Smith II DD- 378 - Geskiedenis

Smith II DD- 378 - Geskiedenis


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Smith II

(DD-378: dp. 1,480,1. 341'4 ", b. 34'8", dr. 9'9 "; s. 35 k. Cpl. 235; a. 4 5", 12 21 "tt .; cl. Mahan)

Die tweede 9mith (DD-378) is op 27 Oktober 1934 deur Mare Island Navy Yard, Mare Island Calif .; op 20 Februarie 1936 gelanseer; geborg deur mev Yancey S. Williams; en in opdrag op 19 September 1936 het Comdr. H. L. Grosskopf in bevel.

By die uitbreek van die oorlog was Smith in San Francisco verbonde aan Destroyer Squadron (DesRon) 5 en van toe tot April 1942 het sy begeleiding vanaf die weskus na Pearl Harbor verrig. Op 7 April is Smith aangewys by Task Force (TF) 1, saamgestel uit Battleship Division 3, wat uitgebreide oefenoefeninge langs die weskus gehou het totdat dit op 1 Junie na Pearl Harbor vertrek het. By haar aankoms is Smith toegewys aan TF 17 onder bevel van vise -admiraal Marc

Mitscher. Sy het 'n maand lank oorlogspatrollies en oefenoefeninge gedoen en daarna 'n konvooi na San Franciseo begelei. Na die opknapping en daaropvolgende see-proewe in die Bay Arra, het sy middel Augustus na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer en 'n periode van opleiding en instandhouding begin. Op 15 Oktober is sy aangestel by TF 16 bestaande uit Enterprise (CV-6) en South Dakota (BB-57). TF 16 het op 16 Oktober uit Pearl Harbor vertrek tydens oorlogspatrollie, en die volgende week het Portland (CA-33) en San Juan (CL-54) saam met hul verwoesterskerm aangesluit.

Die taakspan was noordwes van die New Hebrides -eilande bedrywig toe op 24 Oktober in kennis gestel is dat 'n Japannese draermag op Guadalcanal konvergeer. TF 17 Hornet (CV-8) en sy kruis-vernietiger-skerm het by TF 16 aangesluit en die saamgesmelte mag is TF 61 genoem.

Op 26 Oktober het verkenningsvliegtuie van Enterprise die Japannese mag opgespoor en hulle het ons ook gevind. Om 0944 is die eerste vyandelike vliegtuie gesien en Hornet is 30 minute later deur bomme getref. Om 1125 is Smith aangeval deur 'n formasie van 20 torpedovliegtuie. Twintig minute later het 'n Japannese torpedovliegtuig in haar voorspeler vasgery en 'n hewige ontploffing veroorsaak. Die voorste deel van die skip was toegedraai in 'n vel rook en vlam van bars tenks en die brug moes verlaat word. Die hele voorste dekhuis het aan die brand gesteek, wat die bokant vorentoe van nommer een -stapel onhoudbaar gemaak het. Smith se kanonniers het ses van die vliegtuie gespat. Teen die middag het die bemanning al die brande vooruit geblus. Met 57 dood of vermiste, 12 gewondes, haar tydskrifte oorstroom en tydelike verlies aan stuurbeheer uit die loodshuis, het Smith haar posisie op die skerm behou met alle gewere wat geskik was. Die aksie is die aand onderbreek, en Smith is na Noumea vir tydelike herstelwerk. Sy is op 5 November opgelaai en aan die gang vir Pearl Harbor. By Pearl Harbor het sy 'n opknapping van die werf en proewe ondergaan wat tot Februarie 1943 geduur het.

Smith vertrek op 12 Februarie na Espiritu Santo as skerm vir Wright (CVL-49). Gridley (DD-380) het daar by die skerm aangesluit, en die skepe het na Guadalcanal gegaan waar Smith tot 12 Maart anti-duikbootpatrollies uitgevoer het. Daarna keer sy terug na Espiritu Santo en neem tot 28 April deel aan verskillende patrollies en taktiese en logistieke oefeninge met TF 10 in die gebied New Caledonia-Coral Sea. Smith keer die volgende maand terug na Pearl Harbor vir logistiek en vaar daarna na Australië.

Smith was verbonde aan DesRon 5 wat tot 10 Junie oefeninge in die Townsville Cape Moreton -omgewing uitgevoer het, en daarna handelaarsvaartuie en landingsvaartuie na Milnebaai begelei en die res van Julie daar gebly het. Smith het op 1 Augustus vertrek na McKay, Australië, en die beskikbaarheid van die werf. Toe dit voltooi is, keer sy terug na Milnebaai vir verdere oefeninge en voorbereidings vir die komende operasies met die Sewende Vloot.

Smith, saam met die vernietigers Perkins (DD-377), Conyngham (DD-371) en Mahan (DD-364), het Finschhafen, Nieu-Guinee, op 23 Augustus gebombardeer sonder opposisie. Die eskader het teruggekeer na Milnebaai en aan oefeninge deelgeneem tot 2 September toe dit met TF 76 na die Huongolfgebied van Nieu -Guinee gevaar het. Smith het teikens in haar toegewese gebied "Red Beach" gebombardeer voor die landings deur die 9de Australiese Infanteriedivisie op 4 September. Sy het in die gebied gebly met aanstootlike patrollies teen onderzeeërs, en as verdediging teen lugvaart tot 18 September. Die nag van 7-8 September het die eskader Lae beskiet.

Gedurende die tydperk 20 tot 23 September het Smith deelgeneem aan die bombardement en landings in Finschhafen as 'n eenheid van £ 76. Vyandelike lugaanvalle is teen die taakmag uitgevoer sonder om dit te beskadig, maar hulle het 16 vliegtuie verloor op die vegter of vlootgeweer. Smith keer daarna terug na Holuicote Bay vir hervoorsiening na Lae en Finschbafen.

Op 3 Oktober is Smith, Nenley (DD-391) en Reid (DD-369) aangestel om 'n antisubmarine te maak
vee van die Huon -golf. Teen 1821 word drie torpedo -wakkerwapens by Smith se hawe -balk gesien. Sy maak 'n regter volle roer en gly tussen twee van die torpedo's, een verby 500 meter na die bak, die ander 200 meter na stuurboord. Henley neem 'n torpedo aan die hawekant en breek ses minute later in die helfte weg en verdwyn uit die oog op 1832. Smith het 'n diepte -aanval gedoen wat nutteloos was. Die eskader het die res van die maand bestee aan hervoorsiening om gebiede deur te stuur. Smith het die eerste November 'n kort beskikbaarheidstydperk in Milnebaai gehad en keer daarna terug na die Lae Finschhafen -omgewing.

Op 14 Desember was Smith verbonde aan die Arawe -aanvalmag by Holnicote Bay en vertrek vir die operasie. Die volgende oggend het sy 'Orange Beach', Cape Merkus, beskadig en die operasie met ander eenhede van DesRon 5. behandel. Die eskader keer daarna terug na Milne Bay om voor te berei op die inval in Cape Gloucester, New Britain.

Smith het op Kersdag opgestaan ​​by Buna as begeleier vir die Cape Gloucester Attack Force (TF 76) en as 'n eenheid van die bombardementgroep. Die volgende oggend het sy 'Green Beach', Cape Gloucester, afgeskiet ter voorbereiding op die aanval deur mariniers van die First Marine Division. Sy het die volgende week hervoorraadskepe na die landingsgebied begelei.

Smith was 'n eenheid van die Saidor Attack Force toe sy op 1 Januarie 1944 deur Hutchins (DD-476) agterna gestamp en gedwing is om na Milne Bay terug te keer vir herstelwerk. Sy het gou weer by die eskader aangesluit vir hervoorsienings na Cape Gloucester en die Lae -omgewing. Smith het op 13 Februarie vyandelike geweerplekke in die omgewing van Herwath Point en Singor afgeskiet ter voorbereiding op die landings daar.

Op die 28ste vertrek Smith uit Kaap Sudest as 'n eenheid van die Admiralty Islands Attack Group, met 71 offisiere en manne van die Eerste Kavalerie -afdeling aan boord om op Los Negros -eiland te beland. Die volgende oggend begin sy met die bombardement van aangewese teikens langs die noordelike oewer van Hyane Harbour. Die troepe is geland en Smith het tot die aand oproep geskiet toe sy meer troepe na die landingsgebied gestuur het.

Op 17 Maart vertrek Smith, met DesRon 5, uit die Stille Oseaan op pad na San Francisco via Pearl Harbor. Die opknappingsperiode daar is teen 21 Junie voltooi, en die eskader vaar na Pearl Harbor en bestee die volgende vyf weke aan oefenoefeninge en skietoefeninge. Op 1 Augustus is Smith beveel om Eniwetok te besoek en die vyande beset Marshalls te patrolleer tot 24 September toe sy by TG 57.9, saamgestel uit Cruiser Division 6, aansluit en na Saipan vertrek. Die taakgroep het aanstootlike patrollies van die Noord -Marianas begin om die buitepos van die Sentraal -Stille Oseaan teen vyandelike aanval te beskerm. Smith het vroeg in Oktober na En, iwetok teruggekeer, 'n begeleide reis na Ulithi onderneem en daarna na Hollandia geseil.

Smith was op 26 Oktober verbonde aan die 7de vloot en die volgende dag koers na Leyte Gulf, P.I., aangekom by San Pedro drie dae later. Sy patrolleer Leyte Gulf as 'n eenheid van TG 77.1 van 1 tot 16 November en begelei dan 'n konvooi na New Georgia en terug. Sy is beveel om op 6 Desember met die Ormac Attack Group te vergader om vyandelike posisies aan wal te bombardeer en dan die 77ste leërafdeling daar te laat beland. Die groep het die volgende oggend in die Ormacbaai -gebied aangekom, en Smith was noordoos van Ponson -eiland gestig as 'n vegvliegtuigdirekteur. Om 0945 val vyandelike vliegtuie die vloot aan. Minstens drie selfmoordvliegtuie duik op Mahan en drie op Wyk (DD-483). Albei is ernstig beskadig en later deur vriendelike skietgoed gesink toe vasgestel is dat die brande nie onder beheer gebring kan word of die skepe gered kan word nie. Lugaanvalle het die hele oggend voortgeduur en toe die landingsmag van stapel gestuur is, het die aanvalgroep na Leyte teruggetrek.

Smith en DesRon 5, wat op 11 Desember uit San Pedro vertrek het met 'n aanbod vir Ormacbaai, is die aand in die Golf van Leyte aangeval deur 'n mag vyandelike vliegtuie. Teen 1704 word Reid deur 'n bom en 'n selfmoordvliegtuig getref. Daar was 'n hewige ontploffing, en sy buk om en sak om 1706. Smith spat vier van die vyandelike vliegtuie. Die volgende oggend is die formasie weer deur Japannese vliegtuie aangeval, en Caldwell (DD-605) is deur 'n kamikaze getref wat haar aan die brand gesteek het. Die vernietigers het geen ander treffers opgedoen nie, en Smith het die heraanbod voortgesit tot die 17de toe sy na Manus geseil het vir logistiek en onderhoud.

Smith was op 6 Januarie 1945 terug in die Golf van Leyte as 'n eenheid op die skerm van TG 79.2 wat amfibiese landings in die Lingayengolf, Luzon, ondersteun. Twee dae later was daar 'n hewige lugaanval waarin Kilkunbaai (CVE-71) ernstig deur 'n kamikaze beskadig is. Smith, 3 000 meter verder, het bygestaan ​​om oorlewendes te red. Sy het meer as 200 matrose aan boord geneem. Op 9 Januarie kon sy hierdie mans terugbring na Kitkunbaai, wat nou onder haar eie stoom voortgaan. Smith is toe aangestel om die noordelike Lingayengolf te patrolleer. Van 28 Januarie tot 20 Februarie het sy konvooie na Hollandia, Sansapor en Leyte vertoon. Op 20ste in Leyte is sy aangestel om 'n konvooi na Mangarinbaai, Mindoro, te vertoon. Terwyl hy die volgende oggend deur die Mindanao-see ry, word Rershaw (DD-499) deur 'n torpedo getref en ernstig beskadig. Smith het saamgegaan om gewondes oor te dra, elektrisiteit te voorsien en die motor na die motor te begin pomp met vuur- en lensepompe. Sy het Renshaw vir ses uur gesleep totdat sy verlig was, om onafhanklik na San Pedro te gaan en die gewonde wat aan boord geneem is, oor te dra.

Op pad na Mindoro op 24, het Smith 'n radarkontak opgetel wat nie kon reageer op haar flikker wat identifikasie versoek het nie. Toe die kontak verlig word, was dit 'n Japannese stoomvliegtuig van 200 ton. Die teiken is om 2147 onder skoot geneem en deur 2158 vernietig. Smith het op 26 Februarie vertrek uit Mindoro as 'n eenheid van die Puerta Princesa, Palawan Attack Group (TG 78.2). Sy was twee dae later op die stasie en het om 0818 begin met die aanvang van bombardemente op die "White Beach". Daarna het sy die ingang van die hawe van Palawan gepatrolleer tot 4 Maart. Smith is van patrollie onthef en het twee lopies na Palawan gehaal as begeleier vir voorraadskepe.

Op 24 Maart vaar Smith weer met TG 78.2. Hierdie keer was die doel om die Amerikaanse infanterie -afdeling in Cebu City, Cebu -eiland, te vervoer en te land. Smith het die landingsstrande die oggend van die aanranding, 28 Maart, gebombardeer en nadat die magte geland het, hulle oproepe gegee. Oor 'n tydperk van agt dae het sy 1,200 rondes 5-duim-ammunisie bestee. Op 23 April vertrek sy uit die Filippyne met bevele om by TG 78.1 by Morotai aan te sluit.

Die groep het uit Morota gesorteer; op 27 April 1945 vervoer die 26ste Australiese Infanterie Brigade na Tarakan Island, Borneo, vir 'n amfibiese landing. Smith het die voorlopige bombardement van die landingsstrande om 0700, 1 Mei, begin en tot 19de op die stasie gebly as 'n brandweerboot, 'n peiling en 'n hawe -ingangspatrollie. Smith trek terug na Morotai, vaar na Zamboanga, ontmoet met Mettawee (AOG-17) en begelei haar terug na Tarakan. Sy het daarna 'n nagwapenondersteuning vir die Australiërs verleen totdat hulle na Morotai terugbesorg is.

Sy was daar verbonde aan Admiral Noble's T (r. 78.2 op 26 Junie en het weer na Borneo geseil. Hierdie keer was die doel Balikpapan, Borneo, waar die eerste Australiese korps geland sou word. Smith begin om 0700, 1 Julie met walbombardeer. en het terugskiet vuur ontvang van vyandgewere aan wal wat aan boord gespat het. Die Japannese kanonniers het uiteindelik haar bereik gekry en drie skulpe deur haar stapel nommer een gestuur. Die skulpe kon nie ontplof nie, en slegs oppervlakkige skade is aangerig. onder vuur en teen stilte. Smith vertrek die volgende dag na Morotai, haal 'n konvooi vir voorraad, en was op 16 Julie terug in Balikpapan. Sy vertrek die 24ste na San Pedro en beskikbare tender.

Smith het die Filippyne op 15 Augustus na Bucknerbaai vertrek; het twee weke daar gebly en na die hawe van Nagasaki, Kyushu, geseil. Op 15 September klim 90 oorlogsrisiko's; en die volgende oggend stoom Smith na Okinawa om dit na die Verenigde State te vervoer. Sy het op 21 September nog 90 geallieerde militêre personeel by Nagasaki opgetel en terug na Rerville (APA-227) in Bucknerbaai vervoer.

Smith het op 28 September in Sasebo aangekom en twee dae later na San Diego vertrek, via Pearl Harbor. Sy het op 19 November in San Diego aangelê en daar gebly totdat sy op 28 Desember na Pearl Harbor bestel is vir wegdoening of inaktivering. Sy het op 3 Januarie 1946 in Pearl Harbor aangekom en 'n onaktiewe status aangeneem. Smith is op 28 Junie 1946 ontmantel en op 25 Februarie 1947 van die vlootlys verwyder.

Smith het ses strydsterre ontvang vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Smith II DD- 378 - Geskiedenis

WELKOM BY DIE TYPEWRITER MUSEUM . Al die tikmasjiene op hierdie bladsy is in my besit, maar word slegs feitlik via hierdie webwerf in die openbaar vertoon. Die tikmasjienversameling bevat meer as 125 tikmasjiene van 23 vervaardigers uit die 19de, 20ste en 21ste eeu, uit ten minste tien lande (Verenigde State, Japan, China, Oos -Duitsland, Wes -Duitsland, Switserland, Italië, Spanje, Engeland en die Nethelands). Die museum bevat ten minste een tikmasjien uit elke dekade sedert die 1880's. Verskeie van die tikmasjiene en die heer Martin was op die History Channel -televisieprogram Moderne wonderwerke Episode genaamd "Retro Tech" wat oorspronklik op 19 Desember 2008 uitgesaai is. Tikmasjiene was redelik duur toe hulle nuut was, wat soms die ekwivalente koste van 'n skootrekenaar vandag oorskry. Dit is ook baie fyn vervaardigde en koel masjiene. Alhoewel baie oud is, is baie tikmasjiene verkoop, en dit is lank gehou. Ou tikmasjiene is dus nog volop en daarom is die meeste daarvan nie baie duur nie. Die meeste van my tikmasjiene is vir minder as $ 20 elk verkry. Ek kry die meeste daarvan by plaaslike motorhuise of landgoedverkope en 'n paar in tweedehandswinkels of eBay. Sommige van die vroeëre en meer ongewone tikmasjiene is egter waardevol. As u op eBay kyk en boeke lees, blyk dit ook dat sommige skaars tikmasjiene vir duisende dollars kan verkoop.

Lees verder as u wil lees oor my ervaring met rekenaars wat tikmasjiene grotendeels verouderd maak, of gaan direk na die spesifieke tikmasjiene. Die tikmasjiene is alfbeties volgens handelsmerk gerangskik. Binne 'n handelsmerk word dit volgens datum gereël. Blaai om te blaai of klik op 'n spesifieke handelsmerk.


Smith II DD- 378 - Geskiedenis

    Konstruksie van die prototipe is deur die moeilike maande van 1940 voortgesit. Terwyl die "Slag van Brittanje" oorhoofs uitgeveg is, het daar op een dag op elke vyf bomme binne 'n kilometer van die Hatfield -fabriek geval. Byna 25 persent van die werksure, dag en nag, is in skuilings vir lugaanvalle deurgebring. Ondanks al hierdie wisselvallighede het die prototipe (W4050) sy eerste vlug op 25 November 1940 gemaak, slegs tien maande en ses-en-twintig dae nadat gedetailleerde ontwerpwerk begin is. Die vlieënier was Geoffrey De Havilland, jr. Intussen het die vereistes onvermydelik verander. Daar was 'n mate van vertroue in die hoëspoed-bomwerper, terwyl die swaar gewapende langafstandvegter in die guns gegroei het. Die kontrak is dus verander na twintig bomwerpers en dertig vegters, wat die aanpassing van 'n aantal onderdele wat reeds vervaardig is, noodsaak. Die bou van 'n vegterprototipe het in Salisbury Hall, Londen Colney, plaasgevind wat as verspreiding vir die Hatfield -ontwerpkantoor en eksperimentele winkel gedien het. Twee dae voordat hierdie prototipe (W4052) gereed was om te vlieg, is 'n Duitse agent per valskerm naby Salisbury Hall, in gewone klere en met 'n draagbare radio, laat val. Hy is die volgende dag gevange geneem, en die dag daarna, 15 Mei 1941, vlieg Geoffrey De Havilland die vegterprototipe van 'n veld van 450 meter langs die skuur waarin dit gebou is.

Die prototipe het sy eerste vlug op 25 November 1940 gemaak. Dit was slegs tien maande en ses-en-twintig dae nadat gedetailleerde ontwerpwerk begin is.

    Die eerste Mosquito sortie is op 20 September 1941 gemaak toe 'n enkele vliegtuig 'n verkenningsvlug oor Frankryk gemaak het. Tuis begin die Mosquito -nagvegter, met A.I Mk IV -radar in die lug, oorneem by die Bristol Blenheim. Teen die einde van 1942 het die muskiet steeds groter geword, en sy unieke eienskappe van baie hoë spoed en lang afstand was duidelik ideaal vir 'n spesifieke missie wat toe beplan is.

    Daar is besluit dat 'n aanval op die Duitse Gestapo -hoofkwartier in Oslo, Noorweë, gedoen moet word, wat rekords bevat van lede van ondergrondse versetorganisasies. So 'n missie sou, indien dit suksesvol was, help om diegene wat geheime inligting aan Brittanje verskaf, te beskerm. Daarom het Mosquitos op 25 September 1942 'n langafstandaanval op die hoofkwartier uitgevoer, die gebou akkuraat gebombardeer en daarna vinnig teruggekeer huis toe.

    Die basiese vegvliegtuigmuggie wat in 1942 in die eskaderdiens ingebring is, was die N.F.Mk.II, hoofsaaklik toegerus as 'n nagvegter en saam met die Bristol Beaufighter gebruik vir tuisverdediging. Die bewapening bestaan ​​uit vier 20 mm-kanonne in die voorste romp van die maag en vier Browning .303 in. Masjiengewere in die uiterste neus. Dit het Aircraft Interception (AI) Mk.IV of AI Mk.V "pylpunt" radar en 'n G-45 masjiengeweer. Sy mat-swart algehele afwerking verlaag sy maksimum snelheid met 16 km / h. Krag word verskaf deur twee Merlin 21 -enjins wat 1 280 pk vir opstyg lewer en 1 480 pk op 12 250 voet, óf twee Merlin 23 -enjins wat 1 390 pk vir opstyg lewer en dieselfde maksimum drywing op 12 250 voet.

    Op die nag van 28 tot 29 Mei 1942 het Mosquito NFII's hul eerste 'waarskynlike' behaal, en in die daaropvolgende drie jaar het Mosquito-nagvegters 'n telling van ongeveer 600 vyandelike vliegtuie oor die Britte behaal. Eilande en vernietig ook 600 vlieënde bomme in 'n tydperk van twee maande. Hulle werk later in die ondersteuningsrol van die bomwerper, met die taak om die belangrikste swaar bomwerpersstrome oor vyandelike gebied te verdedig. Van die 466 Mark II-muskietvegters wat geproduseer is, het sommige van die latere vliegtuie 'n dagvliegtuigafwerking gehad en met die verwydering van die AI-radar vanaf einde 1942 oor Malta, Italië, Sicilië en Noord-Afrika gery.

    Bedryfservaring met die Mosquito II in sy dagvegter- en indringerrolle het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van die FBVI, 'n kragtige vegvliegtuig wat gedurende die vroeë maande van 1943 in gebruik geneem is. die Mosquito kon 'n veel groter oorlogslading as die waarvoor dit ontwerp is, akkommodeer, en dus het die Mark VI, met 'n versterkte vleuel vir eksterne vragte wat later bekend geword het as die 'basiese' vleuel, 'n volledige aanvulling van kanonne en masjiengewere, twee 500 lb. bomme in die agterste helfte van die bombaai (die voorste helfte met die kanonbroek) en twee bomme van 500 lb onder die vlerke. Die volle bomlading van 2 000 lb is eintlik slegs deur die Mark VI Series 2 gedra, wat voordeel trek uit die 1,620 pk wat by die Merlin 25 beskikbaar was vir die opstyg, die eerste 300 masjiene was FBVI Series 1 -muskiete met Merlin 21s of 23s en dra twee bomme van 250 pond intern.

Die prototipe nagvegter met 'n sirkelvormige gesegmenteerde lugreminstallasie.

    Later, in die middel van 1943, was die Mosquito FB Mk VI in werking. Behalwe die gewone RAF-pligte, is dit deur Coastal Command gebruik as 'n vliegtuig teen skeepvaart, gewapen met agt vuurpyl-projektiele van 60 lb. Meer ongewone wapens wat deur sommige muskiete gedra is, sluit in 'n 57 mm-kanon vir grondaanval (hierdie verwoestende geweer kon enige gepantserde voertuig vernietig) en die 'block-buster'-bom van 4 000 lb. Selfs met hierdie bom aan boord, kon die Mosquito die meeste Duitse nagvegters uitvlieg, en dit het by verskeie geleenthede verre Berlynse en Duitse V1-vliegbomplekke aangeval.

    'n Heeltemal aparte ontwikkelingslyn van die Mosquito Night Fighter (NF) II het 'n reeks naggevegsvariante opgelewer wat hoofsaaklik vir tuisverdedigingsdoeleindes gebruik is. Die eerste hiervan was die NF XII, wat beplan het om die NF VI te vervaardig met Merlin 21's en die "basiese" vleuel, en die NF X met Merlin 61s en die "basiese" vleuel, nadat dit laat vaar is. Die Mosquito NF XII het die eerste Britse vliegtuig geword wat sentimetriese AI -radar gedra het. Hierdie vorm van radar het die draai-skottel skandeerder ingebring met 'n aansienlik verbeterde werkverrigting in vergelyking met die vroeëre "pylkop" tipe, maar dit het 'n paar onaantreklike neus kontoere tot gevolg gehad op die vliegtuig waarin dit vervoer is. Die sentimetriese radar verdring die vier masjiengewere in die neus van die romp en verminder die bewapening tot vier 20 mm Hispano -kanon. Om sy diensdebuut te bespoedig, was die Mosquito XII direk op die Mark II gebaseer en sewe en negentig masjiene is omgeskakel deur die installering van die nuwe radar.

    Van die Mosquitos wat in Kanada gebou is, was die F.B.26 een van die belangrikste variante, waarvan die ontwerp gebaseer was op die van die F.B.VI. Met dieselfde bewapening as sy Britse eweknie, het dit Packard Merlin 225 -enjins en weeg dit 21 473 pond. Die enigste F.B.24 was soortgelyk, maar het Packard Merlin 69's, terwyl die F.B.21, waarvan slegs drie gebou is, Packard Merlin 31 of 33 enjins gehad het. Australiese produksie was aanvanklik ook gebaseer op die vegvliegtuig, die F.B.40 was soortgelyk aan die F.B.VI, maar het Packard Merlin 31 (eerste honderd produksiemasjiene) of 33 (laaste agt en sewentig) enjins. Een F.B.40 is herontwerp met Packard Merlin 69's en herontwerpte Mosquito F.B.42, maar geen weergawe van hierdie weergawe is onderneem nie.

    Nie minder nie as sewe-en-twintig verskillende weergawes van die Mosquito het gedurende die oorlogsjare in gebruik geneem, en sommige van die mees skouspelagtige operasies van die lugoorlog was tot sy eer. Die muskiet het fenomenale vragte oor uiters lang afstande gedra en prestasies uitgevoer wat buite verhouding was tot die spesifikasie wat oorspronklik deur die ontwerpers voorgestel was. Kortom, die Mosquito was 'n uitstekende oorlogsvliegtuig op elke punt.

    Muskiete was aktief op D-dag, en tot aan die einde van die oorlog. Ander is met lisensie gebou in Kanada en Australië. Die produksie het eers in 1950 in Brittanje geëindig.

A De Havilland Mosquito Mk. B-4.

Spesifikasies:
De Havilland D.H.98 Mosquito N.F.XIX
Afmetings:
Vleuel span: 16,5 m (54 voet) 2 in.
Lengte: 41 voet. 2 in. (12,54 m)
Hoogte: 15 voet 3 in (4,64 m)
Gewigte:
Leeg: 15.970 lb (7 243 kg)
Normaal: 20,600 lb. (9 344 kg)
Max bruto: 21.850 lb. (9 865 kg)
Optrede:
Maksimum spoed: 378 mph (608 km/h) @ 4.0200 m
Vaarspoed: 474 km/h 290 mph (6 096 m)
Diensplafon: 8534 m
Reeks: 2.253 km (met 453 imp. Gal.)
3.065 km (met 616 imp. Gal.,
insluitend twee 50-gal. druptanks)
Kragsentrale:
Twee Rolls-Royce Merlin 25 twaalf-silinder 60 Vee vloeistofgekoelde enjins wat elk 1,208 kW by opstyg en
1.500 pk (1.118 kw) @ 2.895 m (9.500 voet).
Bewapening:
Vier 20 mm. Britse Hispano -kanon

© Die aanlyn-museum vir lugvaartgeskiedenis. Alle regte voorbehou.
Geskep Novenber 27, 2001. Opgedateer Octobr 17, 2013.


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'N GEHEIM GESKIEDENIS / Die teistering van Italianers tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het vandag 'n besondere relevansie en dien as 'n waarskuwing vir wat kan gebeur

2 van 21 Foto van die San Jose News van 23 Februarie 1942 van John Perata (42), derde van links in 'n geruite baadjie, en Felix Bersano (44), middel in 'n loopjas en hoed, albei uit die San Jose/Campbell -omgewing. na die land se gevangenis. Perata en Bersano is onderskeidelik die pa en oom van Don Perata van Saratoga. Uitdeelfoto. Jeff Chiu Wys meer Wys minder

4 van 21 Italianers by die Amerikaanse immigrasie -registrasekantoor SF. HANDOUT Wys meer Wys minder

5 van 21 ITALIANSE14-C-15AUG41-MN-AP DUITSE EN ITALIËNE MIGRANTE VERLAD PHILADELPHIA VIR MONTANA-KAMP IN BUTTE WAARIN HULLE VIR DIE DUUR VAN DIE OORLOG IN EUROPE AP INGEVOER WIL Meer wys minder

7 van 21 Italiaanse Amerikaanse geïnterneerdes kyk na 'n sokkerwedstryd in hul kamp in Missoula. Verhaal oor Italianers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geïnterneer is deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

8 van 21 Lawrence DeStasi, 'n skrywer van boeke oor Italianers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur Vince Maggiora geïnterneer is VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

10 van 21 'n Notaboek wat 'n Italianer van Prospero Cecconi geskryf het oor sy arrestasie in San Francisco en internering tydens die wêreldoorlog 11 Deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

11 van 21 Doris Giuliotti kyk na 'n notaboek wat Prospero Cecconi, haar pa, 'n Italianer, geskryf het oor sy arrestasie in San Francisco en internering tydens die wêreldoorlog 11 Deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

13 van 21 Doris Giuliotti -familiefoto omstreeks 1942, L TO R Prospero Cecconi sy dogters Rita en Doris en vrou Amelia. deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

14 van 21 Prospero Cecconi basiese personeelrekord. Verhaal oor Italianers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geïnterneer is deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

16 van 21 Gian Banchero na sy onderhoud met die Amerikaanse departement van justisie vir burgerregte wat 'n onderhoud met Italianers voer oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die Fratellanza -klub in Oakland. deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

17 van 21 Lawrence DeStasi, 'n skrywer van boeke oor Italianers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur Vince Maggiora geïnterneer is VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

19 van 21 Joanne Chiedi, uitvoerende beampte van die Amerikaanse departement van justisie vir burgerregte, oor die regte onderhoud met Italianers oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die Fratellanza -klub in Oakland. L tot R Anna Perata, Don Perata, Bobby en Emily Michaels. deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

20 van 21 Al Bronzini loop rond op die produksiemark in die middestad van Oakland. Toe Al 'n jong seun was, het hy na die produksiemark gekom om produkte vir hul winkel in Oakland te gaan haal. deur Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Wys meer Wys minder

Al Bronzini se pa het sy besigheid verloor en sy ma het haar kop verloor. Rose Scudero en haar ma is verban. Doris Giuliotti se pa beland in 'n interneringskamp. En die man van Anita Perata is in 'n aanhoudingsentrum aangehou en haar huis is deur die FBI geplunder.

Hulle wil nie vergoeding, verskoning of jammerte hê nie. Hulle wil eenvoudig hê dat die geskiedenisboeke herskryf moet word dat dit byna 60 jaar gelede 'n misdaad was om Italiaans te wees.

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog word 600 000 Italiaanse immigrante sonder dokumentasie in die Verenigde State as 'vyandige vreemdelinge' beskou en is aangehou, verplaas, van hul eiendom gestroop of onder die uitgangspunt geplaas. 'N Paar honderd is selfs in interneringskampe toegesluit.

Dit is nie iets waarvan die meeste mense weet nie.

'Hierdie verhaal het bene omdat mense so verstom is dat dit met die Italianers gebeur het,' sê die skrywer Lawrence DiStasi van Bolinas, deel van 'n groep Italiaanse Amerikaners in die Bay Area wat 'n landwye veldtog gelei het om hierdie hoofstuk van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis op te som.

'En ons wil ook ons ​​eie mense opvoed, nie net die res van die publiek nie,' het DiStasi gesê. 'Want as u nie weet wat met u gebeur het nie, weet u in 'n sekere sin nie wie u is nie.'

Die afgelope jaar was deurslaggewend. Na byna ses dekades van virtuele stilte,

die kwessie het tydigheid en dringendheid gekry - selfs meer sedert die terreuraanval op 11 September op die Verenigde State en die daaropvolgende terugslag teen mense van die Midde -Oosterse afkoms.

'Die mikpunt van sekere groepe is angswekkend

Joanne Chiedi, adjunk uitvoerende beampte in die burgerregte -afdeling van die Amerikaanse departement van justisie, het gesê: "Wat met die Italianers gebeur het, was gebaseer op oorlogstydse histerie. Ons probeer mense opvoed sodat dit nie weer gebeur nie. Die verhaal moet vertel word. "

Chiedi moet teen 7 November 'n verslag opstel oor wat wel gebeur het.

Vir Chiedi (40) is dit 'n perfekte rolverdeling: die dogter van immigrante uit Sicilië, sy was ook verantwoordelik vir die regstellingsprojek van die departement van justisie om die Japannese Amerikaners gedurende die veertigerjare in die konsentrasiekampe te herstel.

Die huidige ondersoek is deur president Bill Clinton gelas toe hy verlede November die Wet op die skending van die Italiaanse Amerikaanse burgerlike vryhede onderteken het. Uiteindelik het die regering erken dat iets gebeur het.

En uiteindelik is mense ook gereed om daaroor te praat.

Sommige Italianers noem hierdie hoofstuk van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis 'Una Storia Segreta', wat beide 'n geheime verhaal en 'n geheime geskiedenis beteken.

After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the United States declared war and began a crackdown on those of German, Italian or Japanese descent that led, in its most extreme form, to the internment of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of whom were citizens. Germans managed to escape mass relocation but were subjected to internment and many restrictions.

In the case of Italians - the largest immigrant group in the country at the time - noncitizens were targeted. About 600,000 of the country's 5 million Italians had not been naturalized - for lack of time, language skills or any sense of urgency.

They were forced to register as enemy aliens, carry photo ID booklets and surrender flashlights, shortwave radios, guns, binoculars, cameras and other "contraband." There were FBI raids on private homes, arrests and detentions.

In California alone, said the 64-year-old DiStasi, a lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley, 10,000 were evacuated, mostly from coastal areas and sites near power plants, dams and military installations. Prohibited zones were created. And 257 people - 90 from the Golden State - were put in internment camps for up to two years.

Fishing boats were seized, and thousands of fishermen lost their jobs. In San Francisco, 1,500 were idled, including Joe DiMaggio's father. Another 52, 000 "enemy aliens" lived under nightly house

arrest, with a curfew from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. Noncitizens could not travel more than 5 miles from home without a permit.

"A deliberate policy kept these measures from the public during the war," said the civil liberties act. "Even 50 years later much information is still classified, the full story remains unknown to the public, and it has never been acknowledged in any official capacity by the United States government."

Gladys Hansen, city historian of San Francisco, said she still knows nothing of the saga - except for vague memories of curfews and people "getting thrown out of Fisherman's Wharf."

"There's very little, when you come right down to it, about the Italians," said Hansen, 76, a native San Franciscan.

During a Justice Department hearing in Oakland in April - one of two in the United States this year - Chiedi echoed that assessment.

"We want to document that time in history through our report," she told the elderly Italians who had come to the Fratellanza Club to testify. "We're here today to say that it was wrong, that it was unjust."

All day long, old Italians told their stories to Chiedi and three colleagues from the same Justice Department that made their lives hell back in 1942. Chiedi admitted to feeling intense deadline pressure to deliver the report by Nov. 7. The date had the opposite effect on Anita Perata of San Jose.

"I'm kind of happy about that, because my birthday is in November. If I'm still around, I'll be 93," she said.

Perata, all dressed up and brimming with life, was accompanied by a son, a granddaughter, a 13-year-old great-granddaughter and a 14-year-old great- grandson.

"Even in the schools, people don't know," said Emily Michaels, of Saratoga, who listens attentively to her great-grandmother's tale.

Chiedi, meanwhile, scribbled it all down: The FBI picked up Anita's husband,

John Perata, at his San Jose appliance store, took him home in handcuffs to Campbell, turned mattresses over and took beds apart.

He was locked up in Sharp Park, an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention center in Pacifica, for two months. Oakland-born Anita Perata visited her husband once a week.

Their son, Saratoga resident Don Perata, 65, former chancellor of the Foothill-De Anza Community College District, remembered only a few things: Getting off the school bus the day of the raid and seeing several large black cars in the driveway. Chatting with his father through a detention center fence on Easter Sunday.

"Sometimes I'd take the little one with us," said Anita Perata, mother of three. "We'd kind of straighten her up when we got out of the car and he'd be up at the window watching for us. We'd get up there, and he'd been crying when he saw what we'd been doing."

On the day John Perata was released, he came home on the streetcar.

"He was too embarrassed to have us take him home," his wife said.

DiStasi said business owners like Perata, community leaders, newspaper reporters,

radio broadcasters and other prominent people were among those targeted - anyone who might be suspected of propaganda and promoting fascism - along with the Ex-Combattenti, veterans who had fought for Italy during World War I.

Ironically, 500,000 Italian Americans were serving in the U.S. armed forces at the time of the crackdown - the largest ethnic group in the military. One serviceman returned from the war to find his family's home boarded up. One woman received an evacuation order the day after she learned her son and her nephew in the U.S. military had been killed at Pearl Harbor.

To win the legislation that Clinton signed on Nov. 7, DiStasi mounted an intense

nationwide lobbying effort by Italian Americans that can trace its roots to San Francisco, with the 1994 debut of "Una Storia Segreta," an exhibit he helped organize at the Museo Italo Americano.

The tattered display of artifacts and documents - which was supposed to have a one-month run - is still making the rounds, more than 40 towns and seven years later.

The exhibit also rated a mention in the civil liberties act. Besides ordering the Justice Department probe, the act says the president should acknowledge what happened, the government should open its files and federal agencies should pay for conferences, seminars, lectures and documentaries to bring the wartime saga out of the closet.

DiStasi, president of the American Italian Historical Association, Western Regional Chapter, has been researching the subject for years. The result is a book that has just come out: "Una Storia Segreta: The Secret History of Italian American Evacuation and Internment during World War II," published by Heyday Books in Berkeley.

Now DiStasi's organization is collaborating on an unprecedented joint exhibit with the Japanese Peruvian Oral History Project and the National Japanese American Historical Society. The show, which opened Sept. 21 in Japantown and runs through Dec. 28, will detail the experiences of all three enemy alien groups.

For Italians, DiStasi said, the legacy of the wartime years continues to this day. The Italian language was one of the main casualties.

There is a government poster on his wall that was a familiar presence in 1942. "Don't speak the enemy's language," it warns, above a drawing of Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Emperor Hirohito. "Speak American."

The children and grandchildren of the immigrants avoided this forbidden language, DiStasi said - one of many examples of a blossoming literary and artistic Italian American culture "iced," as he calls it, by the war.

DiStasi's friend Gian Banchero, 60, a writer, artist and chef from Berkeley,

"A lot of people from my folks' generation didn't want to talk about being Italian, about having Italian blood," said Banchero, leaning on his cane. "My father used to say, Gian, you're so lucky. You can pass for Irish.' "

It maddens Banchero, whose bedroom became the hiding place for his family's new Philco radio, that so few "enemy aliens" will admit they're angry, instead blaming themselves for not becoming citizens.

They worked hard to appear harmless, to blend in.

"Twenty years ago, there was an orchestra conductor at the Fratellanza Club - Buzzy Buzzerino," Banchero said. "I went up to him. Can you play an Italian song or two? Nah, we don't do that,' he said. Hey, isn't this an Italian club?' I asked him."

On the other hand, DiStasi said, many people have been "galvanized" by fresh indignation over old wounds and "it gets them active in other areas of their heritage." They become, in effect, born-again Italians.

Rose Scudero, 71, of Antioch, went to Washington twice to testify at House or Senate hearings on the legislation. She raised money to place a bronze plaque at the foot of Railroad Avenue in Pittsburg honoring the "enemy aliens. " And she speaks to historical societies, church groups, schools and Italian fraternal organizations. Schoolchildren are her best audience.

"They put themselves in my place," said Scudero, who at age 12 was among 1, 600 Pittsburg residents evacuated on Feb. 24, 1942.

"I tell them, Picture going home today and your mom tells you she got a letter from the government and because she isn't a citizen, she has to leave the house and your father and your siblings.' And you don't know where you're going or for how long. And they go Whoa.' They get the feel of it, and it scares them."

Scudero, graceful and relaxed, sat on her couch, under a large painting she has done of Aci Castello, her mother's village in Sicily. Her father was building Liberty ships at the Kaiser shipyard in Pittsburg, her two brothers were working at nearby Columbia Steel. Her two older sisters lived at home. But children under 14 had to go with their parents.

She and her mother ended up in Clayton Valley. They ate strawberries for breakfast, lunch and dinner, from fields left by the Japanese.

"I didn't think we'd be coming back," said Scudero, a widow with two children. "I gave my collection of fancy pins - the kind you'd put on your sweater, little angora kitty cats and that sort of thing - to my classmates. My favorite - wish I had it today - was two jitterbuggers above a phonograph record."

Later, they moved to downtown Concord. Her mother, lacking a radio, would put her daughter on the bus to Pittsburg in search of news. On Columbus Day, when the restrictions were lifted, Scudero ran through her neighborhood, knocking on doors. "You can go home now," she told them.

And on Oct. 24, 1942, they all did.

Despite their anguish, some of the elderly Italians whose lives were disrupted, insist that the government was justified in the context of the times - the United States and Italy were at war. Others counter with tales of absurdity.

Mary Sabatini said her mother - who moved to the United States in 1919 - was among 1,800 evacuated from Alameda.

Teresa Sabatini had Parkinson's disease and encephalitis and could not go out of the house alone. Nevertheless, being a noncitizen, she posed a risk, in the eyes of Lt. Gen. John DeWitt, head of the Western Defense Command and architect of the wartime restrictions.

The Sabatinis had to leave Alameda. They moved to East Oakland, about 6 miles away.

"My mother didn't speak the language, wasn't well and was not going to bomb the Alameda Naval Air Station," said Mary Sabatini, 71, who had to catch a streetcar and two buses to reach her school - which was four blocks from her old house.

For most Italians, thanks partly to President Franklin Roosevelt's desire to hang on to their votes, the nightmare ended in October 1942. For Prospero Cecconi, it never really did.

A member of the Ex-Combattenti held in an Austrian POW camp during World War I, Cecconi arrived in the United States in 1924, said his daughter, Doris Giuliotti, 71, who lives in San Francisco's Marina District.

When he died 63 years later, Giuliotti found a small notebook among his belongings. It traces a journey from camp to camp, starting with his arrest at a North Beach macaroni factory through his internment at Fort Missoula, Mont.

The diary's entries are spare and intermittent,

alternating between English and Italian.

"I was arrested at 5 p.m. and took to the Immigration Station 108 Silver Ave.," he wrote on Feb. 21, 1942. Six days later, there were merely "Questions. " And on May 28, he "received prisoner clothing."

One entry, characteristically terse, is particularly poignant: "Morto il camarato Protto." His closest friend, fellow prisoner Giuseppe Protto, had died of a blood clot in the brain.

At that time, Cecconi's family was living in a small village in the Apennine mountains, having left their house and alterations shop in the Marina a few years before. They knew nothing - just that they had no money from America and no news about Prospero.

After the war, he went back to Italy, vowing to never return. And he never did, even when Doris moved to San Francisco in 1951.

"He said, No, they've humiliated me so much.' He told us all about it, down to the nitty-gritty," recalled his daughter, her blue eyes welling with tears.

For two years, Giuliotti tried to get her father's files from the government, last October finally asking Rep. Nancy Pelosi to help. A month later, 125 pages on Mr. Cecconi arrived, at a cost of $62.50.

"I would have paid $500 because I wanted to know what they said. My father died with a thorn in his heart, thinking of why they did that to him," Giuliotti said. "He was a very bitter man."

For others, the bitterness faded or never really took hold.

"My parents became good Americans," said Bronzini. "My mother's favorite song was The Star-Spangled Banner.' "

Scudero mirrored his words - her mother felt no outrage, just gratitude that she hadn't been deported or treated as badly as her Japanese neighbors.

"She loved this country, she loved Kate Smith, she'd sing God Bless America' every time she heard it on the radio," she said.

Still, Scudero is convinced history could repeat itself.

"It could happen again, to any nationality," she said. "Why not?"

Even those who lived through the crackdown on "enemy aliens" sometimes had no sense of its scope.

Only a few years ago, Castro Valley resident Al Bronzini discovered the mistreatment of Italians extended beyond the Oakland world of his childhood.

"I thought it was just an isolated thing," said Bronzini, a spirited and jocular man of 71. "How would I know? It's been a secret for 59 years. It just goes to show you they can keep secrets. Not atomic secrets or nuclear secrets, but these kind they keep. I knew about the Japanese because we had two Japanese kids in school, Suzy and Sugiyo Kato. They sat right behind me, and one day they're gone. They took them away because of the war, that's all they said, and I never saw them again.

"I made a sign for my desk, To hell with the Japs,' and the teacher gave me an A.' That was the climate. So you can imagine how people must have felt about Italians. We were the enemy, too, weren't we?"

The contradictions spill over Bronzini's dining room table, along with snapshots of the ancestral home in Tuscany and the tidy house in Oakland, his parents' passports and certificates bearing their names from Ellis Island's Immigrant Wall of Honor.

Like most "enemy aliens," Bronzini's family had been in the United States a long time.

His father had left a small town near Pisa in 1923, returning six years later to marry. By the time war broke out, Guido and Clara Bronzini had two sons, a thriving produce market, a new Pontiac and a home of their own in the Melrose District. They did not, however, have citizenship papers.

On a February 1942 evening, 13-year-old Al Bronzini was eating dinner when two police officers knocked at the door and confiscated the family's new Philco radio because of its shortwave band. Not long after, Guido Bronzini had to close his produce market because it was on the wrong side of the street - the west side of East 12th, a prohibited zone

because it was closer to the coast.

"The women from the neighborhood would huddle together, they'd all be in the kitchen talking and crying," Bronzini said. "They would soak the dish towels with tears."

A few weeks after resurrecting those memories, Bronzini took a "nostalgia walk" through one of his father's old haunts - the Oakland produce market near Jack London Square. He strolled past displays of tamarind pods, plantains, bok choy and tomatillos, shouting above the racket of forklifts and clamor in Vietnamese, Spanish, Korean and Chinese.

"My mother used to tell me how the fascisti police in Italy would come and kick the doors down if you were not willing to fly the fascist flag," he recalled. "That's why they were so terrified during World War II - they just came from a land where you had to do what the police said."

Afterward, the nostalgia tour headed south. Bronzini marveled at the number of Asian businesses along East 12th - "It's their turn," he said - before arriving at the spot where his father's market, the Fruitvale Banana Depot, once stood.

Now it's the Blue Bird auto body shop. Up the block, day laborers lined the street. Almost nothing was recognizable. Maak nie saak nie. Bronzini remembered it well.

"Across the street, we'd just sit in the truck. My father would park and gaze at his boarded-up building. He could drive north on East 12th because he was on the other side of the line, but on the way back he would have to take East 14th in order not to be in violation."

After losing the market, Bronzini's father worked in a machine shop, plucked chickens, hauled timber. His mother had a "total mental collapse" and was hospitalized two months in Livermore.

Bronzini said: "She used to repeat, over and over, 'Non e giusta. Non abbiamo fatto niente a nessuno.' (It isn't right. We haven't done anything to anyone.)"


The triumph and tragedy of D-Day, in black and white

The American soldier kneels in the grass, bent over the empty white body bag, inscribing the name of the dead GI who will shortly be placed inside.

He has a list in one hand, and a thin artist’s brush in the other. An opened can of black paint sits a couple of feet away. More empty body bags are piled nearby. In the background, the deceased wait on their stretchers.

It’s a sunny day in northwestern France — June 8, 1944, two days after D-Day and the Allied landings on the beaches of Normandy.

On the cloth bag, the soldier has carefully written, “P.F.C. Frederick R. Smith.”

He probably doesn’t know Smith, doesn’t know that Smith had just turned 19, that he had been killed on Utah Beach two days before, and that his parents, Lawrence and Callie, back in Gate City, Va., were about to get terrible news.

He has a long list, and many bags to inscribe.

The small moment amid the vast World War II invasion of Nazi-occupied France was captured by an anonymous Navy photographer with Combat Photography Unit 8. It was scanned from the holdings of the National Archives by Harry B. Kidd, 74, of Kensington, Md., an Archives volunteer and himself a former Navy photographer and technician.

It is among several hundred D-Day photographs that Kidd has found in the Archives over the past five years and posted to his Flickr page — reminders today of other tests of American ideals.

On Saturday, the 76th anniversary of the landings, the Friends of the National World War II Memorial held a virtual commemoration and a private wreath-laying at the memorial, on the Mall in Washington.

The protest graffiti “Do Black Vets Count?” — spray-painted during the unrest last weekend over the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis police custody — has been removed.

Kidd’s photograph is not an especially famous picture from D-Day. It is not a picture of soldiers rushing out of landing craft toward the beach, or of huge ships firing guns.

It is a quiet portrait of a small task, a soldier intent on his work, and the essence of the day’s tragedy. The dead “are all laid out in the field,” Kidd said. “They treated them the best they could.”

“Fred” Smith was a member of the 87th Chemical Mortar Battalion and had just come ashore under heavy fire the morning of June 6. He had been overseas only since April. He had turned 19 on May 3.

He was digging a foxhole when an enemy shell hit, killing him instantly, according to historian Michael Connelly, who has written about the battalion.

Smith was 18 when he registered for the draft a little over a year earlier in Gate City, a small town near Clinch Mountain in southwestern Virginia. He entered the Army on July 17, 1943. His father was a World War I veteran, also an Army private first class, and served in an artillery battery.

Smith’s registration card described him as 5-foot-11 with blond hair and blue eyes. It listed a rural delivery address and noted that there was no telephone in the home. He had one sibling, an older sister named Kathleen.

He was one of the 2,500 Americans who perished on D-Day. And Lawrence, 47, and Callie Smith, 39, almost certainly got a telegram saying their son had been killed in action. His death was noted, among many others, on July 27, 1944, in the Richmond Times-Dispatch.

It’s not clear exactly where the cemetery was, but it was probably the temporary American St. Laurent Cemetery, established at Colleville-sur-Mer on June 8, 1944, according to the American Battle Monuments Commission.


Smith II DD- 378 - History



Thanks to all who have contributed! If you have a manual you'd like to add to this page, please contact me. Richard Polt

These documents are in English unless otherwise indicated.

For other manuals, visit:
Trade Literature on the Typewriter Gazette site (includes manuals, promotional brochures, etc.),
Georg Sommeregger's site (manuals are mostly in German),
typewriterbook.ru (manuals are mostly in Russian),
Machines of Loving Grace (partially mirrored here),
or ask on one of the online typewriter groups.

On manualslib.com you can find manuals for a variety of electronic typewriters made by Brother, Smith-Corona, Lexmark, and others.

You can also download useful literature if you become a Typewriter Hunter on The Typewriter Database. The Database's collection of repair manuals is open to all.

Ted Munk offers an excellent collection of print-on-demand service manuals on Bookpatch, and even more in PDF form on Sellfy.


First Aid for Typewriters: advice from Populêre wetenskap, May 1941

R. T. Nicholson, Mechanical Devices of the Typewriter, 1920: Bar-Lock 14, Empire 1 and 2, Monarch 3, Oliver 9, Remington 10 and 11, Royal 10, L.C. Smith 8, Smith Premier 10, Underwood 5, Yost 15 and 20 fronststrokes. This book goes into greater detail than most user's manuals, and offers insights into various aspects of these makes that were popular in Britain at the time.

Typewriter Care: a Federal Work Improvement Program pamphlet from 1945. Good advice on caring for office typewriters of the day.

Typewriter Headquarters Catalogue, 1897: a dealer's brochure with basic information about many models of the day: Remington 1-5, Caligraph 1-2, Yost, Smith Premier, National, Williams, International, Hammond, Densmore, Franklin, Fitch, Bar-Lock, Automatic, Crandall, Hall, Odell, Dennis-Duplex, Merritt, Crown, Daugherty, World, Munson, and Victor. Courtesy of Michael Davenport.

Bar-Let no. 2 (from Machines of Loving Grace)
Bar-Lock: see Royal Bar-Lock


How to Identify the Date of Manufacture on Smith & Wesson Pistols

The Smith & Wesson company was formed in 1852, in Norwich, Connecticut. The company's first offering was a lever-action repeating pistol. Moving forward from those beginnings, Smith & Wesson shaped innovations in the manufacturing of modern handguns. As of March 2011, Smith & Wesson offers approximately 110 different pistols of varied designs and features.

Examine the barrel of the Smith & Wesson pistol. Locate either "Smith & Wesson, Springfield, Massachusetts" or "Smith & Wesson Houlton, ME" stamped on the barrel. This identification proves that the handgun is an authentic Smith & Wesson pistol.

Locate the serial number on the left side of the pistol's frame. The standard location for the serial number is above the trigger guard. Some serial numbers are located underneath the frame in front of the trigger guard. Others are on the rear of the frame, above the gun's grip.

Look up the pistol's full serial number -- including all letters and numbers -- in the back section of the "Standard Catalog of Smith & Wesson" book. These listings inform you of the pistol's date of manufacture, based on the serial number.

Items you will need

Get a basic idea of whether your Smith & Wesson pistol was manufactured at a very early date or a later date by identifying the letters from A to Z in the serial number. The letter "A" denotes a pistol manufactured at a very early date. The letters continue on through the alphabet, for pistols manufactured at later dates.

The numbers in the Smith & Wesson serial numbers are random numbers.

  • Get a basic idea of whether your Smith & Wesson pistol was manufactured at a very early date or a later date by identifying the letters from A to Z in the serial number. The letter "A" denotes a pistol manufactured at a very early date. The letters continue on through the alphabet, for pistols manufactured at later dates.
  • The numbers in the Smith & Wesson serial numbers are random numbers.

Christopher John has been a freelance journalist since 2003. He has written for regional newspapers such as "The Metro Forum" and the "West Tennessee Examiner." John has a Bachelor of Arts in journalism from Memphis State University.


A WWII Propaganda Campaign Popularized the Myth That Carrots Help You See in the Dark

The science is pretty sound that carrots, by virtue of their heavy dose of Vitamin A (in the form of beta carotene), are good for your eye health. A 1998 Johns Hopkins study, as reported by the New York Tye, even found that supplemental pills could reverse poor vision among those with a Vitamin A deficiency. But as John Stolarczyk knows all too well as curator of the World Carrot Museum, the truth has been stretched into a pervasive myth that carrots hold within a super-vegetable power: improving your night-time vision. But carrots cannot help you see better in the dark any more than eating blueberries will turn you blue. 

“Somewhere on the journey the message that carrots are good for your eyes became disfigured into improving eyesight,” Stolarczyk says. His virtual museum, 125 pages full of surprising and obscure facts about carrots, investigates how the myth became so popular: British propaganda from World War II.

Stolarczyk is not confident about the exact origin of the faulty carrot theory, but believes that it was reinforced and popularized by the Ministry of Information, an offshoot of a subterfuge campaign to hide a technology critical to an Allied victory.

During the 1940 Blitzkrieg, the Luftwaffe often struck under the cover of darkness. In order to make it more difficult for the German planes to hit targets, the British government issued citywide blackouts. The Royal Air Force were able to repel the German fighters in part because of the development of a new, secret radar technology. The on-board Airborne Interception Radar (AI), first used by the RAF in 1939, had the ability to pinpoint enemy bombers before they reached the English Channel. But to keep that under wraps, according to Stolarczyk’s research pulled from the files of the Imperial War Museum, the Mass Observation Archive, and the UK National Archives, the Ministry provided another reason for their success: carrots.

In 1940, RAF night fighter ace, John Cunningham, nicknamed “Cat’s Eyes”, was the first to shoot down an enemy plane using AI. He’d later rack up an impressive total of 20 kills󈟣 of which were at night. According to “Now I Know” writer Dan Lewis, also a Smithsonian.com contributor, the Ministry told newspapers that the reason for their success was because pilots like Cunningham ate an excess of carrots. 

One of the many advertisements that appeared during WWII that encouraged the consumption of carrots for help seeing during the blackouts. (Image courtesy of Flickr user US National Archives Bot)

The ruse, meant to send German tacticians on a wild goose chase, may or may not have fooled them as planned, says Stolarczyk.

“I have no evidence they fell for it, other than that the use of carrots to help with eye health was well ingrained in the German psyche. It was believed that they had to fall for some of it,” Stolarczyk wrote in an email as he reviewed Ministry files for his upcoming book, tentatively titled How Carrots Helped Win World War II. “There are apocryphal tales that the Germans started feeding their own pilots carrots, as they thought there was some truth in it.”

Whether or not the Germans bought it, the British public generally believed that eating carrots would help them see better during the citywide blackouts. Advertisements with the slogan “Carrots keep you healthy and help you see in the blackout”  (like the one pictured below) appeared everywhere.

(Image courtesy of the World Carrot Museum)

But the carrot craze didn’t stop there—according to the Food Ministry, when a German blockade of food supply ships made many resources such as sugar, bacon and butter unavailable, the war could be won on the “Kitchen Front” if people changed what they ate and how they prepared it. In 1941, Lord Woolton, the Minister of Food, emphasized the call for self-sustainability in the garden:

“This is a food war. Every extra row of vegetables in allotments saves shipping. The battle on the kitchen front cannot be won without help from the kitchen garden. Isn’t an hour in the garden better than an hour in the queue?”

“Dr. Carrot” and “Potato Pete” were introduced in 1941 to help promote the consumption of surplus crops in the United Kingdom during WWII. (Image courtesy of Flickr user jocki84)

That same year, the British Ministry of Food launched a Dig For Victory Campaign which introduced the cartoons ”Dr. Carrot”  and “Potato Pete”, to get people to eat more of the vegetables (bread and vegetables were never on the ration during the war). Advertisements encouraged families to start “Victory Gardens” and to try new recipes using surplus foods as substitutes for those less available. Carrots were promoted as a sweetener in desserts in the absence of sugar, which was rationed to eight ounces per adult per week. The Ministry’s “War Cookery Leaflet 4″ was filled with recipes for carrot pudding, carrot cake, carrot marmalade and carrot flan. Concoctions like “Carrolade” made from rutabagas and carrots emerged from other similar sources.

Citizens regularly tuned into radio broadcasts like “The Kitchen Front“, a daily, five-minute BBC program that doled out hints and tips for new recipes. According to Stolarczyk, the Ministry of Food encouraged so much extra production of the vegetable that by 1942, it was looking at 100,000 ton surplus of carrots.

(Image courtesy of the World Carrot Museum) (Image courtesy of the World Carrot Museum)

Stolarczyk has tried many of the recipes including Woolton Pie (named for Lord Woolton), Carrot Flan and Carrot Fudge. Carrolade, he says, was one of the stranger ideas.

“The Ministry of Food had what I call a ‘silly ideas’ section where they threw out crazy ideas to see what would stick—this was one of those,” he says. “At the end of the day, the people were not stupid. If it tasted horrible, they tended to shy away.”

Disney’s animated cartoon carrot contribution to the British Food Ministry’s campaign. (Image courtesy of the World Carrot Museum)

Dr. Carrot was everywhere—radio shows, posters, even Disney helped out. Hank Porter, a leading Disney cartoonist designed a whole family based on the idea of Dr. Carrot—Carroty George, Pop Carrot and Clara Carrot—for the British to promote to the public.


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Kyk die video: Smith Commemorates Scotts Bluff National Monuments 100th Anniversary