry mob.
Forced to flee anti-Mormon hostility in New York, Ohio and Missouri, in 1839 Smith and other church members arrived in Nauvoo, Illinois, on the banks of the Mississippi River. Jailed in Missouri, Smith was allowed to escape to Illinois, where he helped build Nauvoo into a thriving city. Then in mid-1843, after Missouri’s governor blamed a failed assassination attempt on Mormon agitators, the governor of Illinois, Thomas Ford, agreed to extradite Smith to face trial.

Why all the hostility against Smith and his fellow Mormons? “The Mormons were fairly clannish, you might say,” Matthew Bowman, professor of history at Henderson State University and author of The Mormon People: The Making of an American Faith, explains. “They tended to vote in blocs, they tended to consolidate all their economic activity within their own communities. These kinds of things generated suspicion from people around them.”

Smith evaded extradition for a while, and even began planning a run for president of the United States in 1844. But when a local newspaper, the Nauvoo Expositor, published a front page article criticizing the Mormon doctrine of polygamy, Smith ordered its printing press smashed. In the ensuing uproar, Smith was convinced to turn himself in at the county seat in Carthage to face a hearing.

On June 27, 1844, a mob gathered at the jail and killed Smith and his brother Hyrum. Though the Mormons had been considering migrating West, beyond the reach of the United States government, before their founder’s murder, the crime solidified this intention. And Brigham Young, who emerged as de facto leader after Smith’s death, had just the place in mind.

The murder of Joseph Smith. (Krediet: Bettmann -argief/Getty Images)

Relying on reports of Western explorers and the low population, the Mormons set their eyes on Utah.
Young and his fellow apostles considered options such as Texas (during its brief period as an independent republic), California and Canada. But relying on the reports of Western explorers like John C. Frémont, they decided on the Great Salt Lake Valley in the Rocky Mountains. At the time, the region was part of Mexico, with limited oversight by the Mexican government. They set out from Nauvoo in April 1846, but were forced to spend several months camped along the Missouri River between Iowa and Nebraska. When spring came, Young and an advance group of 143 men, three women and two children left the winter camp and headed for their final destination.

Despite warnings about the region’s unsuitability for agriculture and the hostile Native Americans living near the smaller, freshwater Utah Lake, the Mormons were drawn to the low population of the Salt Lake Valley. And the mountains ringing the valley were stocked with freshwater streams and creeks that could nourish crops, despite the saltiness of the Great Salt Lake itself. “It didn’t seem to be wanted by any other white people,” Bowman says of Young’s chosen spot. “There was not a large Native American presence, but there was the potential for agriculture, and for supporting a large population.”

In a later account of their arrival, the future LDS leader Wilford Woodruff wrote that Young paused and gazed down at the valley for several minutes when they first arrived, and “he saw the future glory of Zion and of Israel, as they would be, planted in the valleys of these mountains.”

Sheet music cover for a song titled “If You Saw What I Saw, You𠆝 Go To Utah!” by Howard Patrick, 1917. (Credit: Sheridan Libraries/Levy/Gado/Getty Images)

When Utah becomes part of the U.S., Young sees an opportunity to control a state government.
When Young and his followers first arrived in the Great Salt Lake, the region was still part of Mexican territory. But in early 1848, Mexico ceded some 525,000 square miles of its territory to the United States at the end of the Mexican-American War, including all or parts of present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming𠅊nd Utah.

Young saw an opportunity in this turn of events: State governments had a lot of power, and controlling one could give the Mormons considerable autonomy. In 1849, he sent representatives to Congress with a proposed map of the state of Deseret (a word from the Book of Mormon meaning “honeybee”.) The state would have been massive, encompassing present-day Utah, most of Nevada, good chunks of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Idaho, and even the city of San Diego.

Instead, as part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress greatly reduced Deseret’s size and renamed it the Utah Territory. President Millard Fillmore appointed Young as territorial governor, a decision made “largely as a matter of practicality,” Bowman points out, as Young had essentially been governing Deseret (as he called it) and the Mormon Church as one entity for three years already.

A colorized photograph of a 19th century polygamous Mormon family with two wives and nine children. (Krediet: Bettmann -argief/Getty Images)

In Utah, Young is able to ignore the federal government, until the practice of polygamy prevents Utah’s statehood.
Young largely ignored the federal agents the Fillmore administration sent to Utah, and did what he wanted. Federal courtrooms sat empty, while Mormon leaders filled the territorial legislature. Suspicions of theocracy, and particularly of the Mormon practice of polygamy, which the church made public in 1852, “really inflamed the animus of Americans—particularly Protestants𠅊gainst the Mormons,” Bowman says. It also made the Mormons a useful political foil for Washington politicians, some of whom likened the religion to another highly divisive institution: slavery.

In 1857, President James Buchanan declared the Utah Territory to be in rebellion, and ordered federal troops to Salt Lake City to force Young to step down in favor of a non-Mormon governor. Though Young eventually agreed to be replaced as territorial governor, the Mormon practice of plural marriage would delay Utah’s statehood for nearly four more decades.

Congress began passing laws trying to get rid of polygamy (or bigamy, as it was then called) in the early 1860s. Though during the Civil War these laws were not pursued, Bowman says, this changed in the decade after that conflict. In the 1874 case Reynolds teen die Verenigde State, in which Young’s secretary, George Reynolds, tested the constitutionality of an 1862 anti-bigamy law, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Constitution does not protect polygamy.

In the 1880s and early 1890s, more than 1,000 Mormon men would be convicted of charges relating to plural marriage. In 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker Act took square aim at the Mormon church itself, disincorporating it and authorizing the federal government to seize much of its property. Again the Mormons brought suit, but in 1890 the Supreme Court ruled the Edmunds-Tucker Act constitutional. “When that happens, the president of the church, Wilford Woodruff, issues what Mormons call the Manifesto,” Bowman explains. “It’s a proclamation saying that for the good of the church, for the survival of the church, we have to abandon plural marriage.”

Utah becomes the 45th state.
Once Woodruff had formally renounced polygamy on behalf of the LDS, Congress’ attitude changed greatly, and the path to statehood became considerably clearer. On January 4, 1896, Utah became a state. A year later, when the church celebrated the 50th anniversary of Brigham Young’s arrival in the Salt Lake Valley—Young himself died in 1877—the newly completed Mormon temple in Salt Lake City was draped in American flags.

Utah is now home to more than 2 million Mormons, or about one-third of the total number of Mormons in the United States.


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Oorsprong

The desert environments of the present are, in geologic terms, relatively recent in origin. They represent the most extreme result of the progressive cooling and consequent aridification of global climates during the Cenozoic Era (65.5 million years ago to the present), which also led to the development of savannas and scrublands in the less arid regions near the tropical and temperate margins of the developing deserts. It has been suggested that many typical modern desert plant families, particularly those with an Asian centre of diversity such as the chenopod and tamarisk families, first appeared in the Miocene (23 to 5.3 million years ago), evolving in the salty, drying environment of the disappearing Tethys Sea along what is now the Mediterranean–Central Asian axis.

Deserts also probably existed much earlier, during former periods of global arid climate in the lee of mountain ranges that sheltered them from rain or in the centre of extensive continental regions. However, this would have been primarily before the evolution of angiosperms (flowering plants, the group to which most present-day plants, including those of deserts, belong). Only a few primitive plants, which may have been part of the ancient desert vegetation, occur in present-day deserts. One example is the bizarre conifer relative tumboa, or welwitschia, in the Namib Desert of southwestern Africa. Welwitschia has only two leaves, which are leathery, straplike organs that emanate from the middle of a massive, mainly subterranean woody stem. These leaves grow perpetually from their bases and erode progressively at their ends. This desert also harbours several other plants and animals peculiarly adapted to the arid environment, suggesting that it might have a longer continuous history of arid conditions than most other deserts.

Desert floras and faunas initially evolved from ancestors in moister habitats, an evolution that occurred independently on each continent. However, a significant degree of commonality exists among the plant families that dominate different desert vegetations. This is due in part to intrinsic physiologic characteristics in some widespread desert families that preadapt the plants to an arid environment it also is a result of plant migration occurring through chance seed dispersal among desert regions.

Such migration was particularly easy between northern and southern desert regions in Africa and in the Americas during intervals of drier climate that have occurred in the past two million years. This migration is reflected in close floristic similarities currently observed in these places. For example, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), although now widespread and common in North American hot deserts, was probably a natural immigrant from South America as recently as the end of the last Ice Age about 11,700 years ago.

Migration between discrete desert regions also has been relatively easier for those plants adapted to survival in saline soils because such conditions occur not only in deserts but also in coastal habitats. Coasts can therefore provide migration corridors for salt-tolerant plants, and in some cases the drifting of buoyant seeds in ocean currents can provide a transport mechanism between coasts. For example, it is thought that the saltbush or chenopod family of plants reached Australia in this way, initially colonizing coastal habitats and later spreading into the inland deserts.


An analogue for other worlds

The outskirts of the Atacama are home to communities of organisms that have adapted to thrive in harsh conditions. The desert's hyperarid core, however, is largely devoid of plant and animal life, save for a few strains of microbial life. Scientists hope that studying the dry, dusty conditions of the Atacama will reveal secrets about the key to life in other parts of the universe, such as Mars.

"It's not the biology that makes scientists eager to study in the Atacama Desert &mdash it's the lack of biology," said Henry Sun, an astrobiologist at the Desert Research Institute in Las Vegas, Nevada. Researchers suspect that the microbes that inhabit the desert's hyperarid core &mdash which slip into a sort of stasis during periods of aridity &mdash could survive life on the Red Planet.

"It's a really interesting place to see how tenacious life is on Earth and what the climatic limits to life as we know it really are," said Amundson.

But even the most tenacious of life-forms can be disrupted.

On average, the driest part of the Atacama receives less than a millimeter of rain each year. In rare cases, torrents of rain do fall, and life responds. In 2017, wildflowers bloomed the aftermath of a dramatic downpour. Similar rainstorms were reported in March and August of 2015.

Although the rains awakened fields of wildflowers, the floods had devastating consequences for microbial life in the desert, which has adapted to survive without water. Many microbes in the desert's hyperarid core, for instance, burst after absorbing too much rainwater.

Scientists suspect that these catastrophic storms may become more frequent as the climate changes and atmospheric conditions in the Pacific Ocean fluctuate. "Instead of making the desert drier, climate change could actually make it wetter," said Amundson.


Inhoud

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Atacama Desert ecoregion occupies a continuous strip for nearly 1,600 km (1,000 mi) along the narrow coast of the northern third of Chile, from near Arica (18°24′S) southward to near La Serena (29°55′S). [11] The National Geographic Society considers the coastal area of southern Peru to be part of the Atacama Desert [12] [13] and includes the deserts south of the Ica Region in Peru.

Peru borders it on the north and the Chilean Matorral ecoregion borders it on the south. To the east lies the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion. The drier portion of this ecoregion is located south of the Loa River between the parallel Sierra Vicuña Mackenna and Cordillera Domeyko. To the north of the Loa lies the Pampa del Tamarugal.

The Coastal Cliff of northern Chile west of the Chilean Coast Range is the main topographical feature of the coast. [14] The geomorphology of the Atacama Desert has been characterized as a low-relief bench "similar to a giant uplifted terrace" by Armijo and co-workers. [15] The intermediate depression (or Central Valley) forms a series of endorheic basins in much of Atacama Desert south of latitude 19°30'S. North of this latitude, the intermediate depression drains into the Pacific Ocean. [16]

The almost total lack of precipitation is the most prominent characteristic of the Atacama Desert. [18]

In 2012, the altiplano winter brought floods to San Pedro de Atacama. [19] [20]

On 25 March 2015, heavy rainfall affected the southern part of the Atacama Desert. [21] [22] Resulting floods triggered mudflows that affected the cities of Copiapo, Tierra Amarilla, Chanaral, and Diego de Almagro, causing the deaths of more than 100 people.

Aridity Edit

The Atacama Desert is commonly known as the driest place in the world, especially the surroundings of the abandoned Yungay town [23] (in Antofagasta Region, Chile). [24] The average rainfall is about 15 mm (0.6 in) per year, [25] although some locations receive 1 to 3 mm (0.04 to 0.12 in) in a year. [26] Moreover, some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Periods up to four years have been registered with no rainfall in the central sector, delimited by the cities of Antofagasta, Calama, and Copiapó, in Chile. [27] Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from 1570 to 1971. [6]

The Atacama Desert may be the oldest desert on earth, and has experienced extreme hyperaridity for at least 3 million years, making it the oldest continuously arid region on earth. The long history of aridity raises the possibility that supergene mineralisation, under the appropriate conditions, can form in arid environments, instead of requiring humid conditions. [28] The presence of evaporite formations suggest that in some sections of the Atacama Desert, arid conditions have persisted for the last 200 million years (since the Triassic).

The Atacama is so arid that many mountains higher than 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are completely free of glaciers. Only the highest peaks (such as Ojos del Salado, Monte Pissis, and Llullaillaco) have some permanent snow coverage.

The southern part of the desert, between 25 and 27°S, may have been glacier-free throughout the Quaternary (including during glaciations), though permafrost extends down to an altitude of 4,400 m (14,400 ft) and is continuous above 5,600 m (18,400 ft). Studies by a group of British scientists have suggested that some river beds have been dry for 120,000 years. [29] However, some locations in the Atacama receive a marine fog known locally as the camanchaca, providing sufficient moisture for hypolithic algae, lichens, and even some cacti—the genus Copiapoa is notable among these.

Geographically, the aridity of the Atacama is explained by it being situated between two mountain chains (the Andes and the Chilean Coast Range) of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow. [9]

Comparison to Mars Edit

In a region about 100 km (60 mi) south of Antofagasta, which averages 3,000 m (10,000 ft) in elevation, the soil has been compared to that of Mars. Owing to its otherworldly appearance, the Atacama has been used as a location for filming Mars scenes, most notably in the television series Space Odyssey: Voyage to the Planets.

In 2003, a team of researchers published a report in which they duplicated the tests used by the Viking 1 en Viking 2 Mars landers to detect life and were unable to detect any signs in Atacama Desert soil in the region of Yungay. [31] The region may be unique on Earth in this regard and is being used by NASA to test instruments for future Mars missions. The team duplicated the Viking tests in Mars-like Earth environments and found that they missed present signs of life in soil samples from Antarctic dry valleys, the Atacama Desert of Chile and Peru, and other locales. However, in 2014, a new hyperarid site was reported, María Elena South, which was much drier than Yungay and, thus, a better Mars-like environment. [32]

In 2008, the Phoenix Mars Lander detected perchlorates on the surface of Mars at the same site where water was first discovered. [34] Perchlorates are also found in the Atacama and associated nitrate deposits have contained organics, leading to speculation that signs of life on Mars are not incompatible with perchlorates. The Atacama is also a testing site for the NASA-funded Earth–Mars Cave Detection Program. [35]

In spite of the geographic and climatic conditions of the desert, a rich variety of flora has evolved there. Over 500 species have been gathered within the border of this desert. These species are characterized by their extraordinary ability to adapt to this extreme environment. [36] Most common species are the herbs and flowers such as thyme, llareta, and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), and where humidity is sufficient, trees such as the chañar (Geoffroea decorticans), the pimiento tree, and the leafy algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis).

The llareta is one of the highest-growing wood species in the world. It is found at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,000 m (9,800 and 16,400 ft). Its dense form is similar to a pillow some 3 to 4 m (9.8 to 13.1 ft) thick. It concentrates and retains the heat from the day to cope with low evening temperatures. The growth rate of the llareta has been recently estimated at about 1.5 cm/year (0.59 in/year), making many llaretas over 3,000 years old. It produces a much-prized resin, which the mining industry once harvested indiscriminately as fuel, making this plant endangered.

The desert is also home to cacti, succulents, and other plants that thrive in a dry climate. Cactus species here include the candelabro (Browningia candelaris) and cardon (Echinopsis atacamensis), which can reach a height of 7 m (23 ft) and a diameter of 70 cm (28 in).

The Atacama Desert flowering (Spanish: desierto florido) can be seen from September to November in years with sufficient precipitation, as happened in 2015. [21] [22]

The climate of the Atacama Desert limits the number of animals living permanently in this extreme ecosystem. Some parts of the desert are so arid, no plant or animal life can survive. Outside of these extreme areas, sand-colored grasshoppers blend with pebbles on the desert floor, and beetles and their larvae provide a valuable food source in the lomas (hills). Desert wasps and butterflies can be found during the warm and humid season, especially on the lomas. Red scorpions also live in the desert.

A unique environment is provided by some lomas, where the fog from the ocean provides enough moisture for seasonal plants and a few animal species. Surprisingly few reptile species inhabit the desert and even fewer amphibian species. Chaunus atacamensis, the Vallenar toad or Atacama toad, lives on the lomas, where it lays eggs in permanent ponds or streams. Iguanians and lava lizards inhabit parts of the desert, while salt flat lizards, Liolaemus, live in the dry areas bordering the ocean. [37] One species, Liolaemus fabiani, is endemic to the Salar de Atacama, the Atacama salt flat. [38]

Birds are one of the most diverse animal groups in the Atacama. Humboldt penguins live year-round along the coast, nesting in desert cliffs overlooking the ocean. Inland, high-altitude salt flats are inhabited by Andean flamingos, while Chilean flamingos can be seen along the coast. Other birds (including species of hummingbirds and rufous-collared sparrow) visit the lomas seasonally to feed on insects, nectar, seeds, and flowers. Die lomas help sustain several threatened species, such as the endangered Chilean woodstar.

Because of the desert's extreme aridity, only a few specially adapted mammal species live in the Atacama, such as Darwin's leaf-eared mouse. The less arid parts of the desert are inhabited by the South American gray fox and the viscacha (a relative of the chinchilla). Larger animals, such as guanacos and vicuñas, graze in areas where grass grows, mainly because it is seasonally irrigated by melted snow. Vicuñas need to remain near a steady water supply, while guanacos can roam into more arid areas and survive longer without fresh water. South American fur seals and South American sea lions often gather along the coast.

The Atacama is sparsely populated, with most towns located along the Pacific coast. [39] In interior areas, oases and some valleys have been populated for millennia and were the location of the most advanced pre-Columbian societies found in Chile. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Chinchorro culture Edit

The Chinchorro culture developed in the Atacama Desert area from 7000 BCE to 1500 BCE. These peoples were sedentary fishermen inhabiting mostly coastal areas. Their presence is found from today's towns of Ilo, in southern Peru, to Antofagasta in northern Chile. Presence of fresh water in the arid region on the coast facilitated human settlement in these areas. The Chinchorro were famous for their detailed mummification and funerary practices. [40]

Inca and Spanish empires Edit

San Pedro de Atacama, at about 2,400 m (8,000 ft) elevation, is like many of the small towns. Before the Inca empire and prior to the arrival of the Spanish, the extremely arid interior was inhabited primarily by the Atacameño tribe. They are noted for building fortified towns called pucarás, one of which is located a few kilometers from San Pedro de Atacama. The town's church was built by the Spanish in 1577.

The oasis settlement of Pica has Pre-hispanic origins and served as an important stopover for transit between the coast and the Altiplano during the time of the Inca Empire. [41]

The coastal cities originated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries during the time of the Spanish Empire, when they emerged as shipping ports for silver produced in Potosí and other mining centers.

Republican period Edit

During the 19th century, the desert came under control of Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. With the discovery of sodium nitrate deposits and as a result of unclear borders, the area soon became a zone of conflict and resulted in the War of the Pacific. Chile annexed most of the desert, and cities along the coast developed into international ports, hosting many Chilean workers who migrated there. [42] [43] [44]

With the guano and saltpeter booms of the 19th century, the population grew immensely, mostly as a result of immigration from central Chile. In the 20th century, the nitrate industry declined and at the same time, the largely male population of the desert became increasingly problematic for the Chilean state. Miners and mining companies came into conflict, and protests spread throughout the region.

Around 1900, there were irrigation system of puquios spread through the oases of Atacama Desert. [45] Puquios are known from the valleys of Azapa and Sibaya and the oases of La Calera, Pica-Matilla and Puquio de Núñez. [45] In 1918, geologist Juan Brüggen mentioned the existence of 23 socavones (shafts) in the Pica oasis, yet these have since been abandoned due to economic and social changes. [45]

Abandoned nitrate mining towns Edit

The desert has rich deposits of copper and other minerals and the world's largest natural supply of sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter), which was mined on a large scale until the early 1940s. The Atacama border dispute over these resources between Chile and Bolivia began in the 19th century and resulted in the War of the Pacific. [46]

The desert is littered with about 170 abandoned nitrate (or "saltpeter") mining towns, almost all of which were shut down decades after the invention of synthetic nitrate in Germany in the first decade of the 20th century (see Haber process). [ aanhaling nodig ] The towns include Chacabuco, Humberstone, Santa Laura, Pedro de Valdivia, Puelma, María Elena, and Oficina Anita. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The Atacama Desert is rich in metallic mineral resources such as copper, gold, silver and iron, as well as nonmetallic minerals including important deposits of boron, lithium, sodium nitrate, and potassium salts. The Salar de Atacama is where bischofite is extracted. [ aanhaling nodig ] These resources are exploited by various mining companies such as Codelco, Lomas Bayas, Mantos Blancos, and Soquimich. [47] [48]

Because of its high altitude, nearly nonexistent cloud cover, dry air, and lack of light pollution and radio interference from widely populated cities and towns, this desert is one of the best places in the world to conduct astronomical observations. [50] [51] A radio astronomy telescope, called the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, built by European countries, Japan, the United States, Canada, and Chile in the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory officially opened on 3 October 2011. [52] A number of radio astronomy projects, such as the CBI, the ASTE and the ACT, among others, have been operating in the Chajnantor area since 1999. On 26 April 2010, the ESO council decided to build a fourth site, Cerro Armazones, to be home to the Extremely Large Telescope. [53] [54] [55] Construction work at the ELT site started in June 2014. [56]

The European Southern Observatory operates three major observatories in the Atacama and is currently building a fourth:

Sport Redigeer

The Atacama Desert is popular with all-terrain sports enthusiasts. Various championships have taken place here, including the Lower Atacama Rally, Lower Chile Rally, Patagonia-Atacama Rally, and the latter Dakar Rally's editions. The rally was organized by the Amaury Sport Organisation and held in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The dunes of the desert are ideal rally races located in the outskirts of the city of Copiapó. [57] The 2013 Dakar 15-Day Rally started on 5 January in Lima, Peru, through Chile, Argentina and back to Chile finishing in Santiago. [58] Visitors also use the Atacama Desert sand dunes for sandboarding (Spanish: duna).

A week-long foot race called the Atacama Crossing has the competitors cross the various landscapes of the Atacama. [59]

An event called Volcano Marathon takes place near the Lascar volcano in the Atacama Desert. [60]

Solar car racing Edit

Eighteen solar powered cars were displayed in front of the presidential palace (La Moneda) in Santiago in November 2012. [61] The cars were then raced 1,300 km (810 mi) through the desert from 15–19 November 2012. [62]

Toerisme Redigeer

Most people who go to tour the sites in the desert stay in the town of San Pedro de Atacama. [63] The Atacama Desert is in the top three tourist locations in Chile. The specially commissioned ESO hotel is reserved for astronomers and scientists. [64]

About 80 geysers occur in a valley about 80 km from the town of San Pedro de Atacama. They are closer to the town of Chiu Chiu. [65]

The Baños de Puritama are rock pools which are 60 kilometres (37 miles) from the geysers. [66]

Tara Cathedrals (left) and Tara salt flat

Valle de la Luna, near San Pedro de Atacama

Chajnantor Plateau in the Chilean Andes, home to the ESO/NAOJ/NRAO ALMA

The Milky Way streaking across the skies above the Chilean Atacama Desert



Kommentaar:

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