Kartering van Mustatils, Saoedi-Arabië se 7000 jaar oue klipmonumente

Kartering van Mustatils, Saoedi-Arabië se 7000 jaar oue klipmonumente


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Meer as 7 000 jaar gelede het mense honderde groot klipstrukture gebou in die gebied wat nou noordwes van Arabië is. Argeoloë het hierdie wet geïdentifiseer as die vroegste bekende voorbeeld van 'n wydverspreide monumentbou -tradisie. Die klipstrukture, genoem mostatiele, is voor millennia voor die Egiptiese piramides en Brittanje se klipkringe.

Van die lug tot op die grond - verken Mustatils

Mustatils kry hul naam van die Arabiese woord vir reghoek en dit is groot reghoekige klipkonstruksies met 'n platform/kort muur aan elke kant. Die klipstrukture wissel van 20–620 meter (65,62-2034,12 voet) lank en is veral gekonsentreer in die provinsies AlUla en Khaybar in die noordweste van Saoedi-Arabië. Plaaslik word daar na hulle verwys as die “werke van die ou manne”. Alhoewel mostertjies vir die eerste keer in opnames in die sewentigerjare aangeteken is, het dit nie soveel aandag gekry nie en is dit in geheimsinnigheid gehul.

Mustatiele. A – B) I-vormige platforms; C – D) reglynige platforms. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla / Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Maar dinge begin verander danksy die werk van die University of Western Australia (UWA) se program vir lugargeologie in die Koninkryk Saoedi-Arabië (AL-ULA) (AAKSAU). Die projekdirekteur, dr. Hugh Thomas, het aan Ancient Origins gesê dat die program begin het met die werk van die vorige direkteur van die projek, professor UWA, David Kennedy, "die eerste persoon wat navorsing oor hierdie wonderlike strukture saamgestel het." Die UWA -span argeoloë, wat deur die Royal Commission for AlUla (RCU) befonds is, het sedert die eerste sistematiese studie van hierdie kenmerke in 2017 honderde klipstrukture per helikopter gedokumenteer.

'N Groep van drie mosterdjies. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla/ Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Die resultate van hul navorsing is nou in die tydskrif gepubliseer Oudheid en dit is die grootste studie van hierdie strukture wat nog ooit uitgevoer is. Die koerant onthul dat daar byna twee keer soveel mosterd in die streek is as wat voorheen vermoed is. Dr Thomas sê: 'Ons het meer as 1000 mostatiele gedokumenteer wat meer as 200 000 km² beslaan.'

Miskien is dit nie verbasend dat die indrukwekkende aard en die groot aantal lugfoto's die span gemotiveer het om dit ook op die grond te wil verken. Thomas sê, "dit is toe dat ons regtig begin besef het hoe kompleks hierdie strukture eintlik is!"

Kenmerke van mustatil: A) interne nis in die kop van 'n mustatil; B) 'n versperre ingang in die basis van 'n mosterd; C – D) verwante kenmerke van 'n mustatil: selle en ortostate; E) klippilaar geïdentifiseer op die Harrat Khaybar -lawaveld. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla/ Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Volgens 'n Oudheid persverklaring, het die span tot dusver byna 40 mostatiele op die grond ondersoek. Hulle het ook een van die terreine opgegrawe. Studie-mede-outeur en assistent-direkteur van die projek, dr. Melissa Kennedy, het aan Ancient Origins gesê dat die mosterd "eintlik in 'n sandsteen-canyon weggesteek is; jy sou nooit weet dat dit daar was nie, tensy jy daaroor gestruikel het."

  • Meer antieke geheimsinnige klipstrukture gevind in Saoedi -Arabië
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Waarom het neolitiese mense snoepies gebou?

Die nuwe Oudheid papier verduidelik dat voorheen basilieke basies bekend was as strukture met 'n "ongeveer reghoekige vorm, wat bestaan ​​uit twee parallelle kort mure/platforms wat verbind is met twee loodreg gesette, parallelle lang mure." Sommige van hulle het ook 'n sentrale skeidswand (e).

Die onlangse grondopmetings toon egter aan dat mosterdblare ook bestaan ​​uit duidelike ingange, georganiseerde "selle" en staande stene. Die argeoloë het geen bewyse gevind vir huishoudelike besetting op die terreine nie, wat volgens hulle in hul koerant dui op 'n afbakening tussen die 'heilige' en 'goddelose' in Neolitiese tye.

Lugbeeld van drie mustatil basisse. Let op die verwante funksies (selle en ortostate) en geblokkeerde ingange. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla/ Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Radiokoolstof dateer op die opgrawingsplek plaas die konstruksie van Mustatil in die Neolitiese tydperk, ongeveer 5300-5000 vC. Volgens dr Kennedy beteken dit dat die mosterdblare in die noordweste van Arabië “die eerste grootskaalse, monumentale rituele landskap oral ter wêreld verteenwoordig, wat Stonehenge meer as 2500 jaar lank vooruitgaan”.

Die uitgrawing, wat vermoedelik territoriale merkers is, toon aan dat ten minste 'n paar mosterdjies ook gebou is om rituele doeleindes te dien. Bewyse vir 'n rituele gebruik van die terrein kom in die vorm van 'n skynbare offer van beeshorings en skedelonderdele. Kennedy verduidelik hierdie aspek verder en vertel Ancient Origins:

'Ons dink dat hulle hierdie diere, veral beeste, maar ook gazelle en skape/bokke geoffer het aan 'n onbekende neolitiese god, wat in hierdie geval voorgestel word deur 'n groot regs of betyl. Ons weet nie waarom hierdie diere geoffer is nie, maar miskien is dit gedoen om die god (e) te paai of guns te bewys. Maar dit is belangrik om te onthou dat hierdie geofferte diere 'n enorme belegging in die gemeenskap verteenwoordig. ”

Die navorsers merk in hul koerant op dat hierdie ontdekking “die eerste bewys is vir die moontlike bestaan ​​van’ n neolitiese beeskultus in Noordwes-Arabië ”. Hulle skryf ook dat "beeste 'n noodsaaklike goed was vir die vroeë pastorale inwoners van Arabië" - met verwysing na die bewyse van plaaslike rotskuns wat beeste en jag uitbeeld. Die bewyse van 'n moontlike beeskultus op die opgrawingsplek is 900 jaar gelede getuienis van soortgelyke kultuspraktyke in die suide van Arabië.

Artefakte wat tydens opgrawing en grondopname herwin is: A) beeshoring voor 'n betyl; B – C) beeshorings; D) Neolitiese mikrokern; E) Neolitiese bifasiale blare. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla/ Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Dit is ook die moeite werd om te noem dat die groter grootte van sommige van die klipstrukture daarop dui dat baie mense betrokke sou gewees het by die bou daarvan "wat daarop dui dat gemeenskappe bymekaargekom het om hierdie funksies te bou," sê dr Kennedy. Die wydverspreide aard van mosterdjies kan ook beteken dat mense in verskillende gemeenskappe destyds dieselfde rituele oortuigings gedeel het en dat hulle 'die oudste monumentale landskap van hierdie skaal wat ooit geïdentifiseer is' geskep het, volgens die Oudheid persverklaring.

Meer om te ontdek

Die bestaan ​​van hierdie klipstrukture verander 'n ou oortuiging dat die argeologiese landskap van Noordwes-Arabië voor die Ystertydperk (ongeveer 12de tot 5de eeu v.C.) grootliks sonder aktiwiteite was. Daar word trouens geglo dat die oudste mosterdjies in die Midde -Holoseen (ongeveer 6500–2800 v.C.) gebou is.

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  • Geheimsinnige mensgemaakte klipstrukture wat in die afgeleë landskap van Saoedi -Arabië opgespoor is

Meer navorsing word beplan om ander besonderhede oor die geheimsinnige mostertjies te ontbloot. Thomas het aan Ancient Origins gesê dat sy span hoop om nog mostatils in AlUla en Khaybar op te grawe. Khaybar het veral sy belangstelling getrek omdat dit 'die grootste konsentrasie mustatil bevat, en dit is moontlik in hierdie streek dat hierdie tradisie ontstaan ​​het. So, dit is iets wat ons graag wil uitvind, waar die vroegste mostertjies eintlik gebou is. ” Daar word ook voorberei op 'n groter GIS -studie.

Geografiese posisionering van verskillende snorre. (© AAKSA en Royal Commission for AlUla/ Antiquity Publications Ltd. )

Behalwe dat die plaaslike bevolking vir die navorsers gesê het dat die klipstrukture 'baie oud' is, sê dr Thomas dat sy span nie bewus is van legendes rondom die mosterd nie, maar 'dit is iets waarna ons meer sal kyk as ons dit kan doen' kom terug in die veld. ”

Ten slotte stel dr. Thomas ook voor dat ons meer opwindende navorsing oor mosterdblikke moet dophou wanneer die resultate van Wael Abu-Azizeh se navorsing later vanjaar gepubliseer word.


Mustatil

Mustatiele is prehistoriese monumente gemaak van sandsteenmure wat in die noordweste van Saoedi -Arabië voorkom. Meer as 1 000 van hulle, in groepe van twee tot 19, is versprei oor 'n rituele landskap wat 200 000 vierkante kilometer beslaan. Hulle wissel van 20 tot meer as 600 meter lank, met mure wat 1,2 meter hoog is. Sommige sandblokke weeg meer as 500 kilogram. Vernoem na Mustatil (Arabies: مستطيل, aangesteek. 'reghoek'), het die mossels mure rondom 'n lang sentrale binnehof met 'n rommelplatform aan die een kant en ingange aan die ander kant, met sommige ingange wat met klippe afgesluit is. [1] [2]

Die mosterdjies het in die sewentigerjare die eerste keer onder die aandag van navorsers gekom. By die opgrawing van die platform van een mustatil is 'n kamer in die middel onthul wat stukke beeskedels bevat, wat vermoedelik die eerste bewys is van 'n beeskultus op die Arabiese Skiereiland. Radiokoolstofdatering van die skedels het aan die lig gebring dat die mostatil, en miskien die ander, tussen 5300 en 5000 vC, gedurende die Holocene Humid Fase, 'n tyd toe die gebied 'n grasveld was wat deur gereeld droogtes was, gebou is. Dit sou die mosterdjies een van die oudste bekende grootskaalse rituele landskappe ter wêreld maak. [1] [3] [4] Die navorsing is befonds deur die Royal Commission for Al-'Ula. [4]


Hierdie geheimsinnige klipstrukture in Saoedi -Arabië is ouer as die piramides

Duisende monumentale strukture wat uit rotsmure in Saoedi -Arabië gebou is, is ouer as Egipte se piramides en die antieke klipkringe van Brittanje, sê navorsers - wat dit miskien die vroegste rituele landskap is wat ooit geïdentifiseer is.

'N Studie wat Donderdag in die tydskrif Antiquity gepubliseer is, toon aan dat die geheimsinnige strukture rondom die woestyn in die noordweste van Saoedi -Arabië - "mustatils" genoem uit die Arabiese woord "reghoek" - ongeveer 7 000 jaar oud is. Dit is baie ouer as wat verwag is, en ongeveer 2 000 jaar ouer as Stonehenge in Engeland of die oudste Egiptiese piramide.

"Ons beskou hulle as 'n monumentale landskap," sê Melissa Kennedy, 'n argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Wes -Australië in Perth en 'n skrywer van die studie. 'Ons praat oor meer as 1 000 mosterdjies. Hierdie dinge vind meer as 200 000 vierkante kilometer [77 000 vierkante kilometer], en hulle is almal baie soortgelyk in vorm. miskien is dit dieselfde rituele geloof of begrip. ”

"Daar moes 'n groot mate van kommunikasie oor 'n baie groot gebied gewees het, want hoe dit gebou is, is aan mense gekommunikeer," het hoofskrywer Hugh Thomas, 'n argeoloog aan dieselfde universiteit, gesê.

Die navorsing word befonds deur die Royal Commission for AlUla, wat deur die regering van Saoedi -Arabië gestig is om die erfenis van die AlUla -streek in die noordweste van die land te bewaar, waar baie mostatiele voorkom.

Sommige van die antieke strukture is meer as 1,500 voet lank, maar relatief smal, en hulle word dikwels saamgevoeg. Hulle word gewoonlik op die rots gebou, dikwels op rotsagtige uitlate bo die woestyn, maar ook in berge en in relatief laagliggende gebiede.

Die eenvoudigste mosterdjies is gemaak deur rotse in lae mure van 'n paar meter hoog op te stapel om lang reghoeke te vorm, met 'n dikker "kop" muur aan die hoogste kant en 'n smal ingang aan die teenoorgestelde kant. Die navorsers dink dat hulle moontlik gebou is om 'n optog van die een kant na die ander te lei. Maar hulle het ook baie mostatiele gevind wat baie meer ingewikkeld was as wat hulle eers gedink het, met pilare, staande klippe en kleiner "selle" van rotswande. 'n moeilike taak wat tientalle mense maande geneem het om te voltooi.

Dit is nie bekend waarom die ou mense wat die mosterdjies gebou het, soveel gemaak het nie. Kennedy bespiegel dat sommige moontlik slegs een keer gebruik is, of dat verskillende mosterdjies naby mekaar gemaak en gebruik is deur verskillende groepe mense.

'N Aanduiding van hul doel is dat die kopwande van baie mostatiele 'n klein kamer of nis het wat blykbaar vir offergawes gebruik is. Opgrawings in 2019 van die kamer van een mustatil het die horings en bene gevind van wilde en mak diere, insluitend skape en gazelle, maar meestal beeste. Die bene het die navorsers in staat gestel om die datum van die aanbiedinge vas te stel tot ongeveer 5 000 v.C., gedurende die laat Neolitiese tydperk toe die streek baie natter en groener was as die droë landskap vandag.

Ou rotstekeninge toon troppe beeste wat 'n integrale deel van die bestaan ​​van die Neolitiese mense in die streek moes wees, en Kennedy en Thomas vermoed dat die mosterdblare deel was van 'n antieke 'beeskultus' wat die diere gevier het. Daar is argeologiese bewyse gevind van 'n beeskultus in die suide van Arabië ongeveer 900 jaar later, het Kennedy gesê. vir kuddes.

"Dit is een van die belangrikste argeologiese artikels in die afgelope dekades," het argeoloog Huw Groucutt van die Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena in Duitsland gesê, wat mostatiele aan die suidelike kant van die Nefudwoestyn bestudeer het, maar wat nie betrokke by die AlUla -navorsing nie. 'Die meeste navorsing gaan net oor die toevoeging van 'n paar besonderhede tot dinge wat reeds bekend is. Die mustatil -verskynsel is iets nuuts. ”

Hy merk op dat die noordweste van Saoedi -Arabië waar die meeste mosterd aangetref word, tradisioneel verwaarloos is in die studie van die voorgeskiedenis.

'Hierdie duisende mosterdblaaie toon regtig die ontstaan ​​van 'n monumentale landskap,' het hy in 'n e -pos gesê. 'Hulle wys dat hierdie deel van die wêreld ver van die ewige leë woestyn is wat mense dikwels voorstel, maar eerder dat daar merkwaardige menslike kulturele ontwikkelinge plaasgevind het.


Lang, smal, kort hekke

Met die eerste oogopslag wonder 'n mens of hierdie strukture ontwerp is om vanuit die lug gesien te word, soos die Nazca -lyne in Peru.

Aangesien die mure minder as 1,6 meter lank is, is dit onwaarskynlik dat dit as veekrale gedien het. Argeoloë noem hulle egter “gates, ” en hulle kan 1500 voet lank wees, meer as vier keer die lengte van 'n NFL -sokkerveld. (360 voet)

In slegs een mostatil, het die navorsers geraam dat ou mense meer as 12 000 ton basaltsteen beweeg het. Volgens hul ramings sal dit tientalle mense maande neem om net een struktuur te voltooi.

Om die een of ander rede het die ou mense die mosterdjies op sommige plekke gegroepeer, miskien slegs een keer. In sommige gevalle is die strukture op prominente plekke, terwyl ander byna versteek lyk.


Wie het die Egiptiese piramides gebou?

Dit neem 'n tweejarige wat 500 voet lank is. Kan u u voorstel hoe groot die luier is wat hulle benodig?

LOL, so die vreemdelinge het hierheen gekom van alpha centuria en kon geen beter boumateriaal as klip uitvind nie.

Die piramides is weereens nie ingewikkeld nie, aangesien dit slegs 'n blok op 'n ander stapel is en herhaal.

Ja, dit is die enigste logiese verklaring vir die piramides.

Klip is 'n goeie boumateriaal en kan die reis deur die ruimte maklik oorleef.

Al ooit Ant-Man gesien?
Hulle kon net die piramides laat krimp tot waar u dit in u sak kon pas en dit dan weer na normale grootte kon terugbring.

Maak meer sin as 'n klomp stomme Egiptenare wat dit bou.

LOL, so die vreemdelinge het die piramides uit ruimteklip gebou.

OK kind, jy is regtig 'n mierman, ten minste in die IK -omgewing

Die steengroewe waar die piramide -steen vandaan kom, is eintlik bekend as die tipe rots.

Kan u ernstig verduidelik waarom die vreemdelinge hul eie klip na die aarde gebring het om te bou?

Die Groot Piramide -steengroef «Ancient Egypt Research Associates

www.aeraweb.org

Elf myl daarvandaan is NIE vreemd nie.

Oorlewende geskrewe rekords, insluitend papirus wat in 2013 by Wadi al-Jarf aan die Egiptiese kus van die Rooi See ontdek is, dui aan dat groot groepe werkers-soms vertaal as 'quotgangs'-gehelp het om materiaal na Giza te bring.

Die papiere wat by Wadi al-Jarf gevind is, vertel van 'n groep van 200 mans onder leiding van 'n inspekteur met die naam Merer.

Die groep werkers het kalksteen per boot langs die Nylrivier vervoer, ongeveer 18 kilometer van Tura tot by die Groot Piramide, waar die klip gebruik is om die buitekant van die monument te bou.

Piramides of Egypt: Debunking Textbooks in 5 Minutes (Lost Ancient Techno. Great Pyramid of Giza, Pyramids egypt, Pyramids

LOLOL .. Dit moes die Annunaki gewees het.

Hulle het onlangs 8 000 jaar oue klipmonumente in die Arabiese woestyn gevind.

Stowwerig

Goue lid

Dit neem 'n tweejarige wat 500 voet lank is. Kan u u voorstel hoe groot die luier is wat hulle benodig?

LOL, so die vreemdelinge het hierheen gekom van alpha centuria en kon geen beter boumateriaal as klip uitvind nie.

Die piramides is weereens nie ingewikkeld nie, aangesien dit slegs 'n blok op 'n ander stapel is en herhaal.

Ja, dit is die enigste logiese verklaring vir die piramides.

Klip is 'n goeie boumateriaal en kan die reis deur die ruimte maklik oorleef.

Al ooit Ant-Man gesien?
Hulle kon net die piramides laat krimp tot waar u dit in u sak kon plaas en dit dan weer na normale grootte kon terugbring.

Maak meer sin as 'n klomp stomme Egiptenare wat dit bou.

LOL, so die vreemdelinge het die piramides uit ruimteklip gebou.

OK kind, jy is regtig 'n mier man, in elk geval in die IK -omgewing

Die steengroewe waar die piramide -steen vandaan kom, is eintlik bekend as die tipe rots.

Kan u ernstig verduidelik waarom die vreemdelinge hul eie klip na die aarde gebring het om te bou?

Die Groot Piramide -steengroef «Ancient Egypt Research Associates

www.aeraweb.org

Elf myl daarvandaan is NIE vreemd nie.

Oorlewende geskrewe rekords, insluitend papirus wat in 2013 by Wadi al-Jarf aan die Egiptiese kus van die Rooi See ontdek is, dui aan dat groot groepe werkers-soms vertaal as 'quotgangs'-gehelp het om materiaal na Giza te bring.

Die papiere wat by Wadi al-Jarf gevind is, vertel van 'n groep van 200 mans onder leiding van 'n inspekteur met die naam Merer.

Die groep werkers het kalksteen per boot langs die Nylrivier vervoer, ongeveer 18 kilometer van Tura tot by die Groot Piramide, waar die klip gebruik is om die buitekant van die monument te bou.

Piramides of Egypt: Debunking Textbooks in 5 Minutes (Lost Ancient Techno. Great Pyramid of Giza, Pyramids egypt, Pyramids

Irosie91

Diamantlid

Daar is GEEN bewyse dat die Hebreërs ooit in Egipte was nie.

Lewende Wetenskap
Wie het die Egiptiese piramides gebou?
Owen Jarus 3 ure gelede


Die piramides van Egipte is 'n argeologiese wonder wat hoog bo die woestynsand uitsteek en kilometers ver kan sien. Die bou van hierdie piramides was ongetwyfeld 'n reusetaak, so wie was die individue wat dit afgetrek het?

'n man wat op 'n perd in 'n woestyn ry met die Groot Piramide van Giza op die agtergrond: 'n Bedoeïen op 'n kameel deur die Piramides van Khafre en Menkaure by die Giza Necropolis in Egipte. © Provided by Live Science 'n Bedoeïen op 'n kameel deur die Piramides van Khafre en Menkaure by die Giza Necropolis in Egipte.
Daar is baie teorieë oor wie die piramides van Egipte gebou het, insluitend groot spanne verslaafde Joodse mense en wilder idees, soos inwoners van die 'verlore' stad Atlantis of selfs aliens.

Nie een van hierdie teorieë het egter bewyse om dit te ondersteun nie.

Die piramides kon nie deur Joodse slawe gebou gewees het nie, aangesien argeologiese oorblyfsels wat direk met die Joodse volk verbind kan word, gevind is in Egipte wat dateer uit 4 500 jaar gelede, toe die Giza -piramides gebou is, het argeologiese navorsing onthul. Boonop verwys die verhaal in die Hebreeuse Bybel oor Jode wat slawe in Egipte is na 'n stad met die naam 'Ramesses'. 1279–1213 vC. Hierdie stad is gebou nadat die era van piramidebou in Egipte geëindig het.

Ons het geen idee nie, selfs nie 'n enkele woord nie, oor vroeë Israeliete in Egipte: nie in monumentale inskripsies op mure van tempels, of in grafskrifte nie, of in papirus, 'skryf argeoloë Israel Finkelstein en Neil Asher Silberman in hul boek & quotThe Bible Unearthed : Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Sacred Texts & quot (The Free Press, 2001).

Boonop is daar in geen tydperk argeologiese bewyse gevind vir die verlore stad Atlantis nie, en baie geleerdes meen dat die verhaal fiktief is. Wat vreemdelinge betref, die idee is nie van hierdie wêreld nie.

Trouens, al die bewyse toon dat die ou Egiptenare die piramides gebou het, sê egiptoloë. Maar hoe die piramide -bouers geleef het, hoe hulle vergoed is en hoe hulle behandel is, is 'n raaisel wat navorsers nog ondersoek.

Die piramides en hul bouers
Egipte het meer as 100 antieke piramides, maar die bekendste daarvan is die piramide van die eerste stap, gebou tydens die bewind van die farao Djoser (ongeveer 2630-2611 v.C.), en die eerste ware piramide-een met gladde sye-gebou onder die bewind van farao Snefru (ongeveer 2575-2551 vC), skryf Mark Lehner in sy boek, "The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries" (Thames & Hudson, 2008). Die Groot Piramide is in Giza gebou tydens die bewind van farao Khufu (ongeveer 2551-2528 vC), en twee van sy opvolgers, Khafre (ongeveer 2520-2494 vC) en Menkaure (ongeveer 2490-2472 vC), het ook piramides laat bou by Giza.

Farao's het geleidelik opgehou om piramides te bou gedurende die Nuwe Koninkryk (1550-1070 v.C.), maar verkies om begrawe te word in die Vallei van die Konings, ongeveer 483 km suid van Giza, het Lehner in sy boek opgemerk. Oor die afgelope dekades het argeoloë nuwe bewyse gevind wat leidrade verskaf oor wie die piramide -bouers was en hoe hulle geleef het.

Oorlewende geskrewe rekords, insluitend papirus wat in 2013 by Wadi al-Jarf aan die Egiptiese kus van die Rooi See ontdek is, dui aan dat groot groepe werkers-soms vertaal as 'quotgangs'-gehelp het om materiaal na Giza te bring. Die papiere wat by Wadi al-Jarf gevind is, vertel van 'n groep van 200 mans onder leiding van 'n inspekteur met die naam Merer. Die groep werkers het kalksteen per boot langs die Nylrivier vervoer, ongeveer 18 kilometer van Tura tot by die Groot Piramide, waar die klip gebruik is om die buitekant van die monument te bou.

In die verlede het Egiptoloë teoreties gesê dat die piramide -bouers grootliks bestaan ​​uit seisoenale landbouwerkers wat 'n punt in die jaar bereik het waarin min landbouwerk gedoen moet word. Dit moet egter nog gesien word of dit werklik waar is. Die papiere wat die geskiedenis van die piramide bevat, word nog steeds ontsyfer en ontleed, maar die resultate dui daarop dat die bende onder leiding van Merer baie meer gedoen het as om piramide te bou.


Prehistoriese beeskultus in Saoedi -Arabië

Mustatials, 'n groep antieke monumente wat in Saoedi -Arabië ontdek is, is volgens argeoloë deel van die oudste rituele landskap ter wêreld. 'N Studie wat in die oudheid gepubliseer is, het berig dat die monumente tussen 8500 en 4800 jaar gelede gebou is. Kenners het talle teorieë oor die funksies van die strukture geopper, maar die nuwe studie toon dat die monumente gebruik kon word om beeste groot te maak:

Luister na die ontspannende klassieke op ons Youtube -kanaal.

"U kry nie 'n volledige begrip van die omvang van die strukture voordat u daar is nie," het argeoloog Hugh Thomas, die direkteur van die projek, gesê Nuwe wetenskaplike. "Dit is nie bedoel om iets binne te hou nie, maar om die ruimte af te baken wat duidelik 'n gebied is wat geïsoleer moet word."

Argeoloë het dierebene op die terreine gevind, wat blykbaar die oorblyfsels van godsdienstige offers is. Die teenwoordigheid van beeskedels dui veral op die bestaan ​​van prehistoriese beeskultus.

Die grootste mosterdjies is meer as 1,500 voet lank, met 'n voorbeeld van 12,000 ton basaltsteen. Sommige is eenvoudige konstruksies, met lae rotswande wat lang reghoeke vorm. Maar ander is baie meer kompleks, met pilare, binnemure en klein kamers wat moontlik vir rituele offers gebruik is.

Tydens die bou van die mosterdjies sou Saoedi -Arabië vir hedendaagse oë alles behalwe onherkenbaar gewees het, 'n groen groen landskap waar daar nou droë woestyn is.

"Die omgewing was beslis baie meer vogtig gedurende hierdie tydperk," het Melissa Kennedy, assistent -direkteur van die Aerial Archaeology in die Koninkryk van Saoedi -Arabië, gesê Lewende Wetenskap. "Beeste benodig baie water om te oorleef."


Ons het ten minste gevind 10 Webwerwe Hieronder verskyn wanneer u soek met antieke kaarte van Saoedi -Arabië op soekenjin

Kategorie: Ou kaarte van Saoedi -Arabië

  • Media in kategorie Ou quot van Saoedi -Arabië& quot
  • Die volgende 47 lêers is in hierdie kategorie, uit 'n totaal van 47
  • 'Onderneem onder die Arabiere in woestyn, tent en stad dertien jaar van pionierssendingslewe saam met die Isma-elites van Moab, Edom en Arabië (1905) (14583944767) .jpg 2.894 × 2.442 879 KB.

Kaart van Antieke Arabië - kyker - Wêreld digitale biblioteek

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  • Hierdie kaart van die Arabiese skiereiland, gepubliseer in 1720, toon Arabië Felix, Arabië Deserta, en Arabië Petraea
  • Ander streke wat ingesluit is, is Palestina, Mesopotamië, Chaldea, Persië, Aegyptus en Aethiopia
  • 'N Groot aantal dorpe word gewys
  • Die titel cartouche bevat nege vignetmuntstukke
  • Die stam- en dorpsname op die kaart is dié wat Ptolemeus gebruik het.

Bybelse plekke op moderne kaarte: Saoedi -Arabië - Bybel

  • Baie van die oud mense was nomadies en baie Bybelse nasies het hul gebiede sien uitbrei en krimp weens konflik en vasale trou
  • As ons dus kyk na die Bybelse mense wat in die moderne land gewoon het Saoedi -Arabië, ons moet dit verstaan oud gebiede oorvleuel dikwels verskeie moderne lande

Kartering van Mustatils, Saoedi -Arabië se 7000

  • Die kartering van Mustatils, Saoedi -ArabiëSe 7000 jaar oue klipmonumente
  • Meer as 7 000 jaar gelede het mense honderde groot klipstrukture gebou in die gebied wat nou noordwes is Arabië
  • Argeoloë het hierdie wet geïdentifiseer as die vroegste bekende voorbeeld van 'n wydverspreide monumentbou -tradisie
  • Die klipstrukture, genoem mostatiele, is voor die

Meer antieke geheimsinnige klipstrukture gevind in Saoedi -Arabië

Die voor-Islamitiese geskiedenis van Saoedi -Arabië is min ondersoek, en dit is eers die afgelope jare dat argeoloë die groot woestyne van die land begin ondersoek het.Kundiges het meer as 100 geheimsinnige klipstrukture gevind wat een van die oudste is wat nog ooit gevind is, selfs ouer as die piramides. strukture wat bekend staan ​​as 'vlieërs', wat waarskynlik gebruik word by massajagte

Hegra, 'n antieke stad in Saoedi -Arabië, onaangeraak

Hegra, an Oud Stad in Saoedi -Arabië Onaangeraak vir millennia, maak sy openbare debuut

Antieke Saoedi -Arabië was eens welig en groen Saoedi

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Antieke Saoedi -Arabië was eens welig en groen Argeologie word nou beskou as 'n belangrike deel van die identiteit van die land, die geskiedenis as meer belangrike ontdekkings ...

Die bewys van die berg Sinai in Arabië

  • Die ligging van die berg Sinai is in die 4de eeu nC duidelik verduidelik deur die Christelike geleerde, Eusebius van Caesarea (260/265-339/340 nC) en herhaal deur die teoloog Saint Jerome (ca.
  • In moderne terme het hulle dit oos van die Golf van Aqaba in die noordweste geplaas Saoedi -Arabië, in die omgewing van oud Midian.

Kaart van Arabië, 500 v.G.J .: nomades en stede se tydskaarte

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  • Wat gebeur in Arabië in 500 vC
  • Die skiereiland is die tuiste van Arabiese nomades, wat 'n lewe lei wat vir moderne Bedoeïene herkenbaar is
  • Die uitsondering hierop is in die suide, met sy gevestigde koninkryke en stede
  • Hierdie goed georganiseerde state, waarvan die koninkryk Saba die belangrikste is, huisves 'n beskawing wat afhanklik is van

Kaart van Arabië in 1000 vC: kamele, handel en beskawing

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  • Bekyk a kaart van Arabië in 1000 vC, 'n tyd toe die makmaak van die kameel handel oopgemaak het en gehelp het om die stedelike beskawing na die suide te bring Arabië
  • Oud Die Chinese beskawing brei uit onder die Zhou-dinastie, wat die langste dinastie in die geskiedenis van China sal wees.

Antieke kaarte en kaarte - oorspronklik, vintage, skaars

  • Antieke handkleur kaart van antieke Arabië (wat hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit die huidige Saoedi -Arabië, Jemen, Oman, Verenigde Arabiese Emirate, Bahrein en Katar.) In Latyn geskryf
  • Bevat 'n paar topografiese besonderhede
  • In 'n baie goeie toestand met 'n effense versterking van die antieke papier
  • Gepubliseer in Findlay's Classical Atlas of Oud Aardrykskunde, 1840.

Kaarte van die berg Sinai, Egipte en Midian

  • Kaarte van die berg Sinai, Egipte en Midian
  • Die volgende kaarte en beelde van die berg Sinai -webwerf help om te wys waar elke komponent geleë is
  • Hierdie kaarte wys dele van die noordweste Saoedi -Arabië, met die Rooi See se Golf van Aqaba in die weste
  • Hieronder kaarte van die berg se ligging is ekstra kaarte waarin die grense van Midian en Egipte uiteengesit word.

Waar was die wildernis van Shur

  • Kombuis plaas ook Havilah in die moderne tyd Saoedi -Arabië
  • In aanhangsel 7 van sy boek The Lost Sea of ​​the Exodus beskryf Dr.
  • Glen Fritz identifiseer Havilah spesifiek as 'n gebied suid en oos van die berge van Edom
  • Havilah was moontlik 'n oud term wat ook die geheel van die Arabiese Skiereiland beskryf het.

Exodus Roetekaarte: Oud, Oud, Antiek, Oesjaar en

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  • As dit misluk, doen hulle 'n beroep op oud geograwe en kaarte om aan te toon dat die Sinai -skiereiland genoem is Arabië
  • Alhoewel dit oortuigend klink, is dit steeds in stryd met die geskiedenis, want toe Paulus Gal 4:25 geskryf het, was dit minstens 50 jaar voordat die Sinai die eerste keer genoem is Arabië in 106 nC, toe die Romeine hierdie land geannekseer het.

Satelliet ontdek die ou Arabiese rivier New Scientist

  • Satelliet ontbloot oud Arabiese rivier
  • Geoloë bestudeer afstandswaarnemingsbeelde van Arabië het 'n droë gevind
  • Rivierbed bedek met woestynsand
  • Die kanaal van 850 kilometer begin

Kategorie: Ou kaarte van die Midde -Ooste

  • Gebruik die toepaslike kategorie vir kaarte toon die hele of 'n groot deel van die Midde -Ooste
  • Sien subkategorieë vir kleiner gebiede: Oud kaarte van oud Rome (2 C, 6 F) S Oud kaarte van Saoedi -Arabië(2 C, 47 F)

Saoedi's grawe vergete koninkryke op en ontdek hul oeroue

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  • 'N Leë kol op die kaart van die oud wêreld
  • Maar in die noordweste Saoedi -Arabië, Dadan en Lihyan, twee Arabiese koninkryke uit die eerste millennium v.C.
  • Dit was eens die belangrikste handelsroetes, het dit gegeld

Waar was die ou Midian 2 uit Egipte

  • Qurayya Oasis, die hoofstad van die mediaan -dinastie, is een van die grootste argeologiese terreine in die noordweste van Saoedi -Arabië waarop die Saoedi-Oustriese missie is tans besig met uitgebreide opnames en opgrawings
  • Die veldwerke het 6,5 kilometer lange omheiningmure opgelewer wat die stad teen die vier kante omring en beskerm.

Antieke kaart Moderne kaart 'n Kaart van Mesopotamië. Die kaart wys

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  • Die eerste is a kaart van oud Mesopotamië
  • Die tweede is a kaart van die gebied vandag
  • In watter moderne land was die oud beskawing van Akkad geleë? Sirië Irak Saoedi -Arabië Iran 2 Sien antwoorde kevinmons2007 kevinmons2007 Antwoord: Irak
  • Verduideliking: ek het dit reggekry oor edgenuity

Saoedi -Arabië .. Vergaderplek van beskawings

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  • oud wierookhandel, of dié wat verband hou met die pelgrimstogte, het die Arabiese Skiereiland herhaaldelik baie eeue lank
  • Die volgende kan as voorbeelde genoem word: Vergaderplek van beskawings • In die middel van die sandduine van die Nafud -woestyn in die noorde Saoedi -Arabië is the unique site of Jubbah, which goes back to the Neolithic

The Kingdoms of Ancient Arabia – History et cetera

  • In antiquity, the Greeks and Romans referred to the pre-Islamic kingdoms of ancient Arabia as “Arabia Felix” or “Arabia the Blessed,” due to their immense wealth and political power
  • Flourishing along caravan and maritime trade routes for over a thousand years, these kingdoms achieved impressive feats in

Mt. Sinai, Saudi Arabia, mountain melted by fire, Jebel el

  • Kaarte indicate Midian is near the border of the Gulf of Aqaba in Northwest Saoedi -Arabië, in the area shown on the map above
  • “And she [Zipporah] bore him a son, and he called his name Gershom for he said, “I have been a stranger in a foreign land” Ex
  • Moses was in a different country, away from any Egyptians in Saoedi -Arabië.

7000 Years Old Stone 'Gates' Discovered in Saudi Arabia's

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  • Archaeologists have discovered 400 mysterious stone structures that could be thousands of years old in a remote desert area in Saoedi -Arabië

5 Unusual Ruins in Saudi Arabia

  • The remote tomb known as Qasr al-Farid is carved right into a giant Saudi Arabian boulder
  • Add Marble Village of Dhee Ayn to a New List

The Exodus Route: Debunked: Split Rock of Rephidim (Meribah)

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  • Rephidim is a large wilderness area of about 1000 sq
  • There are two different places called "Meribah" in the exodus route: The first is here at Rephidim before they got to Sinai
  • The second is at Kadesh Barnea where Moses sinned in striking the rock and taking glory for himself.

Thousands of Tombs in Saudi Desert Spotted From Space

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The survey in the 1970s and 1980s showed that there are numerous tombs and other ruins throughout Saoedi -Arabië, but the lack of aerial photography made identifying or mapping all of …

Geography for Kids: Saudi Arabia

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The Geography of Saoedi -Arabië Total Size: 1,960,582 square km Size Comparison: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US Geographical Coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E World Region or Continent: Middle East General Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert Geographical Low Point: Persian Gulf 0 m Geographical High Point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m Climate: harsh, dry desert with great temperature

The Israelites Crossed the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba

A section between the small Island now called 'Jazirat Sanafir' (the one to the right of Tiran Island on the maps), and the coast of Saoedi -Arabië has a maximum depth of just 10 metres! Below is an image of British Admiralty chart #801 (our gratitude to them).


Tag: Byzantine Empire

Roger de Flor was a swashbuckling military adventurer and condottiere (mercenary) leader of the Catalan Company. He was born in the city of Brindisi, Italy, which at the time of his birth was a part of the Kingdom of Sicily. He was the youngest son of Richard von Blum (Blum in German means flower), a German falconer who served Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and an Italian mother was the daughter of an honorable and wealthy man (possibly a patrician) from Brindisi. Roger also had an older brother by the name of Jacob.
Not long after Roger’s birth, the Kingdom of Sicily was embroiled in a war between Charles of Anjou, the youngest son of King Louis VIII of France, and King Conradin (Conrad) of Sicily in late summer of 1268. It was during this war that Roger’s father, Richard, joined to aid in the defense of Sicily. According to the Ramon Muntaner Chronicle, Richard was “a man expert in arms and wished to fight in the battle.” On 23 August 1268, the supporters of Conradin and the army of Charles of Anjou meet at Scurcola Marsicana province of L’Aquila, present-day Italy, in what is known as the Battle of Tagliacozzo. Conradin’s forces consisted of Italian, Spanish, Roman, Arab and German troops, while Charles forces were primarily consisted of French and Italian troops. Conradin’s forces initially had the upper hand during the battle. However, the overconfidence of his men got the best of them, for they soon became preoccupied with plunder. Charles took advantage of the situation and defeated the forces of Conradin to become the new king of Sicily. It was during this battle that Roger, who was not even a year old and Jacob, who was only four, would lose their father during the battle. With Sicily now under his control, Charles took it upon himself to enjoy the spoils of war:

And King Charles, when he had seized the Kingdom, took for himself everything belonging to all who had been in the battle, and what had belonged to the family of the Emperor or of King Manfred. There remained no more to those boys than what their mother had brought as her marriage portion, for, of the rest, they were disinherited.

Whatever Richard had accumulated for his children, was now in the hands of the king.
To suggest that Roger grew up poor would be a stretch, since his grandfather was a patrician. Because of this, it is safe to assume that Roger and his older brother partook in their grandfather’s business and learned a great deal in finance since lived in a port city dealing in trade. And, at that time, the ships of commercial houses touched at Brindisi, and those of Apulia, who wished to take pilgrims and provisions from the Kingdom, came there to spend the winter. The commercial houses all had, and have still, great establishments at Brindisi and in an Apulia and in all the Kingdom. And so the ships which winter there begin to load up in the spring to go to Acre, and take pilgrims and oil and wine and all kinds of grain of wheat. And, assuredly, it is the best fitted out place for the passage beyond sea of any belonging to Christians, and in the most abundant and fertile land, and it is very near Rome and it has the best harbour of the world, so that there are houses right down to the sea.

And, at that time, the ships of commercial houses touched at Brindisi, and those of Apulia, who wished to take pilgrims and provisions from the Kingdom, came there to spend the winter. The commercial houses all had, and have still, great establishments at Brindisi and in an Apulia and in all the Kingdom. And so the ships which winter there begin to load up in the spring to go to Acre, and take pilgrims and oil and wine and all kinds of grain of wheat. And, assuredly, it is the best fitted out place for the passage beyond sea of any belonging to Christians, and in the most abundant and fertile land, and it is very near Rome and it has the best harbour of the world, so that there are houses right down to the sea.

Given the location and job occupation of his mother’s family, Roger would have been familiar with ships and may have gone on a few voyages himself with his grandfather. Reason for this, is that Roger was caught to playing on a ship in port when he was eight. This moment would change Roger’s life forever.

A notable of the Templars, a brother sergeant, called Frey Vassayll. And whilst he was having the ship repaired, the boy Roger ran about the ship and the rigging as lightly as if he were a monkey, and all day he was with the sailors, because the house of his mother was near to where the ship was taking in ballast. And the notable, Frey Vassayll, took a liking to the boy Roger.

Vassayll took to liking the boy “and he asked his mother for him and said that, if she gave him up to him, he would do all in his power to get him a good post with the Templars. And the mother, as he seemed to her a man of importance, gave the boy up to him willingly, and he received him.” However, this seems unlikely. While it is possible that Roger’s mother handed him over to Vassayll, it seems plausible that a deal had been struck a long time ago given the families occupation in business. Roger’s mother could provide little and giving him over to those who could offer her son a much better education was far more lucrative. Roger turned out to be a quick learner:

And the boy turned out the most expert boy at sea he performed marvels of climbing and of all things. When he was fifteen he was considered one of the best mariners of the world, and when he was twenty he was an accomplished mariner in theory and in practice, so that the worthy Frey Vassayll let him do entirely as he liked with the ship. And the Master of the Templars, seeing him so zealous and expert, gave him the mantle and made him brother sergeant and a short time after he had been made a brother, the Templars bought a great ship from the Genoese, the greatest that had been built at that time, and it was called the Falcon, and they gave it to this Frey Roger de Flor. And in this ship he sailed a long time, showing great knowledge and great valour. He found himself at Acre in this ship and the Templars did so well with this ship that they liked none so well as this one. This Frey Roger was the most generous man ever born he can only be compared to the young King. And all he gained he divided and gave to the principal Templars and to many friends he knew how to make.

In 1291, Roger was 24 years old when the city of Acre had come under siege by the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil. Seeing that the city could not be saved, Roger rescued and “brought away ladies and damsels and great treasure and many important people.” Once away from the city he brought the people to the city of Montpelgrin. Roger would soon meet with the Master Templar who was pleased. However, there were those who were jealous, and made accusations that Roger was holding onto more treasure hidden away in Acre from the Templar order. To make matters worse, his supposed crimes were brought forth to the pope where he was denounced as a thief and apostate. Soon after Roger was expelled and fled to Genoa away from the Templar order. Once in Genoa, Roger would barrow money from friends, particularly Ticino Doria, and used those funds to purchase a new ship from which his career in piracy would soon flourish.

Roger would take his ship and crew in search of work. His first stop was at Catania to meet the Duke where he offered his services, but the Duke knew of Roger the accusations against him and decided not to hire him. Roger sailed south to Messina where he offered his services to King Fadrique (Frederick III, king of Sicily). King Fadrique liked what he heard and made Roger a member of his house and allowed his men to rest eight days before setting off. After the eight day, it was time to go to work. Roger and crew made their way to the city of Apulia, Italy, which at the time was under the Kingdom of Naples. The area would have been a lucrative trading hub. The first ship Roger took was one owned by King Charles. What makes this capture interesting is that the ship was heading to the Duke in Catania, the very same man who turned down his services. After the ship had been captured, Roger gave his men their share and the rest was brought back loaded with many valuables to King Fadrique. As for the captured ship, Roger “manned it with some of his company, and those of the ship he put in the galley, and sent the ship, which was three-decked and loaded with grain and other provisions, to Syracuse.”
Roger’s piracy would have a great impact on the moral of King Fadrique’s troops. Roger made so much money that he was able to pay the soldiers at Syracuse, Agosta, Lentini, among many other places a sum of six months pay. Many soldiers took the coin while many others took victuals. Because of this, Roger was able not only to revive the men’s purses but also their spirits that made them better soldiers. This would not end, as Roger would continue to seize ships, particularly the rich laden ships of King Charles from which he would pay his men and the wages of the King’s men for six months or more considering the amount o wealth flowing into the King Fadrique’s coffers:

And he came to Messina and sent to the Lord King, who was going about Sicily, a thousand onzas in fine carlinos, and paid also, for six months, the soldiers who were with count de Squilace, and at Calana and La Mota and at the castle of Santa Agata and at Pentedatilo and Amandolea and Gerace namely in money and in victuals.

Which makes one wonder — who was really the king, Roger or Fadrique?
Besides crewing ships to search for loot, he also began to hire and equip land forces, for “he bought full fifty mounts, all of good quality, and mounted Catalan and Aragonese squires which he received in his company, and he took five Catalan and Aragonese knights into his house.” Afterwards, Roger brought to the king at Piazza and to “Don Blasco and En G. Galceran and En Berenguer de Entenza” a thousand or more in coin. While there is no questioning that Roger’s great gift, like the many gifts given, were political, for he knew that he needed more than just the king as his ally and like any generous gift, it went over well. Roger now had acquired not only the security of the king but the nobles as well. The gifts kept on coming in as Roger showered everyone he came across with wealth:

There was no rich hom or knight who did not accept his presents and, in all the castles to which he came, he paid the soldiers for six months. So did he strengthen the Lord King and refresh his followers that one of them was worth as much as two had been before. And the Lord King, seeing his worth, made him vice-admiral of Sicily and a member of his council, and gave him the castles of Tripi and Alicata and the revenues of Malta.

Roger’s new promotion to vice-admiral and given the castles was a tremendous gift that needed to be repaid in his mind. Roger decided to double up his efforts and made his way to Messina where he would equip five galleys “and proceeded to scour all the Principality and the Roman shore, and the strand of Pisa and Genoa and of Provence and of Catalonia and Spain and Barbary. And all he found, belonging to friend or foe, in coin or valuable goods, which he could put on board the galleys, he took.” Roger made sure that any wealth taken from his friends would be repaid once the war was over. Roger also went out of his way sparing the lives and ships of his enemies. When Roger returned to Sicily with gold and grain, “all the soldiers, horse and foot, were awaiting him as the Jews do the Messiah.” Roger’s plundering along the Italian coasts would soon end, as King Fadrique made peace with Charles II. King Fadrique was able to keep Sicily, thus ending the war between Aragonese kings of Aragon and the French kings of Naples over the control of Sicily on 31 August 1302 in what became known as the Peace of Caltabellotta. Because of this, Roger and his men were out of job. With no money flowing to Roger’s coffers, the king unwillingly and understandably had no use for the mercenaries. Therefore, Roger sought employment elsewhere and found it in Byzantium.

The Grand Company (or Catalan Company)

Roger had a few dilemmas after the Peace of Caltabellotta. The first being that his men were soon to if not already ran out of money. However this was the least of his worries at the moment. His biggest concern was the peace. While peace cuts the flow of money it also allows those who had issue with Roger to take up arms against him, even though one would think that all sins were forgiven after the war. One can assume this only applies to those who are nobles and their men. Because of this, Roger felt that if he were to stay in Sicily, the king would possible hand him over to King Charles, the Duke, or perhaps the Master of the Templars who would turn him over to the Pope. Therefore, Roger decided to head east.
Roger decided to contact Emperor Andronicus II of Byzantium and offer his services against the threat of the Ottoman Turks led by Osman I who was at this time pushing slowly pushing westward gobbling up the Byzantine lands of Anatolia (Turkey). Roger decides to show his intentions by sending a small force in his discussion with King Fadrique:

I shall send two knights with an armed galley to the Emperor of Constantinople, and shall let him know that I am ready to go to him with as great a company of horse and foot, all Catalans and Aragonese, as he wishes, and that he should give us pay and all necessaries that I know he greatly needs these succours, for the Turks have taken from him land of the extent of thirty journeys and he could not do as much with any people as with Catalans and Aragonese, and especially with those who have carried on this war against King Charles.

Afterwards, King Fadrique said to Roger, “you know more in these matters than We do nevertheless, it seems to Us that your idea is good, and so ordain what you please, We shall be well satisfied with what you ordain.” Roger soon after kissed the King’s hand and left. The next day Roger sent a galley with troops led by two knights with a message that outlined his intentions. Roger especially desired to obtain the niece of Emperor Andronicus II as his wife “and also that he be made Grand Duke of the Empire and again, that the Emperor give pay for four months to all those he would bring, at the rate of four onzas a month to each armed horseman and one onza a month to each man afoot. And that he keep them at this pay all the time they wished to remain, and that they find the pay at Monemvasia.” Roger was playing it smart. He knew, like many adventures seeking glory that the Byzantine Empire was vastly rich in land and titles, and would be offered to those especially involved in martial affairs, such as mercenaries. Roger went so far to not only ensure his place among the elites through marriage and title, which Andronicus II granted him both along with paying his men. After all had been agreed to, Roger began his journey towards Constantinople with a large following:

when they had embarked, there were, between galleys and lenys and ships and terides, thirty-six sails and there were one thousand five hundred horsemen, according as it was written down, fitted out with everything except horses. And there were full four thousand almugavars and full a thousand men afoot without the galley-slaves and seamen who belonged to the shipping. And all these were Catalans and Aragonese and the greater part brought their wives or their.mistresses and their children. And so they took leave of the Lord King and departed from Messina at a suitable hour with great cheer and content.

Once Grand Duke Roger and his men entered Constanople a fight soon broke out between his troops and the Genoese in which three thousand Genoese were killed. Reason for this quarrel is understandable from a trade point of view as they saw Roger muscling in on their business, which in turn caused a bit of rift among the elite in the Byzantine royal circle.
After the debacle with the Genoese, the Emperor soon after transported Roger and his Catalonians to Anatolia to lift the siege of Philadelphia by attacking the Turks. Roger and his Hispano-Byzantine troops were able to free the city. With such great success, the people of Constantinople found favor in the use of western mercenaries and felt that the Turkish menace was gone forever, how wrong they were. But the events soon after made many believe that the Turks were going to be pushed back as Roger and his troops continued to have many victories. However, these victories came with costs. On one hand, Roger had been extorting the people through Asia Minor along with arbitrary cruelties commented by his men. This in turn did not go over well with the Emperor for the cities, towns, and villages brought back within the Byzantine fold were now citizens and any abuse caused by Roger and his troops would not be forgotten thus causing a strain in relations between the Emperor and his own people. In other words, many of the atrocities committed by Roger were bad for public relations throughout the empire. Furthermore, the Emperor saw through Roger and notice that his new Grand Duke sought to established a principality of his own. This would not have been an issue had not Roger strained the relations between the people of Asia Minor and the Emperor, for if the Emperor were to grant Roger a dominion of his own, it might incite rebellion.
Therefore, the Emperor called Roger back:
But the Grand Duke was greatly displeased at having to abandon, at that time, the Kingdom of Anatolia which he had conquered completely and delivered out of its troubles and out of the hands of the Turks. And after he had received the message and the pressing entreaties of the Emperor, he assembled a council and told all the Company the message he had received, and that he begged them to advise him as to what he should do. And finally, they gave him the advice that, by all means, he should go and succour the Emperor in his need and then, in the spring, they would return to Anatolia.

Once back in Constantinople, the Emperor gave Roger a new title and mission thus allowing the situation simmer down in Asia Minor. Once back in Constantinople, the Emperor bestowed the title of Caesar to Roger, which had never been granted to a foreigner. Reason for this title was to curtail Roger’s obviously over ambitions prospects by granting Roger additional powers. Roger’s new mission was to take care of business by taking the fortress of on the straits of Gallipoli from which he would march and take the entire peninsula of Gallipoli. After this had been accomplished, the Emperor sought to give Roger a new mission in Asia Minor. However, before Roger left for new adventures, the Emperor’s eldest son named Michael IX, who happened to be the co-emperor of the empire, invited Roger to a festival. Once Roger and his small band arrived to celebrate, the slaughter began:

And so, by his journeys, he came to the city of Adrianople, and the son of the Emperor, Skyr Miqueli, issued forth to meet him and received him with great honours and this the wicked man did in order to see with what company he was coming. And when he had entered Adrianople, the son of the Emperor stayed with him, amidst great joy and Muntaner cheer which the Caesar made for him, and Skyr Miqueli made the same for him. And when he had stayed with him six days, on the seventh, Skyr Miqueli made the same for him. And when he had stayed with him six days, on the seventh, Skyr Miqueli summoned Gircon to Adrianople, the chief of the Alans, and Melech, chief of the Turcopoles, so that they were altogether nine thousand horsemen. And on that day he invited the Caesar to a banquet. And when they had eaten, this Gircon, chief of the Alans, entered the palace in which Skyr Miqueli and his wife and the Caesar were and they drew their swords and massacred the Caesar and all who were with him shortly after Michael had Roger and his men killed.

Roger, the great mercenary was now dead but his company was not. Soon after Catalan Company received word, that Roger was dead they went on a rampage throughout Macedonia and Thrace plundering the landscape. Even though Roger was dead, the Catalan Company did not fold and stayed in the service of the Byzantine Empire. Overall, the life of Roger de Flor was not so bad in some aspects, not so bad for an eight year old boy to becoming a Templar, to being banished into a life surviving as an outlaw, who sought employment wherever there is a need, Roger de Flor was indeed the Caesar of Mercenaries.
Verwysings:

Setton, Kenneth M. A History of the Crusades: Volume III — The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Harry W. Hazard, editor. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, 1975.

Muntaner, Ramon. The chronicle of Muntaner

Vasiliev, A. A. History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952.

Waley, Daniel Philip, and Peter Denley. Later Medieval Europe, 1250-1520. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.

The Master’s Hand and the Secular Arm: Property and Discipline in the Hospital of St. John in the Fourteenth Century”, Mark Dupuy, Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies Around the Mediterranean, red. Donald Joseph Kagay, L. J. Andrew Villalon, (Brill, 2003)


Diver Down: The Forbidden Isle, Pt. 3

I wouldn't know Doug if he was sitting next to me on a bus.

I never spoke to him on boat ride from Kukui'ula Harbor, Kaua'i, out to Ni'ihau and Lehua. I was enjoying the day with my family, joking around, trying to fend off any incipient seasickness, and helping Dive Master Shaked untangle like a mile of fishing line she wanted to use for her jewelry sideline while the other dive masters spun heavier test line onto a couple giant fishing reels. Lunch was starting to sound like a big deal! Doug was with his wife, I presume, in a different part of the boat. Besides, it was early—not my most social time of day.

When we arrived at Lehua󈟡 miles from Kaua'i, about 2+ hours boat ride—the captain and the dive masters, in consultation, inspected then rejected two different dive sites because of difficult currents. They settled on Keyhole, feeling it was suitable for our first dive of three. Here's Wikipedia:

Doug's group, to my chagrin, got to go in first. [I'm an eager diver. I always want to be the first in and the last out.] We watched as they descended. One guy had some trouble equalizing the pressure in his ears and came back up. For those of you who don't dive, the feeling is similar to that of going up in a high elevator or in an airplane, though more intense. The air pockets in your ears and sinuses have to equalize with the water pressure against your skull, or your head will implode. Something like that. Some divers adjust the pressure merely by swallowing. Others do it by exercising the jaw muscles like yawning. Sometimes, if that doesn't work, you simply press your nasal passages closed and blow.

Our group waited as the boat backed up and brought the diver who failed to equalize back on board, drifted out of the notch, and backed back in. And down we went.

Even though the swells were high, bouncing us up and down at the surface, we had a fairly smooth descent to 40' or so. No pressure issues. In my family dive group, I like to bring up the rear. That way I can keep an eye on everybody. The boys like to lead, and because Wisdomie is a Scuba Instructor, that's perfectly fine with me.

We headed out, going with the current, and down, heading toward about 100'. I had a bit of trouble descending further, but then caught a downdraft and before I knew what was happening I was below the rest of the group.

I ascended, and all of a sudden I found myself up above them. I turned and tried to kick my way back down to them, but the upswell started pushing me even further up. Next thing I knew I was at the surface.

As I said, that's when I decided to scrub the dive.

Because it was a deep dive profile, it was a short dive. Soon the first group came up. By the time they'd gotten on board and out of their equipment, my group was ascending. That was the first time I heard Doug's name. His wife said he'd gotten separated from her under water, and she figured he'd latched on to our group to complete the dive.

Not so. He didn't come up with the rest of my group.

The business of climbing out of the water and getting out of the cumbersome gear and stowing the heavy tanks and equipment is fairly routine. That's when it began to register with the crew that Doug might be missing. They did a head count from the manifest. Then another. A feeling disbelief, then shock seemed to take over the boat. Then the scramble began.

"How big is he?" "What color are his fins?" "Is he a good diver? How much experience?" "When was the last time anybody saw him?" were some of the questions making the rounds as the boat began circling the dive site, then in ever-widening circles the area around the Keyhole side of Lehua.


Archaeologists Say a Mystifying Group of Ancient Monuments in Saudi Arabia Suggests the Existence of a Prehistoric Cattle Cult

A mysterious group of ancient monuments first discovered in Saudi Arabia in the 1970s, known as mustatials, predate the first Egyptian pyramids and Stonehenge by over 2,000 years, making them the world’s oldest ritual landscape, archaeologists now say.

Scattered across 77,000 square miles of desert in northwest Arabia, the mustatils (the name comes from the Arabic word for “rectangle”) were built between 8,500 and 4,800 years ago, during the period known as the Middle Holocene, according to a report published last week in the journal Oudheid.

Through satellite imagery, helicopter and ground surveys, and excavations, the study identified more than 1,000 mustatils, typically built in clusters. That’s more than double the number previously thought to exist.

The project, led by a team from the University of Western Australia, is being funded by the Royal Commission for AlUla, which is hoping to drive tourism to the nearby site of AlUla.

Experts had previously raised numerous theories as to the structures’ purpose, including as animal enclosures, burial sites, or territory markers. But the new study shows that the mustatils‘s walls would have been too low to prevent animals from escaping.

The locations of mustatils in northwest Saudia Arabia. Image courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

“You don’t get a full understanding of the scale of the structures until you’re there,” archaeologist Hugh Thomas, the director of the project, told New Scientist. “It’s not designed to keep anything in, but to demarcate the space that is clearly an area that needs to be isolated.”

Archaeologists found animal bones on the sites, which seem to be the remains of religious offerings. The presence of cattle skulls in particular suggests the existence of prehistoric cattle cult.

“We think people created these structures for ritual purposes in the Neolithic [era], which involved offering sacrifices of wild and domestic animals to an unknown deity/deities,” Thomas told the Art Newspaper.

A cattle horn found at a mustatil, suggesting ritual sacrifice. Photo courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

The largest mustatils are more than 1,500 feet long, with one example constructed from 12,000 tons of basalt stone. Some are simple constructions, with low rock walls forming long rectangles. But others are far more complex, with pillars, interior walls, and small chambers that may have been used for ritual sacrifices.

During the construction of the mustatils, Saudi Arabia would have been all but unrecognizable to contemporary eyes, a verdant green landscape where there is now arid desert.

“The environment was certainly much more humid during this period,” Melissa Kennedy, assistant director of the Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia project, told Live Science. “Cattle need a lot of water to survive.”

Drie mustatils. Photo courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

But there were also periods of drought, suggesting the ancient people who built these structures may have been making offerings asking for rainfall, which is essential for raising cattle.

“These thousands of mustatils really show the creation of a monumental landscape,” Huw Groucutt, an archaeologist at Germany’s Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History who has separately studied mustatils, told NBC News. “They show that this part of the world is far from the eternal empty desert that people often imagine, but rather somewhere that remarkable human cultural developments have taken place.”

The Royal Commission for AlUla will showcase mustatils at the Kingdoms’ Institute, an international archaeology and conservation center that is among 15 cultural institutions the nation is planning to establish.

“We have only begun to tell the hidden story of the ancient kingdoms of North Arabia,” José Ignacio Gallego Revilla , executive director of archaeology, heritage research, and conservation for AlUla, said in a statement. “There is much more to come as we reveal the depth and breadth of the area’s archaeological heritage, which for decades has been under-represented.”

See more photos from the study below.

A number of mustatils. Photo ©Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Royal Commission for AlUla.

A) internal niche located in the head of a mustatil B) a blocked entranceway in the base of a mustatil C–D) associated features of a mustatil: cells and orthostats E) stone pillar identified on the Harrat Khaybar lava field. Photo ©Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Royal Commission for AlUla.

'N Groep van mustatils. Photo ©Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Royal Commission for AlUla.

Twee mustatils. Photo courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

Sommige mustatils in northwest Arabia. Photo ©Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Royal Commission for AlUla.

Three monumental mustatils and a later funerary ‘pendant’ located atop a rocky outcrop on the border of Khaybar and AlUla counties. Photo courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

A mustatil. Photo courtesy of the Royal Commission for AlUla.

Sommige mustatils in northwest Arabia. Photo ©Aerial Archaeology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Royal Commission for AlUla.


Kyk die video: Aan Saudi Arabie En Sluipmoord In Iran: Amir Tsarfati


Kommentaar:

  1. Tredway

    Dit kan eindeloos beredeneer word ..

  2. Zulukinos

    Ek dink dat u verkeerd is. Ek kan die posisie verdedig. Skryf vir my in PM, sal ons bespreek.

  3. Griffyth

    Ek vra om verskoning wat ingegryp het ... Ek verstaan ​​daardie vraag. Ons kan ondersoek.

  4. Kajizragore

    Watter geskikte woorde ... fenomenale, bewonderenswaardige denke

  5. Gunther

    Ja, ouens het afgekom: O)

  6. Narg

    So ver so goed.



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