Die Katolieke Vereniging

Die Katolieke Vereniging


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In 1823 stig Daniel O'Connell, Richard Lalor Sheil en Thomas Wyse die Katolieke Vereniging. Soos Vincent Comerford opgemerk het: 'Op aandrang van O'Connell het die nuwe liggaam 'n verklaarde doelwit wat veel wyer was as die eenvoudige' verligting 'of emansipasie, wat 'n klein minderheid katolieke soos hy sou toelaat om na die binnekant, bank of parlement te gaan : dit was om alle bekommernisse van die Rooms -Katolieke kollektiwiteit aan te spreek. Dit dui op die aanvang van 'n mobilisering van die bevolking vir grondwetlike politieke doeleindes wat nêrens presedens gehad het nie, wat in stryd was met die instinkte van die hedendaagse liberale, en wat O'Connell sou maak 'n historiese figuur van Europese betekenis. " (1)

In sy eerste manifes het die Katolieke Vereniging aangevoer: 'Die katolieke van Ierland is al lank in 'n pynlike en angstige stryd gewikkel om met vreedsame en grondwetlike middele daardie burgerregte te bereik, waarop elke onderwerp van hierdie gebiede geregtig is, en waarvan ons voorvaders was basies ... beroof ... Op geen vorige tydperk van hierdie uitgerekte stryd het die katolieke mense van Ierland so min rede gehad om hoop op onmiddellike sukses te behou nie ... maar hulle durf nie wanhoop nie. is regverdig en heilig. Dit is die oorsaak van godsdiens en vryheid. Dit is die oorsaak van hul land en hulle God. " (2)

O'Connell het die Katolieke Vereniging in 'n massa -organisasie verander deur die armes uit te nooi om 'n jaar lank geassosieerde lede te word. Katolieke priesters is aangemoedig om die Katolieke Vereniging te adverteer en is as werwingsagente aangestel. "Die vereniging het 'n gereed netwerk van agente in elke gemeente om opinie te wek en om die sent per maand in te samel by die Katholieke Huur om die roering te finansier." (3)

Die Katolieke Vereniging het hom beywer vir die herroeping van die Uniewet, die einde van die Ierse tiendesisteem, algemene stemreg en 'n geheime stemming vir parlementsverkiesings. Alhoewel O'Connell die gebruik van geweld verwerp het, het hy die Britse regering voortdurend gewaarsku dat as daar nie hervorming plaasvind nie, die Ierse massas na die "raad van gewelddadige mans" sal begin luister. (4)

Teen 1826 begin die Katolieke Vereniging kandidate ondersteun by parlementêre verkiesings. Hulle het skouspelagtige oorwinnings behaal, waaronder Daniel O'Connell wat C. E. Vesty Fitzgerald, president van die Raad van Handel, in 'n tussenverkiesing in County Clare verslaan het. As 'n Katoliek kon O'Connell egter nie die eed van oppergesag aflê nie, wat onversoenbaar was met die katolisisme en dus nie sy plek in die laerhuis kon inneem nie. (5)

Radikale parlementslede soos sir Francis Burdett en Joseph Hume het al jare lank aangevoer dat die parlement 'n einde moet maak aan anti-Katolieke wetgewing. Na die oorwinning van O'Connell het selfs Tories soos Sir Robert Peel en Arthur Wellesley, hertog van Wellington, begin argumenteer vir hervorming. Hulle het hul konserwatiewe kollegas gewaarsku dat hier 'n burgeroorlog in Ierland sou wees, tensy die wet verander word. Die wetsontwerp op Rooms -Katolieke hulp is in Maart 1829 gepubliseer. O'Connell skryf aan sy vrou: "Peel's bill for Emancipation is good - very good, frank, direct, complete; no veto, no control". (6)

In 1829 het die Britse parlement die Roman Catholic Relief Act goedgekeur, wat Katolieke emansipasie verleen het. O'Connell was minder tevrede met die Ierse parlementêre verkiesingswetsontwerp, wat die drempel vir die provinsiale franchise vanaf 40's verhoog het. tot £ 10, waardeur die grootste deel van sy verkiesingsondersteuning ontneem word. As gevolg van hierdie wetgewing is die Ierse kieserskorps van 200 000 tot 26 000 verminder. (7)

Die regering verbied ook die Katolieke Vereniging. Op 30 Mei 1829 word O'Connell egter onbestrede teruggestuur vir County Clare en neem hy sy sitplek in op 4 Februarie 1830. Oor die volgende paar jaar word O'Connell 'n belangrike figuur in die Laerhuis. Hy was aktief in die veldtogte vir hervorming van gevangenisse en wetgewing, vryhandel, die afskaffing van slawerny en Joodse emansipasie. Hy was ook 'n prominente figuur in die veldtog vir algemene stemreg. Na die teleurstelling van die 1832 -hervormingswet, het British Radicals die taktiek aangeneem wat O'Connell suksesvol in Ierland gebruik het. Organisasies soos die Chartists het O'Connell se metodes gebruik om die druk van die publieke opinie te organiseer en toe te pas, terwyl dit impliseer dat indien dit nie suksesvol was nie, die beweging tot geweld kan oorgaan. (8)

Die katolieke van Ierland is al lank in 'n pynlike en angstige stryd gewikkel om met vreedsame en grondwetlike middele die burgerregte te bereik, waarop elke onderwerp van hierdie ryke geregtig is en waarvan ons voorvaders basies was ... Dit is die oorsaak van hul land en hulle God ... Maar om die Ierse bevolking effektief te kan inspan, is geldelike hulpbronne absoluut noodsaaklik ... U komitee stel voor dat 'n maandelikse inskrywing in Ierland ingesamel moet word, om gedenomineer te word " Die maandelikse katolieke huur "... moet gedra word om in of naby elke katolieke kapel te publiseer, soos toegelaat deur die geestelikes, die gegewens van die bedrae ... en dat die bedrag wat van elke individu verwag word, nie een sent mag oorskry nie per maand.

Kinderarbeidsimulasie (onderwyseraantekeninge)

Gesondheidsprobleme in industriële dorpe (antwoordkommentaar)

Hervorming van openbare gesondheid in die 19de eeu (antwoordkommentaar)

Richard Arkwright and the Factory System (antwoordkommentaar)

Robert Owen en New Lanark (antwoordkommentaar)

James Watt en Steam Power (antwoordkommentaar)

Die binnelandse stelsel (antwoordkommentaar)

The Luddites (antwoord kommentaar)

Handloom Weavers (kommentaar op antwoord)

(1) Vincent Comerford, Daniel O'Connell: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) Die komitee van die Katolieke Vereniging (1824)

(3) Edward Royle en James Walvin, Engelse radikale en hervormers 1760-1848 (1982) bladsy 141

(4) Paul Adelman, Groot -Brittanje en die Ierse vraag (1996) bladsy 40

(5) Vincent Comerford, Daniel O'Connell: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(6) Daniel O'Connell, brief aan Mary O'Connell (Maart 1829)

(7) A. L. Morton, A People's History of England (1938) bladsy 390

(8) Dorothy Thompson, Die Chartiste (1984) bladsy 19


Geskiedenis van die CBA

Die geleentheid vir die stigting van The Catholic Biblical Association of America was die gevolg van die begeerte van biskop Edwin O'Hara, voorsitter van die Episcopal Committee on the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, om die kwaliteit van die Nuwe Testament wat gewoonlik deur Katolieke gebruik word, te verbeter deur die Challoner-Rheims Nuwe Testament hersien. In 1936 belê O'Hara 'n vergadering van geleerdes van die Amerikaanse Katolieke Skrif om die projek te help beplan en uit te voer. Op hierdie vergadering is 'n voorstel geloods en goedgekeur vir die stigting van 'n vereniging van Amerikaanse Katolieke Bybelwetenskaplikes.

Tydens 'n volgende vergadering op 3 Oktober 1936 is die CBA tot stand gebring. Edward P. Arbez is tot sy eerste president verkies. 'N Komitee het 'n grondwet en verordeninge opgestel, en dit is goedgekeur en goedgekeur in 1937. Die CBA is in 1941 in die District of Columbia opgeneem en in 1958 weer opgeneem. In die begin was die CBA onder die beskerming van die Confraternity of Christian Leer (CCD).

Stephen J. Hartdegen, O.F.M., Lous F. Hartman, C.SS.R., Patrick W. Skehan

Die Bybelvertaling was dus 'n vroeë bekommernis vir die CBA (en het steeds 'n belangrike rol gespeel), maar die breër doeleindes van die bevordering van die wetenskaplike studie van die Bybel, om voorsiening te maak vir uitruil tussen geleerdes deur middel van vergaderings en publikasies, blom omtrent dieselfde tyd daar was ook die bedoeling om die vrugte van soliede Bybelwetenskap op wetenskaplike sowel as op populêre vlak te versprei.

Terwyl O'Hara se doel was om die Challoner-Rheims NT te hersien op grond van die Vulgaat (die basis vir die meeste Katolieke vertalings in daardie dae), en 'n hersiene NT is in werklikheid in 1941 gepubliseer en begin met die OT volg dieselfde gang, die verskyning van die pouslike ensikliek Divino Afflante Spiritu in 1943, met sy aanmoediging om terug te keer na Bybelse tale, het daartoe gelei dat die vorige werk geskrap is en 'n nuwe vertaling van beide die OT en die NT uit die oorspronklike tale begin is. Die werk het vanaf 1948 stuk -stuk verskyn, nog steeds onder die titel Confraternity of Christian Doctrine (CCD). In die laaste stadiums, veral met die samewerking van verskeie nie-Katolieke, het die werk egter 'n meer ekumeniese projek geword, en toe die voltooide werk in 1970 verskyn, kry dit die titel "The New American Bible". Die NAB NT is verder hersien, en hierdie hersiening is voltooi in 1987. Hersiening van die NAB Psalter is in 1988 begin en dit is voltooi en goedgekeur in 1991. Hersiening van die res van die OT is in 1994 begin.

Lidmaatskap

Terwyl die CBA in 1936 met vyftig charterlede begin het, het sy volle en geassosieerde lede meer as 1200 in 2011 oor die hele wêreld versprei. (Vir kwalifikasies vir lidmaatskap: Klik hier.) Die geloofsdimensie van die CBA is steeds belangrik, maar daar is geen belydenis toets vir lidmaatskap nie en baie nie-Katolieke en Jode is lede en aktief in die vereniging. Daar is verskillende streekhoofstukke.

In die verlede het die CBA ook Bybelstudie bevorder deur ondersteuning te bied aan beursstudente in doktorale Skrifprogramme, aan jong geleerdes na die gradeplegtigheid en deur hulp te verleen by die finansiering van argeologiese opgrawings. (Vir meer inligting oor huidige toelaes wat beskikbaar is, sien GRANTS op die CBA -webwerf se navigasiebalk.)

Die CBA was een van die stigterorganisasies van die Raad van Verenigings vir die Studie van Godsdiens vanaf sy ontstaan ​​in 1970 tot sy afsterwe in 2010. Die CBA het saam met ander verenigings die Gesamentlike Komitee van Katolieke Geleerde Samelewings en Geleerdes gevorm (1977- 82) om met een stem tot die biskoppe te spreek, het ons simposia van biskoppe en geleerdes georganiseer, waarvan studies bygedra het tot ten minste een biskoplike pastorale.

Publikasies

Die Katolieke Bybelse kwartaal, die amptelike orgaan van die CBA, verskyn die eerste keer in 1939. Dit bevat wetenskaplike artikels en aantekeninge in die Skrif en verwante velde, 'n uitgebreide boekresensie -afdeling, sowel as nuus oor die vereniging se jaarvergadering en ander relevante kennisgewings dat die verspreiding daarvan in 2010 meer as 3800 was alle uitgawes van 1946 tot hede is gratis beskikbaar vir lede en intekenare. (Vir meer inligting: Klik hier.)

Die Katolieke Bybelse kwartaal-Monografieeks (CBQMS) het in 1971 begin verskyn en sedertdien is daar gereeld bykomende bundels gepubliseer. (Vir meer inligting: Klik hier.)

Die Katolieke Bybelse kwartaalliks-afdrukkebegin in 2020. (Vir meer inligting: Klik hier.)

Ou Testamentiese opsommings verskyn die eerste keer in 1978 onder die algemene redaksie van Bruce Vawter. Dit bied opsommings en bibliografiese inligting oor artikels en boeke in alle groot tale van regoor die wêreld in 2011, meer as 2 300 boeke en artikels is onttrek. Die sirkulasie in 2016 is meer as 2 000. Die hele reeks kwessies van 1978 tot hede, volledig deursoekbaar, is beskikbaar by die American Theological Library Association. (Vir meer inligting: Klik hier.)


Geskiedenis van die inisiatief van die Katolieke Balievereniging

Op 6 Maart 2015 het 'n nasionale vergadering van Katolieke prokureurs by die Polsinelli, PC -kantoor in Kansas City, Missouri, plaasgevind om die oprigting van 'n nasionale organisasie van Katolieke regspersoneel, die CBA, te bespreek. Die vergadering is belê deur Joshua McCaig, 'n aandeelhouer by die Polsinelli -prokureursfirma en 'n gegradueerde van die eerste klas van die Ave Maria School of Law. Joshua het begin met die bekendstelling van aartsbiskop Joseph Naumann van die aartsbisdom Kansas City in Kansas om die groep in 'n openingsgebed te lei. Aartsbiskop Naumann se openingsgebed is in sy geheel soos volg:

Ons staan ​​voor u Heilige Gees,
Bewus van ons sondigheid,
Maar weet dat ons in u naam versamel.
Kom na ons toe, bly by ons,
En verlig ons harte.

Gee ons lig en krag
Om u wil te ken,
Om dit ons eie te maak,
En om dit in ons lewens te leef.

Lei ons deur u wysheid,
Ondersteun ons deur u krag,
Want U is God,
Deel die heerlikheid van Vader en Seun.

U verlang geregtigheid vir almal:
Stel ons in staat om die regte van ander te handhaaf
Moenie toelaat dat ons deur onkunde mislei word nie
Of bederf deur vrees of guns.

Verenig ons met uself in die band van liefde
En hou ons getrou aan alles wat waar is.

Terwyl ons in u naam versamel
Om hierdie nasionale vereniging van Katolieke prokureurs te vorm
Mag ons geregtigheid met liefde temper,
Sodat al ons besluite
Mag dit vir jou aangenaam wees,
En verdien die beloning
Beloof aan goeie en getroue dienaars.

U leef en regeer saam met die Vader en die Seun,
Een God, vir ewig en altyd. Amen.

Joshua het die vergadering begin met openingsopmerkings oor die geskiedenis van die inisiatief, terug na sy stigting van die Katolieke Prokureursgilde van Kansas City in 2007 en 'n begeerte om 'n nasionale of selfs internasionale vereniging van Katolieke prokureurs te besoek. Destyds was daar meer as 60 onafhanklike Katolieke prokureursgroepe in die Verenigde State, soos dié in Kansas City, maar daar was geen nasionale of internasionale organisasie met die uitsluitlike doel om 'n gemeenskap van Katolieke advokate te skep nie.

In September 2013 het Joshua in sy hoedanigheid as bestuurslid van die National Lawyers Association die Religious Liberty Summit in Kansas City gereël. Tydens hierdie beraad het hy 'n groep advokate van 6 verskillende Katolieke advokate -organisasies in die Verenigde State (insluitend Kansas City, Dallas, Chicago, St. Louis, New York en Denver) byeengekom om die idee van 'n nasionale organisasie te bespreek. Op hierdie vergadering ontmoet Joshua Thomas Brandt van die St. Thomas More Society of Dallas. By hierdie vergadering was ook Thomas Brejcha van Chicago, 'n vroeë voorstander van hierdie inisiatief. Thomas Brandt, na aanleiding van die besprekings, het ingestem om hierdie idee na die raad van die St. Thomas More Society of Dallas te neem.

Na die beraad het Joshua verskeie organisasies, gildes en biskoppe betrek om die grondslag vir hierdie organisasie voort te sit. Aartsbiskop Joseph Naumann van die aartsbisdom Kansas City in Kansas het die idee entoesiasties ondersteun en Joshua en aartsbiskop Naumann het by verskeie geleenthede vergader om 'n strategie uit te werk om die organisasie tot stand te bring, wetende dat 'n veel breër koalisie nodig is. Vroeë ondersteuners van hierdie inisiatief was onder meer aartsbiskop Samuel Aquila van Denver, biskop Thomas Paprocki van Springfield, Illinois, aartsbiskop Charles Chaput van Philadelphia, Thomas Brejcha van Chicago, William Kirk van Ave Maria University en wyle professor Charles Rice van Notre Dame. William Kirk, as die algemene raad van die Ave Maria Universiteit, het reeds stappe gedoen om 'n regsorganisasie vir Katolieke prokureurs wat by hoër onderwys betrokke is, te begin en het maklik by die inisiatief aangesluit.

In 2014 is Ellen Dorn van die St. Thomas More Society of Dallas deur Thomas Brandt aan Joshua voorgestel. Ellen het deur middel van haar werk by die St. Thomas More Society of Dallas reeds 'n webwerf geskep wat ontwerp is om die verskillende onafhanklike Katolieke prokureursorganisasies in die VSA te skakel, genaamd www.catholiclawyerguilds.org en 'n rooi misskedule vir al die gildes te plaas. Die pogings van Ellen was 'n waardevolle bron om kontak te maak met reeds gevestigde Katolieke prokureursorganisasies. Aan die einde van 2014 stel Thomas Brandt en Ellen Dorn Joshua voor aan Jake Vollebregt, lid van die St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, Kalifornië.

Jake was 'n indrukwekkende groep advokate wat meer as 12 state in die land verteenwoordig het. Hierdie persone sluit in die agbare Thomas J. Brennan, Jr. van Michigan, wyle Paul McNamara van die Catholic Lawyers Guild van Boston en David DeWolf van die Gonzaga Universiteit. Paul McNamara het 'n integrale rol gespeel in die eerste vergadering van die CBA, en sy leiding oor moeilike kwessies tydens bespreking was wysheid en praktiese kennis. Almal kon dadelik sien dat hy 'n gelowige man was, en dit het ons diep bedroef toe hy op 23 Januarie 2016 oorlede is.

Jake ’ se span van byna 20 prokureurs het begin met die stigting van 'n nasionale Katolieke Balievereniging, waar Jake aan 'n webwerf onder die domeinnaam www.catholicbar.com gewerk het. Nadat Jake telefonies met Joshua, Thomas en Ellen gepraat het, het hy 'n oproep met sy span gemaak om hulle aan Joshua voor te stel en idees oor hierdie inisiatief.

'N Gesamentlike oproep is gehou op 6 November 2014, die lys van die deelnemers direk hieronder:

Joshua McCaig (Catholic Lawyers Guild, Kansas City / Ntl. Lawyers Assoc.

Carter L. Stout (St. Thomas More Society, Atlanta)

Paul McNamara (Catholic Lawyers Guild, Boston)

Thomas P. Brandt (St. Thomas More Society, Dallas)

Ellen Dorn (St. Thomas More Society, Dallas)

Hon. Thomas Brennan, Jr. (Catholic Lawyers Guild, Lansing)

Thomas Quasarano (Catholic Lawyers Guild, Lansing)

John J. Flynn, III (St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, CA)

William E. Malecki (St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, CA)

Michael Offenheiser (St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, CA)

Jake Vollebregt (St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, CA)

Gregory N. Weiler (St. Thomas More Society, Orange County, CA)

David K. DeWolf (Gonzaga Universiteit, Spokane, WA)

Gedurende die bespreking is idees uitgeruil, visie gedeel en gebede vir leiding is aangebied. Na hierdie bespreking is 'n besluit geneem deur almal wat betrokke was om saam te werk om hierdie organisasie te verwesenlik.

Joshua het aangebied om 'n nasionale stuurkomiteevergadering by sy kantoor in Kansas City, wat op 6 Maart 2015 plaasgevind het, aan te bied. By die byeenkoms het die dag meer as 30 prokureurs van regoor die land ingesluit, waaronder verteenwoordigers van die akademie, korporasies, regsfirmas, nie-winsgewende organisasies, katolieke konferensies en die kerk, insluitend verteenwoordigers van die Amerikaanse konferensie van katolieke biskoppe en die Canon Law Society of America.

Na aanleiding van die eerste opmerkings deur Joshua McCaig en Jake Vollebregt oor die doel en omvang van hierdie inisiatief, het Joshua Jeremiah Morgan, die internasionale voorsitter van die J. Reuben Clark -regsgenootskap, genooi om met die groep te praat oor die organisasiestruktuur van die Mormoonse regsgenootskap. Kort daarna het Mario Dickerson, die uitvoerende hoof van die Katolieke Mediese Vereniging, die geskiedenis en organisasiestruktuur van die Katolieke Mediese Vereniging voorgelê en sy steun aan hierdie inisiatief uitgespreek.

Die res van die dag is deurgebring in bespreking en dialoog, insluitend bykomende kommentaar deur William Kirk van die Ave Maria Universiteit, agbare Thomas J. Brennan en Patricia Dugan van die Canon Law Society of America. Ellen Dorn van die St.

Die Katolieke Balievereniging is 'n gemeenskap van regspersoneel wat sy lede opvoed, organiseer en inspireer om die Katolieke geloof getrou te handhaaf en te getuig in die studie en praktyk van die regte.

Aan die einde van die vergadering stel Joshua drie besluite aan die afgevaardigdes voor om te stem, naamlik (1) dat die Katolieke Balieraad formeel ingestel word, (2) dat die missiestelling formeel aanvaar word en (3) dat 'n tussentydse raad word vasgestel uit die lede wat op die vergadering teenwoordig was om die organisasie wettig te stig. Die besluite is eenparig aangeneem (die resolusie is in hierdie verslag ingesluit).

Thomas Brandt, van die Thomas More Society of Dallas, het die vergadering afgesluit met 'n gebed wat hy persoonlik vir hierdie historiese vergadering voorberei het, die gebed is soos volg:

Hemelse Vader, ons vra u in die naam van u seun, ons Here Jesus Christus, om die Heilige Gees te stuur om ons te vul met u genade, liefde, vreugde, vrede, hoop en moed, sodat ons die voorbeelde van nederigheid en gehoorsaamheid kan navolg aan ons deur ons geseënde moeder en die heilige Josef. Mag ons instrumente wees vir u vrede, liefde en genesing. Mag ons ons lewe as u getroue, nederige en gehoorsame seuns en dogters. Mag ons mekaar ondersteun in ons pelgrimstog na ons hemelse huis saam met u en dat ons u oproep individueel en gesamentlik kan beantwoord om 'n lig vir die wêreld te wees, sodat ons met u genade kan deelneem aan die doen van u wil nou en vir ewig. Mag ons met u genade u getroue, nederige en gehoorsame ambassadeurs wees in 'n wêreld wat u liefde so dringend nodig het. Mag ons pogings almal help om u te leer ken, lief te hê en te dien. Amen.

Joshua het ingestem om 'n strategiese plan saam te stel om die inisiatief verder te voer en na die vergadering is 'n tussentydse raad gekies wat die volgende insluit:

Joshua McCaig, Ellen Dorn, Mark Haug, Thomas Brandt, Jake Vollebregt, William Kirk, Mary Pilcher Cook, Thomas Brejcha, Tyler McClay, Paul McNamara, Thomas Brennan Jr. en David Luke.

In September van 2015 het Joshua die inisiatief met kardinaal Christoph Schonborn van Wene bespreek terwyl hy in Oostenryk was en kardinaal Schonborn het sy steun aan die idee uitgespreek.

Op 6 Julie 2015 is die Katolieke Balievereniging, deur die werk van Ellen Dorn, formeel in die staat Texas opgeneem op die 480ste herdenking van die martelaarskap van St Thomas More.

Die eerste Algemene Vergadering is gehou vir 27-30 Oktober 2016 in Kansas City, Missouri, waartydens die formele verkiesing van die raad en beamptes sal plaasvind en die algemene vergadering sal dien as 'n byeenkoms van verteenwoordigers van die Katolieke prokureursorganisasies regoor die land om in hierdie inisiatief te verenig om die geloof te bevorder en 'n gemeenskap te bied waardeur Katolieke advokate ondersteuning kan vind om hul geloof binne hul beroep uit te leef.


Inhoud

Volgens Respek vir die ongebore menslike lewe: die konstante onderrig van die kerk, 'n dokument wat deur die United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Pro-Life Activities uitgereik is, het die Katolieke Kerk die verkryging van aborsie as immoreel veroordeel sedert die 1ste eeu. [13] Hierdie verklaring is egter betwis deur verskeie historici, waaronder John Connery, [14] Ann Hibner Koblitz, [15] Angus McLaren, [16] John Noonan, [17] en John Riddle. [18] [19]

Vroeë Christelike geskrifte wat aborsie verwerp, is die Didache, die Die brief van Barnabas, die Apokalips van Petrus, [20] en die werke van vroeë skrywers soos Tertullianus, Athenagoras van Athene, [21] Clement van Alexandrië en Basil van Caesarea. [22] Die vroegste kerkwetgewing het nie 'n onderskeid getref tussen 'gevormde' en 'ongevormde' fetusse nie, soos in die Griekse Septuagint -weergawe van Eksodus 21: 22–23, kan hierdie posisie gevind word in die skryf van vroeë kerkvaders as Basil van Caesarea en vroeë kerkraadskanonne (Elvira, Ancyra). [23] [24]

In die 4de en 5de eeu het sommige skrywers, soos Gregorius van Nyssa en Maximus die belyder, gemeen dat die menslike lewe reeds by bevrugting begin het, terwyl ander soos Lactantius - volgens Aristoteles se siening - eerder gepraat het van die siel wat 'in die liggaam' toegedien 'was veertig dae of meer, en diegene soos Jerome en Augustinus van Seekoei het die raaisel van die tydsberekening van die infusie aan God oorgelaat. [23]

Augustinus van Hippo "het die praktyk van geïnduseerde aborsie kragtig veroordeel as 'n misdaad, in enige stadium van swangerskap, hoewel hy die onderskeid tussen" gevormde "en" ongevormde "fetusse wat in die Septuaginta -vertaling van Eksodus 21: 22-23 genoem word, aanvaar het en het nie die aborsie van 'n "ongevormde" fetus as moord geklassifiseer nie, aangesien hy gedink het dat dit nie met sekerheid gesê kan word of die fetus reeds 'n siel ontvang het nie. [25] Die Amerikaanse konferensie van Katolieke biskoppe beskou die besinning van Augustinus oor aborsie in die huidige tyd as weinig vanweë die beperkinge van die wetenskap van embryologie op daardie tydstip. [13]

Latere skrywers soos John Chrysostomus en Caesarius van Arles, sowel as latere kerkrade (bv. Lerida en Braga II), het aborsie ook as 'ernstig verkeerd' veroordeel, sonder om 'n onderskeid te maak tussen 'gevormde' en 'ongevormde' fetusse of omskryf presies in watter stadium van swangerskap het die menslike lewe begin. [23] [24]

Veranderende oortuigings oor die oomblik dat die embrio 'n menslike siel verkry, het gelei tot veranderinge in die kerkreg in die indeling van die sonde van aborsie. [26] In die besonder het geleerdes soos John M. Riddle, Joan Cadden en Cyril C. Means, Jr. geskryf dat die meeste Katolieke skrywers voor die 19de eeu nie aborsie as 'versnelling' of 'insolment' as sondig beskou het nie. , en eintlik word 'aborsie' algemeen bedoel as 'n vinniger beëindiging van swangerskap. [19]: 158 [27] [28] [29] Geskiedskrywer John Noonan skryf dat 'sekere Katolieke' niks verkeerd gesien het met die opstel van lyste van bekende abortiewe kruie en die ontdekking van nuwes nie. In die 13de eeu het dokter en geestelike Petrus van Spanje 'n boek geskryf met die naam Thesaurus Pauperum (letterlik Skat van die armes) wat 'n lang lys abortiewe middels in die vroeë stadium bevat, insluitend rue, pennyroyal en ander mints. [17]: 205–211 Dit word deur sommige geglo dat Petrus van Spanje in 1276 pous Johannes XXI geword het. Net so bevat die medisinale geskrifte van Hildegard van Bingen aborsies soos tansy. [19]: 105

Sommige teoloë, soos John Chrysostomus en Thomas Sanchez, was van mening dat aborsie na versnelling minder sondig was as doelbewuste voorbehoeding. [16]: 161 [30]: 172,180 John Chrysostomos was van mening dat aborsie in die laat stadium nie so erg was as om doelbewus 'n reeds gebore persoon dood te maak nie, terwyl voorbehoeding volgens hom beslis erger was as moord. [17]: 98–99

Katolieke teoloë worstel al lank met die vraag of 'n mens werklik vergewe kan word vir 'n sonde wat jy bely terwyl jy óf steeds besig is met die sondige praktyk, óf ten volle van voorneme is om die aksie te hervat sodra ontbinding verkry is. As 'n vrou erken dat sy 'n aborsie gehad het, kan sy 'n opregte daad van berou doen as sy glo dat sy nooit weer die sonde sal pleeg nie. 'Dit het net een keer gebeur' is 'n gereelde (maar nie noodwendig akkurate nie) refrein wanneer 'n onbedoelde swangerskap plaasvind. Aan die ander kant is daaglikse gebruik van voorbehoeding onmoontlik om op hierdie manier vir jouself te rasionaliseer, en daarom is dit 'n sonde wat vir baie Katolieke nie bevredigend verwyder kan word nie.

Geloof in vertraagde animasie Redigeer

Volgens Aristoteles se mening was dit algemeen deur sommige "vooraanstaande Katolieke denkers" in die vroeë kerkgeskiedenis dat 'n mens as sodanig nie onmiddellik ontstaan ​​het nie, maar slegs 'n paar weke later. Aborsie word as 'n sonde beskou, maar nie as moord nie, totdat die embrio deur 'n menslike siel geanimeer is. [31] In Oor die maagdelike bevrugting en erfsonde 7, het Anselm van Canterbury (1033–1109) gesê dat "geen menslike intellek die siening aanvaar dat 'n baba die rasionele siel het vanaf die oomblik van bevrugting nie." [21] 'n Paar dekades na Anselm se dood, 'n Katolieke versameling kerkreg, in die Decretum Gratiani, verklaar dat "hy nie 'n moordenaar is wat aborsie bewerkstellig voordat die siel in die liggaam is nie." [21]

Selfs wanneer die kerkwet, in ooreenstemming met die teorie van vertraagde insolment, verskillende boetes op vroeëre en latere aborsies toegeken het, is aborsie op enige stadium deur sommige kommentators as 'n ernstige euwel beskou. [32] Thomas Aquinas, wat die Aristoteliaanse teorie aanvaar het dat 'n menslike siel eers na 40 dae vir 'n manlike fetus, 90 dae vir 'n wyfie toegedien is, het aborsie van 'n onbesmette fetus as altyd oneties beskou, [33] 'n ernstige misdaad, [34] 'n ernstige sonde, 'n wandade en in stryd met die natuur. Hy het geskryf: "Alhoewel hierdie sonde ernstig is en onder misdade en teen die natuur gereken moet word, is dit iets minder as moord. Dit moet ook nie onreëlmatig beoordeel word nie [35], tensy 'n aborsie van 'n reeds gevormde fetus verkry word." [21] [36] [37]

Juridiese gevolge Redigeer

Die meeste vroeë boetes het gelyke boetes opgelê vir aborsie, hetsy vroeg of laat, maar ander onderskei tussen die twee. Later word boetes gewoonlik onderskei, wat swaarder boetes opgelê het vir laat aborsies. [38] Ter vergelyking is anale en orale seks baie harder behandel, net soos opsetlike moord. [14]: 67–74 [17]: 155–165 [30]: 135–213

Alhoewel die Decretum Gratiani, wat die basis van die Katolieke kanonieke reg gebly het totdat dit vervang is deur die 1917 Code of Canon Law, onderskei tussen vroeë en laat termyn aborsies, is die kanoniese onderskeid vir 'n tydperk van drie jaar afgeskaf deur die bul van pous Sixtus V, Effraenatam, [a] van 28 Oktober 1588. Dit het verskillende sanksies opgelê teen oortreders van alle vorme van aborsie sonder onderskeid. Deur die aborsiemoord te noem, het dit bepaal dat diegene wat die aborsie van 'n fetus bekom het, "hetsy geanimeer of onanimeer, gevorm of onvormig", dieselfde straf moet ly as "ware moordenaars en moordenaars wat werklik en werklik moord gepleeg het." Behalwe dat hierdie strawwe vir onderdane van die pouslike state, wie se burgerlike heerser hy was, verorden is, het pous Sixtus ook die geestelike straf van outomatiese ekskommunikasie toegedien (afdeling 7). [39] Die opvolger van Sixtus, pous Gregorius XIV, wat erken dat die wet nie die verwagte gevolge het nie, het dit in 1591 teruggetrek deur nuwe regulasies deur sy apostoliese grondwet te publiseer Sedes Apostolica [b] (gepubliseer op 31 Mei 1591), wat die strawwe beperk tot aborsie van 'n "gevormde" fetus: [39] [40] "Toe aborsie nie ''n kwessie van moord of 'n lewende fetus was nie,' het Gregory dit gedink ' nuttiger 'om terug te keer na die minder strawwe strawwe [vir vroeë aborsie] van die heilige kanons en onheilige wette: diegene wat 'n aborsie inanimatus [sielsloos] sal nie aan ware moord skuldig wees nie omdat hulle nie 'n mens doodgemaak het nie, in werklikheid geestelikes wat by aborsies betrokke was, sterf sonde gepleeg het, maar nie onreëlmatigheid veroorsaak nie. "[41]

Met sy 1869 -bul Apostolicae Sedis moderationi, Pous Pius IX herroep Gregory XIV se nog nie-geanimeerde fetus-uitsondering ten opsigte van die geestelike straf van ekskommunikasie, en verklaar dat diegene wat 'n effektiewe aborsie bekom het, ekskommunikasie opgedra het wat voorbehou is vir biskoppe of ordinare. [42] Sedertdien is hierdie boete outomaties opgelê deur aborsie in enige stadium van swangerskap. [43]

In 'n ander opsig het die Katolieke kerkreg selfs na 1869 'n onderskeid tussen aborsie van 'n gestalte en 'n ongevormde fetus voortgesit. Soos hierbo aangedui in 'n aanhaling van Thomas Aquinas, word iemand wat die aborsie van 'n versnelde fetus bekom het, as 'onreëlmatig' beskou, wat beteken dat hy gediskwalifiseer is om heilige bevele te ontvang of uit te oefen. Pous Sixtus V het hierdie straf selfs tot vroeë aborsie uitgebrei (afdeling 2 van sy bul Effraenatam), maar Gregorius XIV het dit weer beperk. Pius IX het geen beslissing in sy verband gemaak nie, met die gevolg dat die straf van onreëlmatigheid steeds beperk was tot laat aborsie ten tyde van die artikel "Aborsie" in die 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia. [44] [ mislukte verifikasie ] Die kode van die kanonieke wet van 1917 het die onderskeid uiteindelik uit die weg geruim. [45]

Samevattend, met die uitsondering van die driejarige periode 1588–1591, was vroeë aborsie eers in 1869 deur die Katolieke kerkreg verbied. [17]: 362–364

Besprekings oor moontlike regverdigende omstandighede Redigeer

In die Middeleeue veroordeel baie kerklike kommentators alle aborsies, maar na berig word was die Dominikaanse Johannes van Napels uit die 14de eeu die eerste om 'n uitdruklike verklaring af te lê dat aborsie eintlik toegelaat is as die doel was om die moeder se lewe te red, mits ensoulment nie bereik is nie. [46] Hierdie siening het beide ondersteuning en verwerping van ander teoloë ontmoet. In the 16th century, while Thomas Sanchez accepted it, Antoninus de Corbuba made the distinction that from then on became generally accepted among Catholic theologians, namely that direct killing of the fetus was unacceptable, but that treatment to cure the mother should be given even if it would indirectly result in the death of the fetus. [46]

When, in the 17th century, Francis Torreblanca approved abortions aimed merely at saving a woman's good name, the Holy Office (what is now called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith), at that time headed by Pope Innocent XI, condemned the proposition that "it is lawful to procure abortion before ensoulment of the fetus lest a girl, detected as pregnant, be killed or defamed." [47] [48]

Although it is sometimes said that 18th-century Alphonsus Liguori argued that, because of uncertainty about when the soul entered the fetus, abortion, while in general morally wrong, was acceptable in circumstances such as when the mother's life was in danger, [49] he clearly stated that it is never right to take a medicine that of itself is directed to killing a fetus, although it is lawful (at least according to general theological opinion) to give a mother in extreme illness a medicine whose direct result is to save her life, even when it indirectly results in expulsion of the fetus. [50] While Liguori mentioned the distinction then made between animate and inanimate fetuses, he explained that there was no agreement about when the soul is infused, with many holding that it happens at the moment of conception, and said that the Church kindly followed the 40-day opinion when applying the penalties of irregularity and excommunication only on those who knowingly procured abortion of an animate fetus. [51]

A disapproving letter published in the New York Medical Record in 1895 spoke of the Jesuit Augustine Lehmkuhl as considering craniotomy lawful when used to save the mother's life. [52] The origin of the report was an article in a German medical journal denounced as false in the American Ecclesiastical Review of the same year, which said that while Lehmkuhl had at an earlier stage of discussion admitted doubts and advanced tentative ideas, he had later adopted a view in full accord with the negative decision pronounced in 1884 and 1889 by the Sacred Penitentiary, [53] which in 1869 had refrained from making a pronouncement. [54] According to Mackler, Lehmkuhl had accepted as a defensible theory the licitness of removing even an animated fetus from the womb as not necessarily killing it, but had rejected direct attacks on the fetus such as craniotomy. [55]

Craniotomy was thus prohibited in 1884 and again in 1889. [53] In 1895 the Holy See excluded the inducing of non-viable premature birth and in 1889 established the principle that any direct killing of either fetus or mother is wrong in 1902 it ruled out the direct removal of an ectopic embryo to save the mother's life, but did not forbid the removal of the infected fallopian tube, thus causing an indirect abortion.(see below). [54]

In 1930 Pope Pius XI ruled out what he called "the direct murder of the innocent" as a means of saving the mother. And the Second Vatican Council declared: "Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes." [56]

Unintentional abortion Edit

The principle of double effect is frequently cited in relation to abortion. A doctor who believes abortion is always morally wrong may nevertheless remove the uterus or fallopian tubes of a pregnant woman, knowing the procedure will cause the death of the embryo or fetus, in cases in which the woman is certain to die without the procedure (examples cited include aggressive uterine cancer and ectopic pregnancy). In these cases, the intended effect is to save the woman's life, not to terminate the pregnancy, and the death of the embryo or fetus is a side effect. The death of the fetus is an undesirable but unavoidable consequence. [57] [58]

Ectopic pregnancy Edit

An ectopic pregnancy is one of a few cases where the foreseeable death of an embryo is allowed, since it is categorized as an indirect abortion. This view was also advocated by Pius XII in a 1953 address to the Italian Association of Urology. [59]

Using the Thomistic Principle of Totality (removal of a pathological part to preserve the life of the person) and the Doctrine of Double Effect, the only moral action in an ectopic pregnancy where a woman's life is directly threatened is the removal of the tube containing the human embryo (salpingectomy). The death of the human embryo is unintended although foreseen. [60]

The use of methotrexate and salpingectomy remains controversial in the Catholic medical community, and the Church has not taken an official stance on these interventions. The Catholic Health Association of the United States, which issues guidelines for Catholic hospitals and health systems there, allows both procedures to be used. The argument that these methods amount to an indirect abortion revolves around the idea that the removal of the Fallopian tube or, in the case of methotrexate, the chemical destruction of the trophoblastic cells (those which go on to form the placenta), does not constitute a direct act upon the developing embryo. Individual hospitals and physicians, however, may choose to prohibit these procedures if they personally interpret these acts as a direct abortion. [61] [62] Despite the lack of an official pronouncement by the Church on these treatments, in a 2012 survey of 1,800 Ob/Gyns who work in religious hospitals, only 2.9% of respondents reported feeling constrained in their treatment options by their employers, suggesting that in practice, physicians and healthcare institutions generally choose to treat ectopic pregnancies. [63] [64]

Embryos Edit

The Church considers the destruction of any embryo to be equivalent to abortion, and thus opposes embryonic stem cell research. [65]

Sanctions Edit

Catholics who procure a completed abortion are subject to a latae sententiae excommunication. [2] That means that the excommunication is not imposed by an authority or trial (as with a ferendae sententiae penalty) rather, being expressly established by canon law, it is incurred ipso facto when the delict is committed (a latae sententiae penalty). [66] Canon law states that in certain circumstances "the accused is not bound by a latae sententiae penalty" among the ten circumstances listed are commission of a delict by someone not yet sixteen years old, or by someone who without negligence does not know of the existence of the penalty, or by someone "who was coerced by grave fear, even if only relatively grave, or due to necessity or grave inconvenience." [67] [68]

According to a 2004 memorandum by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Catholic politicians who consistently campaign and vote for permissive abortion laws should be informed by their priest of the Church's teaching and warned to refrain from receiving the Eucharist or risk being denied it until they end such activity. [69] This position is based on Canon 915 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law and has also been supported, in a personal capacity, by Archbishop Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke, the former Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura. [70] Pope Francis reaffirmed this position in March 2013, when he stated that "[people] cannot receive Holy Communion and at the same time act with deeds or words against the commandments, particularly when abortion, euthanasia, and other grave crimes against life and family are encouraged. This responsibility weighs particularly over legislators, heads of governments, and health professionals." [71]

Forgiveness of women who abort Edit

Apart from indicating in its canon law that automatic excommunication does not apply to women who abort because of grave fear or due to grave inconvenience, the Catholic Church, without making any such distinctions, assures the possibility of forgiveness for women who have had an abortion. Pope John Paul II wrote:

I would now like to say a special word to women who have had an abortion. The Church is aware of the many factors which may have influenced your decision, and she does not doubt that in many cases it was a painful and even shattering decision. The wound in your heart may not yet have healed. Certainly what happened was and remains terribly wrong. But do not give in to discouragement and do not lose hope. Try rather to understand what happened and face it honestly. If you have not already done so, give yourselves over with humility and trust to repentance. The Father of mercies is ready to give you his forgiveness and his peace in the Sacrament of Reconciliation. [72]

On the occasion of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy in 2015, Pope Francis announced that all priests (during the Jubilee year – ending November 20, 2016) will be allowed in the Sacrament of Penance to remit the penalty of excommunication for abortion, which had been reserved to bishops and certain priests who were given such mandate by their bishop. [73] This policy was made permanent by an apostolic letter titled Misericordia et misera (Mercy and Misery), which was issued on November 21, 2016. [74] [75]

Recent statements of the Church's position Edit

The Church teaches that "human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person – among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life." [1] This follows from the fact that probabilism may not be used where human life mag be at stake [76] [77] the Catholic Catechism teaches that the embryo must be treated from conception "as" (Latin: tamquam, "as if") a human person. [78] And "morally significant is the large proportion of embryos lost before and during the process of implantation," [77] estimated at 70 percent that fail to last the first five days. [79]

After a certain stage of intrauterine development it is perfectly evident that fetal life is fully human. Although some might speculate as to when that stage is reached, there is no way of arriving at this knowledge by any known criterion and as long as it is probable that embryonic life is human from the first moment of its existence, the purposeful termination (is immoral).

The modern magisterium has carefully avoided confusing "human being" with "human person", and avoids the conclusion that every embryonic human being is a person, which would raise the question of "ensoulment" and immoral destiny. [81]

Since the 1st century, the Church has affirmed that every procured abortion is a moral evil, a teaching that the Catechism of the Catholic Church declares "has not changed and remains unchangeable." [82]

The Church teaches that the inalienable right to life of every innocent human being is a constitutive element of a civil society and its legislation. In other words, it is beholden upon society to legally protect the life of the unborn. [83]

Catholic theologians trace Catholic thought on abortion to early Christian teachings such as the Didache, die Epistle of Barnabas en die Apokalips van Petrus. [20] In contrast, Catholic philosophers Daniel Dombrowski and Robert Deltete analyzed Church theological history and the "development of science" in A Brief, Liberal, Catholic Defense of Abortion to argue that a position in favor of abortion rights is "defensibly Catholic." [84]

Although the church hierarchy campaigns against abortion and its legalization in all circumstances, including threats to a woman's life or health and pregnancy from rape, many Catholics disagree with this position, according to several surveys of Western Catholic views.

Verenigde State Redigeer

A majority of U.S. Catholics hold views that differ from the official Church doctrine on abortion, though they also hold more anti-abortion stances than the general public. [85] According to a 1995 survey by Lake Research and Tarrance Group, 64% of U.S. Catholics say they disapprove of the statement that "abortion is morally wrong in every case". [86] According to a 2016 survey by Pew Research Center, 51% of U.S. Catholics say that "having an abortion is morally wrong." [87] Surveys conducted by a number of polling organizations indicate that between 16% and 22% of American Catholic voters agree with Church policy that abortion should be illegal in all cases the rest of the respondents held positions ranging from support for legal abortions in certain restricted circumstances to an unqualified acceptance of abortion in all cases. [6] [7] [8] [88] According to a 2009 survey by Pew Research Center, 47% of American Catholics believe that abortion should be legal in "all or most cases", while 42% of American Catholics believe that abortion should be illegal in "all or most cases". [10] When posed the binary question of whether abortion was acceptable or unacceptable, rather than a question of whether it should be allowed or not allowed in all or most cases, according to polls conducted in 2006-2008 by Gallup, 40% of American Catholics said it was acceptable, approximately the same percentage as non-Catholics. [11] According to the National Catholic Reporter, some 58% of American Catholic women feel that they do not have to follow the abortion teaching of their bishop. [89]

However, the results in the United States differ significantly when the polls distinguish between practicing and/or churchgoing Catholics and non-practicing Catholics. Those who attend church weekly are more likely to oppose abortion. [8] [10] [11] [12] According to a Marist College Institute for Public Opinion's survey released in 2008, 36% of practising Catholics, defined as those who attend church at least twice a month, consider themselves "pro-choice" while 65% of non-practicing Catholics considers themselves "pro-choice", [90] According to polls conducted in 2006-2008 by Gallup, 24% of practicing Catholics, defined in this poll as those who attend church "weekly or almost every week", believe abortion is morally acceptable. [11]

It is said that "Latino Catholics" in the United States are more likely to oppose abortion than "White Catholics". [12]

Some reasons for dissenting from the church's position on the legality of abortion, other than finding abortion morally acceptable, include "I am personally opposed to abortion, but I think the Church is concentrating its energies too much on abortion rather than on social action" [91] or "I do not wish to impose my views on others." [92] [93] [94] [95]

According to a poll conducted by Zogby International, 29% of Catholic voters choose their candidate based solely on the candidate's position on abortion most of these vote for anti-abortion candidates 44% believe a "good Catholic" cannot vote for a politician who supports abortion rights, while 53% believe one can. [6]

According to 2011 report from Public Religion Research Institute, 68% of American Catholics believe that one can still be a "good Catholic" while disagreeing with the church's position on abortion, approximately as many as members of other religious groups. [12] On this long-standing phenomenon of a number of Catholics disagreeing with the Church's official position on abortion, Pope John Paul II commented: "It is sometimes claimed that dissent from the Magisterium is totally compatible with being a "good Catholic" and poses no obstacle to the reception of the sacraments. This is a grave error." In what the Los Angeles Times called a key admonition, he added: "It has never been easy to accept the Gospel teaching in its entirety, and it never will be." [96] [97] Many, however, suggest that this is the problem, that some of the strongest anti-abortion advocates seem unconcerned about critical social issues in the complete spectrum of the Church's moral teaching. [98] US Cardinal Bernardin and Pope Francis have been prominent proponents of this "seamless garment" approach. [99] The US Bishops have called on Catholics to weigh all the threats to life and human dignity before placing their vote: [100] the tag "intrinsic evil" can lead to an over-simplification of issues. [101] In his column in the Jesuit magazine Amerika, Professor John F. Kavanaugh, S.J., observed: [102]

Most people open to the facts recognize that a human life has begun by the end of the first trimester of a pregnancy. It is at this point that some common ground may be reached to protect unborn human life. There is political will at hand to ensure such protection but as long as the extreme positions hold sway, no action will be taken.

Verenigde Koninkryk Wysig

A 2010 poll indicated that one in fourteen British Catholics accept the Church's teaching that abortion should not be allowed in any circumstances. [9] A 2016 poll found that Catholics in Northern Ireland were far more conservative in their views of abortion than people in Britain. [103]

Pole Redigeer

In Poland, where 85% of the population is Catholic, [104] a Pew Research poll from 2017 found that 8% of Polish respondents believed abortion should be legal in all cases and 33% that it should be legal in most cases. On the other hand, 38% believed that it should be illegal in most cases and 13% that it should be illegal in all cases. [105]

Australië Redigeer

According to one survey, 72% of Australian Catholics say that the decision to have an abortion "should be left to individual women and their doctors." [106]

Italië Redigeer

According to the Italian polling organization Eurispes, between 18.6% and 83.2% of Italian Catholics believe abortion is acceptable, depending on the circumstance. The highest number, 83.2%, is in favor of the voluntary termination of pregnancy in case the mother's life is in danger. [107]

België Redigeer

Prior to 1990, Belgium remained one of the few European countries where abortion was illegal. However, abortions were unofficially permitted (and even reimbursed out of 'sickness funds') as long as they were registered as "curettage". It was estimated that 20,000 abortions were performed each year (in comparison to 100,000 births). [108]

In early 1990, despite the opposition of the Christian parties, a coalition of the Socialist and Liberal parties passed a law to partially liberalize abortion law in Belgium. The Belgian bishops appealed to the population at large with a public statement that expounded their doctrinal and pastoral opposition to the law. They warned Belgian Catholics that anyone who co-operated "effectively and directly" in the procurement of abortions was "excluding themselves from the ecclesiastical community." Motivated by the strong stance of the Belgian bishops, King Baudoin notified the Prime Minister on March 30 that he could not sign the law without violating his conscience as a Catholic. [109] Since the legislation would not have the force of law without the king's signature, his refusal to sign threatened to precipitate a constitutional crisis. [110] However, the problem was resolved by an agreement between the king and Prime Minister Martens by which the Belgian government declared the king unable to govern, assumed his authority and enacted the law, after which Parliament then voted to reinstate the king on the next day. [108] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] The Vatican described the king's action as a "noble and courageous choice" dictated by a "very strong moral conscience". [116] Others have suggested that Baudoin's action was "little more than a gesture", since he was reinstated as king just 44 hours after he was removed from power. [109]

Brasilië Edit

In March 2009, Archbishop Jose Cardoso Sobrinho said that by securing the abortion of a nine-year-old girl who had been raped by her stepfather, her mother and the doctors involved were excommunicated latae sententiae. [117] [118] This statement of the Archbishop drew criticism not only from women's rights groups and the Brazilian government, but also from Archbishop Rino Fisichella, president of the Pontifical Academy for Life, who said it was unjust, [119] and other churchmen. In view of the interpretations that were placed upon Archbishop Fisichella's article, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a clarification reiterating that "the Church's teaching on procured abortion has not changed, nor can it change." [120] The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil declared the Archbishop's statement mistaken, since in accordance with canon law, when she had acted under pressure and in order to save her daughter's life, the girl's mother certainly had not incurred automatic excommunication and there was insufficient evidence for declaring that any of the doctors involved had. [121]

England Edit

In September 2013, Archbishop Peter Smith, Vice-President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, decried the decision of the Crown Prosecution Service not to proceed against two doctors who accepted a request to perform an abortion as a means of sex selection, a procedure that is illegal in Britain and that Archbishop Smith described as one expression of what he called the injustice that abortion is to the unwanted child. [122] [123]

Indië Redigeer

Mother Teresa opposed abortion, and in the talk she gave in Norway on being awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize for Peace, she called abortion "the greatest destroyer of peace today". [124] [125] She further stated that, "Any country that accepts abortion is not teaching its people to love but to use violence to get what they want." [126] [127] [128] [129]

Ierland Redigeer

In October 2012, Savita Halappanavar died at University Hospital Galway in Ireland, after suffering a miscarriage which led to sepsis (blood poisoning), multiple organ failure, and her death. She was denied abortion under Irish law because the fetus had a heartbeat and nothing could therefore be done. A midwife explained to her, in a remark for which she later apologized: "This is a Catholic country." Widespread protests were subsequently held in Ireland and India, and there was a call to re-examine the Irish abortion laws. [130] [131] [132] [133] On 25 May 2018, the Irish electorate voted by a majority of 66.4% to repeal the 8th Amendment which banned abortion in almost all circumstances, thus allowing the government to legislate for abortion. An exit poll conducted by RTE suggested that almost 70% of those who voted yes considered themselves to be Catholic. New law created by the Irish Parliament allowed for abortion in the first twelve weeks of pregnancy (with an exception to the time limit if the woman's life is at risk). Abortion services commenced on 1 January 2019.

Italië Redigeer

Speaking to a group of anti-abortion activists from the Congress of the Movement for Life of Italy, Pope Francis called them Good Samaritans and encouraged them "to protect the most vulnerable people, who have the right to be born into life." He called children a gift, and emphasized the dignity of women. He said they were doing "important work in favor of life from conception until its natural end." [134]

Pole Redigeer

It is widely believed that the Catholic Church in Poland is the main source of opposition to the liberalization of abortion laws and the reintroduction of sex education in Polish schools in accordance with European standards. However, research studies have shown that Polish Catholics have a wide range of views on sex and marriage. Many Polish people, including devout Catholics, complain that the Catholic Church makes demands that very few Catholics want and are able to satisfy. [135]

Before the transition to democracy, Poland's government presided over some of the highest abortion rates in Europe, with approximately 1.5 million procedures done per year. Polling in 1991, coming after the collapse of the past communist regime in Poland, found that about 60% of Polish people supported nonrestrictive abortion laws. [136]

That being said, ultra-conservative groups remain prominent in Polish politics and often use notions of Polish-Catholic national identity to encourage factionalism and support an agenda that includes weakening democratic institutions like the judiciary and free press as well as supporting restrictions on reproductive decision-making. [137]

Verenigde State Redigeer

An advocacy organization called Catholics for Choice was founded in 1973 to support the availability of abortion, stating that this position is compatible with Catholic teachings particularly with "primacy of conscience" and the importance of the laity in shaping church law. [138] In October 1984, CFC (then Catholics for a Free Choice) placed an advertisement, signed by over one hundred prominent Catholics, including nuns, in the New York Times. The advertisement, called A Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion contested statements by the Church hierarchy that all Catholics opposed abortion rights, and said that "direct abortion . can sometimes be a moral choice." The Vatican initiated disciplinary measures against some of the nuns who signed the statement, sparking controversy among American Catholics, and intra-Catholic conflict on the abortion issue remained news for at least two years in the United States. [139] Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz excommunicated Catholics in his jurisdiction who were associated with this organization in 1996, [140] and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops stated in 2000 that "[CFC] is not a Catholic organization, does not speak for the Catholic Church, and in fact promotes positions contrary to the teaching of the Church as articulated by the Holy See and the USCCB." [141]

Position of the Church Edit

Catechism of the Catholic Church [83]

Since the Catholic Church views procured abortion as gravely wrong, it considers it a duty to reduce its acceptance by the public and in civil legislation. While it considers that Catholics should not favour direct abortion in any field, according to Frank K. Flinn, the Church recognizes that Catholics may accept compromises that, while permitting direct abortions, lessen their incidence by, for instance, restricting some forms or enacting remedies against the conditions that give rise to them. Flinn says that support may be given to a political platform that contains a clause in favour of abortion but also elements that will actually reduce the number of abortions, rather than to an anti-abortion platform that will lead to their increase. [142]

In 2004, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, then Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, declared: "A Catholic would be guilty of formal cooperation in evil, and so unworthy to present himself for holy Communion, if he were to deliberately vote for a candidate precisely because of the candidate's permissive stand on abortion and/or euthanasia. When a Catholic does not share a candidate's stand in favor of abortion and/or euthanasia, but votes for that candidate for other reasons, it is considered remote material cooperation, which can be permitted in the presence of proportionate reasons." [143]

Church treatment of politicians who favor abortion rights Edit

Many controversies have arisen between the Church and Catholic politicians who support abortion rights. In most cases, Church officials have threatened to refuse communion to these politicians. In some cases, officials have stated that the politicians should refrain from receiving communion in others, the possibility of excommunication has been suggested. [144]

Some medical personnel, including many Catholics, have strong moral or religious objections to abortions and do not wish to perform or assist in abortions. [145] [146] The Catholic Church has argued that the "freedom of conscience" rights of such personnel should be legally protected. For example, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops supports such "freedom of conscience" legislation arguing that all healthcare providers should be free to provide care to patients without violating their "most deeply held moral and religious convictions." [147] [148] The Virginia Catholic Conference expressed support for pharmacists who consider that they cannot in conscience be on duty during a sale of emergency contraception, which they believe is the same as abortion. [149]

In response to such concerns, many states in the U.S. have enacted "freedom of conscience" laws that protect the right of medical personnel to refuse to participate in procedures such as abortion. [149] In 2008, towards the end of the second Bush administration, the U.S. federal government issued a new rule that ensured that healthcare workers would have the right to "refuse to participate in abortions, sterilizations or any federally funded health service or research activity on religious or ethical grounds." The new rule was welcomed by anti-abortion organizations including the Catholic Church however, abortion rights advocates criticized the new regulation arguing that it would "restrict access not only to abortion but also to contraception, infertility treatment, assisted suicide and stem-cell research." The incoming Obama administration proposed to rescind this rule. [150]

Attempts have been made to oblige Catholic hospitals to accept an obligation to perform emergency abortions in cases where the pregnant woman's life is at risk [151] however, hospitals that agree to perform abortions in contradiction to Church teaching may lose their official qualification as "Catholic". [152] [153] Church authorities have also admonished Catholic hospitals who, following medical standards, refer patients outside the hospital for abortion or contraception, or who perform tests for fetal deformity. [154]

One Catholic hospital devotes care to helping women who wish to stop an abortion after the process has begun. [155] [156]

In November 2009, when Sister Margaret McBride, as a member of the ethics board of a Catholic hospital, allowed doctors to perform an abortion to save the life of a mother suffering from pulmonary hypertension, Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted determined that she had incurred a latae sententiae excommunication, on the grounds that direct abortion cannot be justified. [157] [158] [159]

As of December 2011 [update] , the hospital stated that McBride had reconciled with the Church and is in good standing with her religious institute and the hospital. [160]


Francois Longuet was a French emigre priest who came to Reading in the wake of the French Revolution. He founded a chapel in Reading, the first purpose-built one since the Reformation, which he called Die Chapel of the Resurrection. We look forward very much to Lindsay’s talk on this resourceful and little-known character, the founder of modern Catholic community in Reading.

Chris Robson will be giving this talk via Zoom. Please email our Secretary, Angie Hodges, for the Zoom link.


Geskiedenis

We can trace the beginnings of what is now The Catholic Cemeteries Association to the earliest decades in the history of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. Among the cemeteries established during that time were those that eventually became the founding members of The Catholic Cemeteries Association: St. Mary Cemetery, Lawrenceville St. Joseph and St. Thomas Cemeteries, Braddock Calvary Cemetery, Hazelwood and St. Philomena Cemetery, Ross Township.

In the decades to follow, other cemeteries were established that would eventually become members of The Catholic Cemeteries Association. But these four–St. Mary Cemetery, Braddock Catholic Cemetery, Calvary Cemetery and North Side Catholic Cemetery–would become the charter members of The Catholic Cemeteries Association when it was incorporated on December 23, 1952. To all those who established, operated and maintained these cemeteries in the Catholic tradition, we owe a profound debt of gratitude.

The Catholic Cemeteries Association currently owns, operates and maintains 16 diocesan cemeteries in Allegheny and Washington counties in western Pennsylvania. Below you will find information regarding the history of some of our initial cemeteries. For an expanded listing of cemeteries and descriptions, please refer to the cemeteries section of this site.

« Bishop Zubik Mission » Back to About

© 2021 The Catholic Cemeteries Association of the Diocese of Pittsburgh.


The History Of The Scottish Catholic Historical Association

The Scottish Catholic Historical Association was founded in 1950 by a group of clergy and laity who wished to place Scottish Catholic history in the mainstream of historical research. Conferences, lectures, publications and the invaluable journal of the association – The Innes Review – have successfully achieved this goal set out over 65 years ago.

The first conference of the then Scottish Catholic Historical Committee was held in May 1949. Located at Polmont in Stirlingshire.

Under the auspices of the Edinburgh branch of the Newman Association of Great Britain and attended by over 30 people, it heard four papers:

Mr Donald Nicholl – who spoke on the Catholic’s approach to history

Fr Anthony Ross OP – on the contribution made to Scottish historical studies by Catholic scholars

Fr David McRoberts – on the Scottish Colleges on the continent

Brother Clare (Dr Handley) – on the work still to be done in Scottish social and economic history

Before the conference ended, a committee was formed to plan another conference the following year. The meeting of the Scottish Catholic Hierarchy in October 1949 gave the committee it’s recognition and blessing to the work it was pursuing. It was agreed that there would be an attempt to produce publications, continue with the annual conferences and carry forward the well progressed plans for the publication of the bi-annual review, to be called The Innes Review in commemoration of Father Thomas Innes, the most notable of Scottish Catholic historical writers.

In the years since 1950, the Association has worked tirelessly to publish and explore all elements of Scottish Catholic history. Membership of the Association has now also become quite ecumenical, with support coming from all denominations.


Catholic Emancipation

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Catholic Emancipation, in British history, the freedom from discrimination and civil disabilities granted to the Roman Catholics of Britain and Ireland in a series of laws during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. After the Reformation, Roman Catholics in Britain had been harassed by numerous restrictions. In Britain, Roman Catholics could not purchase land, hold civil or military offices or seats in Parliament, inherit property, or practice their religion freely without incurring civil penalties. A Roman Catholic in Ireland could not vote in Parliamentary elections and could be readily dispossessed of his land by his nearest Protestant relative.

By the late 18th century, however, Roman Catholics had ceased to be considered the social and political danger that they had represented at the beginning of the Hanoverian succession. The first Relief Act (1778) enabled Roman Catholics in Britain to acquire real property, such as land. Similar legislation was enacted in Ireland in a series of measures (1774, 1778, and 1782). In 1791 another bill was passed that enabled British Catholics to practice their religion without fear of civil penalties, a measure applied on a much wider scale by the Irish Parliament with the Relief Act of 1793, which granted Irish Roman Catholics the franchise and admission to most civil offices.

Further emancipatory measures following the Act of Union (1801), which united Great Britain with Ireland, foundered in the face of resistance from the bitterly anti-Catholic George III and from powerful Irish Protestants and British Tories who feared Roman Catholic participation in Britain’s public life. In the next two decades, however, the charismatic Irish lawyer and orator Daniel O’Connell began to mobilize the Irish Roman Catholic peasantry and middle class to agitate for full emancipation. He formed the Catholic Association to this end in 1823, bringing into its ranks hundreds of thousands of members in Ireland. By 1828 the British government was faced with the threat of a nationwide rebellion in Ireland if action was not taken to conciliate this broad-based and energetic movement intent on the alleviation of Catholic grievances. O’Connell himself forced the issue when he entered a Parliamentary by-election in County Clare in 1828, insisting that he would not take his seat until the anti-Roman Catholic oath required of members of Parliament was abolished. O’Connell’s ensuing triumphant election compelled the British prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and Sir Robert Peel to carry the Emancipation Act of 1829 in Parliament. This act admitted Irish and English Roman Catholics to Parliament and to all but a handful of public offices. With the Universities Tests Act of 1871, which opened the universities to Roman Catholics, Catholic Emancipation in the United Kingdom was virtually complete.


Oor hierdie bladsy

APA -aanhaling. Willms, J. (1910). Association of the Holy Childhood. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07399a.htm

MLA -aanhaling. Willms, John. "Association of the Holy Childhood." Die Katolieke ensiklopedie. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07399a.htm>.

Transkripsie. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Beth Ste-Marie.


Oor ons

The English Catholic History Association encourages interest in the Catholic history of England and Wales. We organise visits to places associated with the Catholic faith, and arrange conferences on subjects relating to our Catholic history. We also support research into subjects of Catholic interest and seek to prevent the destruction of Catholic archives. We have our own archive library.

The Association developed from the English Catholic History Group that was formed in 1991. At the ECHG Annual General Meeting in 1997 a new constitution was proposed prior to an application for charitable status. This was granted in 1998 and the new name of ‘English Catholic History Association’ was adopted.

A programme of visits and conferences is organised throughout the year, often in conjunction with regional Catholic History Societies. These normally take the form of day events, but include occasional trips of 2/3 days and a 4 day conference on a subject of Catholic interest takes place every 2 years. We publish a newsletter four times per year which is distributed to all members.

The Patrons of the Association are Dom Geoffrey Scott OSB, Abbot of Douai, and Lord Clifford of Chudleigh.

Go to this link (for P1) and this link (for P2) to download our latest Information Leaflet which could be distributed at your church or to other interested persons.

For our Data Protection Policy please click here

The image above is a copy of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales by Daphne Pollen, commissioned by Fr Philip Caraman SJ to promote the cause of their canonisation. The original watercolour is in the custody of Stonyhurst College and we are extremely grateful to them for permitting us to use it on our website.


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