Niobid -skilder,

Niobid -skilder,


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Niobid-skilder, "Niobid Krater," Rooi-kelk-krater op solder, ca. (Musée du Louvre)

Sprekers: Dr Steven Zucker

Verwante inhoud

Filters:

Almal

Definisies 85

Artikels 32

Beelde158

Video's 9

Versamelings12

Onderrigmateriaal3


Niobe

In die Griekse mitologie, Niobe ( / ˈ n aɪ. Ə. B iː / Grieks: Νιόβη [ni.óbɛː]) was 'n dogter van Tantalus en van óf Dione, die mees aangehaalde, óf van Eurythemista of Euryanassa, die vrou van Amphion en die suster van Pelops en Broteas.

Haar pa was die heerser van 'n stad naby Manisa in die huidige Egeïese Turkye wat "Tantalis" [1] of "die stad Tantalus", of "Sipylus" genoem is. Die stad was aan die voet van die berg Sipylus geleë en daar word berig dat die ruïnes daarvan nog aan die begin van die 1ste eeu nC sigbaar was [2], hoewel daar nog min spore oorbly. [3] Plinius berig dat Tantalis deur 'n aardbewing verwoes is en dat die stad Sipylus (Magnesia ad Sipylum) in die plek daarvan gebou is. [4]

Daar word na Niobe se vader verwys as 'Frigies' en soms selfs as 'koning van Frigië', [5] hoewel sy stad in die westelike uiteinde van Anatolië geleë was, waar Lydia voor die begin van die eerste millennium vC as 'n staat sou ontstaan. en nie in die tradisionele hart van Phrygia nie, meer in die binneland. Daar word verwys na sy seun en Niobe se broer as "Pelops the Lydian", en dit het geleer dat sommige geleerdes vermoed het dat Niobe aan 'n oorspronklike huis van Lydia behoort. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Niobe se man was Amphion, 'n seun van Zeus en Antiope. Amphion se tweelingbroer, Zethus, was 'n heerser van Thebe. Amphion het 'n groot sanger en musikant geword nadat sy minnaar Hermes hom geleer het om musiek te speel en hom 'n goue lier gegee het.

Sy is reeds genoem in Homer's Ilias wat haar trots vertel hubris, waarvoor sy gestraf is deur Leto, wat Apollo en Artemis gestuur het om al haar kinders te vermoor, waarna haar kinders nege dae lank onbegrawe gelê het terwyl sy haar van voedsel onthou het. [6] Toe die gode hulle begrawe het, het sy teruggetrek na haar geboorteland Sipylus, "waar Nimfe dans om die Acheloosrivier [7] en alhoewel dit in klip verander het, broei sy oor die smarte wat die gode gestuur het". [8] Later skrywers [9] beweer dat Niobe getroud was met Amphion, een van die tweeling stigters van Thebe, waar daar 'n enkele heiligdom was waar die tweeling stigters vereer is, maar in werklikheid geen heiligdom vir Niobe nie.


Niobid -skilder, - Geskiedenis

Die eerste realisme

In 479 vC het die Atheners hul territoriale veiligheid herstel met 'n oorwinning oor die Perse by Plataea. Fragmente standbeelde wat deur die Perse in puin gelê is, is godsdienstig bymekaargemaak en op die Akropolis begrawe. Vuur het skilderye heeltemal vernietig deur die & quotprimitives & quot; wat so lank die modelle vir die uitbeelding van gode en helde verskaf het. Die gevolglike behoefte aan die Atheners om hul instellings saam met hul oorwinning te heroorweeg, het beteken dat hulle die toekoms van hul stad met vertroue kon beplan. Vir die eerste keer. kunstenaars het hul vakke in realistiese situasies uitgebeeld en volgens die omliggende gebeure gekenmerk.

In beeldhouwerk kan die oorgang na realisme gesien word in die werke van Kritios, Nesiotes en Egia in Athene en Agelades by Argos. Met behulp van dinamiese, vloeiende buitelyne het Micon en Myron die stewigheid van die werk van Polygnotos en Kalamis en in die skildery verwerp. Micon het ruimtelike konsepte ontwikkel, wat die gebied tussen figure en landskap, lewensgetroue gebare en bewegings uitbeeld. en die verstrengelde rumoer van die geveg. In Myron se standbeeld van Ladas by Olympia (460 vc), lyk die hardloper asof hy op die punt staan ​​om van sy voetstuk af te spring Timanthes (456bc.) Lig sy arms op sy kop om sy leerdop vas te maak en die bene en bolyf van sy Discus Thrower (c.450bc) is lank, die liggaam is maer en gespanne en die spiere is gespanne. Die kop weerspieël die ovaalvorm van die Brons A., een van twee bronsstryders wat by Riace in die suide van Italië gevind is. Die houding en liggaamsbou van Myron se kolossale standbeeld van Zeus, op Samos, boots die werk van Agelades na. Beïnvloed in Athene deur die beeldmateriaal van die teater, het Myron sy beelde soos skilderye gerangskik volgens die tipe uitleg wat uitgeloop het op sy groep Apollo en Marsyas.

'N Invloedryke beeldhouer van Eleutherae in Boeotia, Myron (c.480-455bc), was 'n student van Agelades of Argos. Daar word vermoed dat sy Timanthes, Ladas en Discus Thrower uit die vroeë Peloponnesiese tydperk kom, en sy Lycinos in Olympia uit 'n latere fase. Die groep Zeus, Athena en Herakles is in Samos gevorm, maar sy Perseos-, Erechtheos-, Athena- en Marsyas -groepe en Theseos en die Minotaur is in Athene gemaak. Sy beroemde koei is weergegee as 'n bronsbeeldjie.

Die skilder Polygnotos (ongeveer 510-460 vc) kom van Thasos. Hy het kuns bevry van die ambagstradisie en was teenstrydig met die digters om mitologie te herleef as basis vir aristokratiese deugde. Sy straf van die vryers in Plataea (479 vc) is gevolg deur Odysseos en daarna Achilles in Skyros (475 vc), geskilder in Athene terwyl hy in die politieke gevolg van Kimon was. Hy het ook begin met die versiering van die Stoa Poikile, wat moontlik onvoltooid gebly het tot die bekendstelling van demokrasie (462-461BC). Sy vernietiging van Troy en Odysseos wat Hades besoek, versier die groot vergaderruimte in Delphi.



Hierdie graf bied 'n seldsame voorbeeld van Helleense skilderye, versier met tonele van 'n begrafnisbanket ter ere van die oorledenes. Aan die binnekant en buitekant van die deksel van die graf is 'n voorstelling van die duiker na wie die graf vernoem is. Hierdie deel van die plaat vertoon 'n gedeelte van die banketkamer en toon 'n ry van drie bankette, met armsteun aan die regterkant, wat elkeen 'n lae tafel voor het. Daar word vyf figure op die rusbanke vertoon. Regs is 'n sanger wat optree saam met 'n jeug wat hom op die fluit begelei. In die middel praat 'n bebaarde man en 'n ander jeug, elkeen met 'n beker in sy hand, en op die derde bank, links, het 'n lirespeler opgehou speel en rus die instrument op sy skoot en draai na kyk na sy metgeselle wat na die lied luister. Die toneel is vaardig gekomponeer en geanimeer deur die kunstenaar. Elke figuur is betrokke by 'n aktiwiteit wat hom in verband bring met 'n ander figuur en met die algehele aksie wat plaasvind. Daar is geen vroue in die prentjie nie. In plaas daarvan is dit 'n wêreld van verhoudings tussen oud en jonk, 'n samelewing van mans wat in private solidariteit bymekaargekom het.

Die kuns van Athene

Na die Doriese fase van die ernstige styl, het die kragtige Atheense styl nog sterker gevestig geraak by Phidias, wat die gode uitgebeeld het in openlike kommunikasie met die stad wat hulle beskerm het. Syne Apollo (Kassel -weergawe) verskil van Kalamis se Apollo Alexikakos in die breë struktuur van die liggaam en die skerp buitelyn. In vergelyking met die langwerpige koppe van Myron se standbeelde, het die voorkop 'n reghoekige kwaliteit, en 'n gevoel van voorwaartse beweging skep 'n kragtige effek van onmiddellikheid. Terwyl Kalamis die ideale van Kimon geïnterpreteer het, volg Phidias die demokratiese pad van Perikles, wat hom die pos as superintendent van nuwe monumente gegee het.
Die bou van die Akropolis het aanleiding gegee tot die styl van dinamiese vertelling wat die kern van die Europese figuurlike taal lê. Die hiërargie van die proefpersone, wat geleidelik met kleur verlewend word, word geopenbaar deur hul verskillende vlakke bo die grond: die Panathenaïese fees op die fries om die binnetempel, styg tot die mitologiese en epiese onderwerpe op die metope, en bereik 'n hoogtepunt in die fronton. Die heilige element neem toe van wes na oos, die rigting wat besoekers neem van die Propylaea. In die metope in die weste en suide. daar is geen gode nie. Sommige verskyn aan die noordelike kant. terwyl in die gigantomachia op die fasade van die Parthenon is daar 'n Olimpiese god vir elke metope. Net so bevat die fries slegs gode aan die oostekant. Die westelike voorkant is bevolk deur helde, met slegs twee gode - Poseidon en Athena - wat meeding om die eienaarskap van Attika, die oostelike voorkant bevat Zeus en die geboorte van Athena sowel as die goddelike hof.
Die argitektoniese vertelling van die Parthenon vorder van geïsoleerde episodes in die metope tot die prosessiekontinuïteit van die fries en die swaar mitologie van die voorpante. cella het eens 'n kolossale standbeeld van goud en ivoor van Athena gehad. Die Parthenon, 'n monument vir demokratiese naasbestaan, kombineer die Doriese styl met ioniese elemente. Dit vier die samekoms van burgers wat deur verskillende politieke stelsels beheer word, en bring sterflinge, helde en gode bymekaar. Die versiering van die metope verwys na die bedreiging wat die voortdurende stryd tussen Grieke en barbare inhou. Die hand van die Lemniese beeldhouer Alcamenes kan op die plaat in die oostelike fries gesien word. Poseidon se vloeiende hare het dieselfde sagtheid as in die hare Brons B., een van die twee standbeelde van krygers wat by Riace gevind is, en die groot, staar oë is ook bekend. 'N Soortgelyke gebruik van gordyn kan gesien word in Alcamenes se marmergroep van die mitologiese Procne en Itys op die Akropolis.

Vir die Grieke was skoonheid nie bloot 'n kulturele ideaal wat verband hou met kuns en die gode nie, maar was dit ook 'n persoonlike strewe. Dit word duidelik getoon in die versiering van baie artefakte, insluitend hierdie oliekruik.

Oliekruik met versiering waarop 'n vrou 'n spieël vashou
Nasionale Museum, Reggio Calabria, Italië


Parthenon
Akropolis, Athene, Griekeland
Argitekte: Iktinos, Kallikrates, Phidias
447-432 vC

Die groot kunstenaar van die klassieke tydperk, die Atheense beeldhouer Phidias (c.490-430bc) ​​was die een wat die meeste deur die Romeine oorgeneem is. Nadat hy bronswerk by Aegios in Athene en Agelades in Argos bestudeer het, was hy die waarskynlike skepper van The Apollo Parnopios (Kassel-weergawe). Hy het in opdrag van Perikles toesig gehou oor die werk aan die Akropolis en die Parthenon volgens die planne van die argitekte Ictinus en Callicrates. Hy het die Parthenon se 92 metodes van mitiese gevegte ontwerp (en moontlik ook gedeeltelik uitgevoer), 'n fries van 159 meter (522 voet) van die Groot Panathenaea (die belangrikste Atheense godsdienstige fees), beeldhouwerke vir die voetstukke en die 12 meter ( 40 voet) goud en ivoor Athena Parthenos (447-438BC). Die Wounded Amazon (Mattei -weergawe) en The Aphrodite Urania (Doria Pamphili) het daarna gevolg.

Nadat hy tereggestaan ​​is vir die onteiening van goud en vir goddeloosheid, verhuis Phidias na die Peloponnesos, waar hy 'n nuwe Urania by Elis geskep het. Hy het ook 'n werkswinkel in Olympia opgerig, waar hy 'n kolossale standbeeld van goud en ivoor van 14 meter (45 voet) van Zeus en The Anadoumenos gemaak het. Die oorspronklike van die Parthenon, grotendeels in die British Museum. Londen, was 'n inspirasie vir Europese neoklassieke kuns.

By die kolonie Motya, aan die verre westelike punt van Sicilië, is die kultus van Melqart van Tirus beoefen deur die regerende Karthagers. Melqart, 'n Fenisiese tutorêre god, was oor die algemeen in die Helleense tyd met Herakles verbind (ongeveer 450 vc). Hierdie standbeeld van Melqart-Herakles is 'n bewys van die volwassenheid van die kunstenaar, wat ook verantwoordelik was vir die metope op die Tempel van Hera by Selinus (ongeveer 465 vc), en sy Karthagiese werkgewer het hom toegelaat om sy oostelike onderwerp te helleniseer. Soos in ander standbeelde van Melqart-Herakles wat op Ciprus ontdek is, was hierdie figuur oorspronklik geklee in 'n leeuvel (in hierdie geval gemaak van brons), hoewel dit later deur Syracusans tydens die sak van Motya in 397 vC verwyder is. 'N Klub in die regterhand van die held is agter sy kop opgesteek, maar hierdie dreigende houding word versag deur die nonchalansie van die ander hand, wat op sy heup rus. Die beeldhouer Lysippos, in die gevolg van Alexander toe die heiligdom in Tirus herbou is (331 vc), is deur hierdie standbeeld beïnvloed deur sy latere werk van Herakles oorwin die leeu vir Cassander (31-tnc) bevat die oorspronklike
beeld van die oorwonne dier wat in die linkerhand gehou word.

Gebore in Argos, Polycleitos (c.480-420bc), was 'n scuiptor en 'n leerling van Agelades. Hy het The Canon geskryf oor die harmonie van proporsies en opposisie van magte. Sy Discophoros (ongeveer 460) het albei voete stewig op die grond, terwyl die Kyniskos meer in balans is. met een voet gedeeltelik omhoog. Doryphorus was 'n ondersoek na die verspreiding van energie tussen die ledemate, net soos sy Herakles. Die gewonde Amazon (Sciarra -weergawe), wat na bewering vir Efese in kompetisie met Phidias en Kresilas (c.440) en The Diadoumenos gemaak het. Sy laaste poging om mee te ding met die kolossale standbeelde van Phidias was die goud en ivoor Hera, ongeveer 5,5 meter hoog. Sy standbeelde is wyd gekopieer gedurende die laat Hellenistiese en Romeinse tydperke.

Polycleitos se Canon

Terwyl Myron die verbygaande en die toevallige gevange geneem het. Polycleitos het Kritios en Kalamis se belangstelling in volume en metriese ritme geërf. Hy was 'n inwoner van Argos, soos Agelades, en ondersoek die moontlikhede om beweging in staande figure te illustreer. Die verdeling van gewig in sy Discophoros eggo die Riace Brons A.. In sy Achilles of Doryphoros, anders as Phidias Apollo. Polycleitos het baie aandag gegee aan die verdeling van gewig en sterkte in die ledemate. en 'n kanon geskep

afgelei van Pythagoras se navorsing oor wiskundige proporsie. Die asimmetriese posisie van die voete word gebalanseer deur 'n kruising van kraglyne (chiasmos) deur die liggaam. Die krulle van die hare gee die afwerking van 'n perfek gebalanseerde werk wat uit baie verskillende elemente bestaan. In ongeveer 440 vC. Polycleitos verhuis na Athene en daag die oorheersing van Phidias uit. Die invloed van sy ritmiese styl was deurslaggewend en was 'n voorbeeld van die klassieke tydperk.


Die J. Paul Getty Museum

Hierdie prent kan gratis afgelaai word onder die Getty's Open Content -program.

Standbeeld van 'n ineenstortende Niobid

Onbekend 118 × 77 × 52,5 cm (46 7/16 × 30 5/16 × 20 11/16 in.) 72.AA.126

Beelde met oop inhoud is gewoonlik groot in lêergrootte. Om moontlike datakoste van u diensverskaffer te vermy, beveel ons aan om seker te maak dat u toestel aan 'n Wi-Fi-netwerk gekoppel is voordat dit afgelaai word.

Tans te sien by: Getty Villa, Gallery 207, Later Roman Sculpture

Alternatiewe aansigte

Volle vooraansig

Voorwerpbesonderhede

Titel:

Standbeeld van 'n ineenstortende Niobid

Kunstenaar/vervaardiger:
Kultuur:
Plek:
Medium:
Voorwerpnommer:
Afmetings:

118 × 77 × 52,5 cm (46 7/16 × 30 5/16 × 20 11/16 in.)

Alternatiewe titels:

Torso van 'n gewonde niobied (vertoon titel)

Gewonde Niobid (vertoon titel)

Departement:
Klassifikasie:
Voorwerp tipe:
Voorwerpbeskrywing

'N Jeug val op sy knieë en sukkel tevergeefs om die pyl wat in sy rug lê, te bereik. Hoewel groot dele van die standbeeld nou ontbreek, verteenwoordig dit 'n uittreksel uit die slag van die Niobids, die kinders van Niobe. In die Griekse mitologie het Niobe, 'n sterflike vrou, die godin Leto beledig deur te spog dat sy veertien kinders gehad het, terwyl Leto slegs twee gehad het. Leto het hierdie oortreding gestraf deur haar kinders, die gode Apollo en Artemis, te stuur om al die kinders van Niobe dood te maak. Hierdie lewensgrootte Romeinse standbeeld kopieer een figuur uit 'n groep standbeelde wat in die laat 300's v.C. wat die hele mite uitgebeeld het. Die oorspronklike groep is waarskynlik as buit na Rome gebring deur die verowering van Romeinse generaals. Hierdie beeld was baie gewild onder die Romeine, wat die hele groep weergegee het, maar ook uittreksels uit enkele figure, soos hierdie standbeeld, as versiering in villa's gebruik het. Die onbekende beeldhouer van hierdie standbeeld het baie marmer en arbeid gespaar deur die gedeeltes van die standbeeld wat uitgesteek het-die arms en die regtervoet-uit aparte marmerblokke te sny en dit met dowels vas te maak. Hierdie oorspronklike stukmaakproses is ietwat verduister deur latere, maar steeds antieke, herstelwerk en retouchering van die standbeeld.

Herkoms
Herkoms

Robin Symes, Limited, gestig in 1977, ontbind 2005, verkoop aan die J. Paul Getty Museum, 1972.

Uitstallings
Uitstallings
Moderne oudheid: Picasso, de Chirico, Léger en Picabia in die teenwoordigheid van die oudheid (2 November 2011 tot 20 Mei 2012)
  • Die J. Paul Getty Museum in die Getty Villa (Malibu), 2 November 2011 tot 16 Januarie 2012
  • Musee Picasso (Antibes), 16 Februarie tot 20 Mei 2012
Bibliografie
Bibliografie

Vermeule, Cornelius en Norman Neuerberg. Katalogus van die antieke kuns in die J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1973), pp. 12-13, nr. 22.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel en Gillian Wilson. Gids: Die J. Paul Getty Museum. 4de uitg. Sandra Morgan, red. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978), p. 44.

Frel, Jiří. Oudhede in die J. Paul Getty Museum: A Checklist Sculpture I: Greek Originals (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1979), p. 27, nee. 107. Verkeerdelik aangehaal as 70.AA.107.

Frel, Jiří. Oudhede in die J. Paul Getty Museum: A Checklist Sculpture II: Greek Portraits and Varia (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, November 1979), addendum, bl. 44, nee. 107 bl. 46, Konkordansie: verkeerdelik gelys as 70.AA.126 .. Verkeerd gekorrigeer na 70.AA.126.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. Griekse en Romeinse beeldhouwerk in Amerika (Berkeley en Londen: University of California Press, 1981), nr. 154.

Frel, Jiří. "Ou herstelwerk aan klassieke beeldhouwerk in Malibu." Die J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 12 (1984), bl. 85, nee. 31 fig. 23.

Geominy, Wilfred A. "Die Florentiner Niobiden," Ph.D. diss., 1982, Universiteit van Bonn, 2 vols. (np, 1984), vol. I, pp. 189-92 v. II, p. 439, n. 456 vye. 203-204.

Geominy, Wilfred. "Niobidai." In Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae VI (1992), pp. 914-929, p. 920, nr. 21m1.

Ongewoon sin, ex. kat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (Los Angeles, 1997), p. 113, siek.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection (Los Angeles: 2002), bl. 154.

Die J. Paul Getty Museum Handbook of the Antiquities Collection. Eerwaarde red. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2010), p. 152.

Green, Christopher en Jens M. Daehner. Moderne oudheid: Picasso, de Chirico, Leger en Picabia (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2011), 47, 152, nr. 12 pl. 11.


Toegang opsies

Hierdie referaat het begin met 'n seminaar wat in 1973 deur David Gordon Mitten gehou is. Sy hulp en die hulp van vele ander aan Harvard, die Universiteit van Michigan en die American School of Classical Studies in Athene was van groot waarde. In die besonder wil ek erkenning gee aan die nuttige kritiek van Martin Robertson, Evelyn Harrison en Vincent Bruno, ek is natuurlik my eie hardkoppigheid.

Die Niobid -krater is sedert die eerste publikasie daarvan die onderwerp van waarnemende bespreking. Die werke van vroeëre geleerdes waarna die meeste in die teks verwys word, word hieronder gelys en slegs deur die outeur se naam aangehaal:

Barron, J., 'Nuwe lig op ou mure: Die muurskilderye van die Theseion', JHS xcii (1972) 20-45.

Christos, Ch., ‘Ho Polygnotos kai mia angeiographia me epeisodion ek tis Homerikis Nekyias’, AE (1957) 168-226.

Jacobsthal, P., 'The Nekyia krater in New York', Metropolitaanse museumstudies v (1935) 117-45.

Jeppesen, K., 'Eteokleous Symbasis', Acta Jutlandica xl, nee. 3 (1968).

Simon, E., 'Polygnotan-skildery en die Niobid-skilder', AJA lxvii (1963) 43-62, met bibliografie.

Six, J., 'Mikon se vierde skildery in die Theseion', JHS xxxix (1919) 130-43.

1 Louvre G 341: ARV 2 601,22, gevind by Orvieto: Helbig, W., Bulletino x (1881) 276 –80Google Scholar. Die vaas en sy skilder is vernoem na die toneel van die moord op die Niobids aan die agterkant vanweë die onduidelikheid van die onderwerp van die voorkant, waarvoor dit dikwels die 'Argonaut -krater' genoem word. Die Herakles -kant van die krater oorvleuel beide handvatsones en toon groter sorg by die uitvoering, en dit is duidelik ook die voorkant.

2 Pouse. x 25-31. Sien die besprekings in Weickert, C., Studien zur Kunstgeschichte des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. I. Veelhoek (AAWB 1947 nr. 8 [Berlyn, 1950]) 9-14, 20 Google Scholar Simon 48, 51 Robertson, M., A history of Greek art (Cambridge 1976) 266 –70Google Scholar.

3 Jacobsthal 124 het wanhoop dat 'n verduideliking van die toneel ooit gevind sal word, maar ander geleerdes het die toneel onbekend gelaat (sien die bibliografie in Simon 62). Die gebrek aan eksplisiete leidrade, soos etikette, kan daarop dui dat die toneel 'n model naboots wat aan potensiële klante bekend was dat die skilder nie die behoefte gevoel het om sy toneel te verduidelik nie (dus Christos 279 en Jeppesen 27).

4 Voortaan, wanneer na verskillende figure op die vaas verwys word, is die nommers wat Jeppesen aan hulle toegeken het, Acta Archaeologica (Kopenhagen) xli (1970) 158 Google Scholar, fig. 3, hier PLAAT IIb tussen hakies verskyn. Ek wil prof. Jeppesen bedank dat hy my hierdie syfer gegee het.

5 In Polygnotos ' Nekyia by Delphi beskryf Pausanias Antilochos met een voet omhoog (x 30,3) en Hector sit met sy linkerknie in albei hande vasgemaak (x 31,5).

6 Zen. iv 28 sien Wycherley, R., The Athenian Agora iii. Literêre en epigrafiese getuienis (Princeton 1957) 44 no. 96 Google Scholar.

7 Onder hulle is die buik met vier dele, die gevoerde gesigte (6,10) en die driekwartkoppe. (Die agterkant van die krater het 'n driekwartkopkop.) Sien die bespreking in Barron 23-5.

8 Die bibliografie vir die probleem word chronologies deur Simon 61-2 gelys. Om by haar lys gevoeg te word, is: Löwy, E., Polygnot (Wene 1929) Google Scholar C. Weickert (n. 2) Christos (1957) Jeppesen (1968) en (n. 4) en Acta archaeologica xlii (1972) 110 –12Google Scholar Harrison, E., A Bull liv (1972) 390 - 402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Barron (1972) Robertson (n. 2) Simon, E., Die griechische Vasen (München 1976) 133 –5Google Scholar Clark, RJ , Catabasis (Amsterdam 1979) 126 Google Scholar Kron, U., LIMC i (1981) 441 Google Scholar, #229 Blatter, R., LIMC ii (1984) 597 –8, #32Google Scholar.

9 Christos 179-95. Christos se interpretasie het te laat verskyn om in te sluit ARV 2 of Simon se bibliografie, en die lengte en publikasie daarvan in Grieks, het dit minder aandag geniet as wat dit verdien. (Dit word slegs deur Jeppesen aangehaal [n. 4].) Die argument wat hier aangebied is, is wesenlik ontwikkel voordat Christos se artikel onder die skrywer se aandag gekom het. Meer onlangs blyk dit dat Christos se teorie verander is in die volgorde wat Th. Karagiorga, AE (1972) 46.

10 Robert, C., Annali dell'Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica liv (1882) 280 Google Scholar Christos 182-5 Simon 49-50.

12 Christos 179-81. Simon verwerp 'n parallelle argument, 46.

13 Oorspronklik geïdentifiseer deur Gardner, E., JHS x (1889) 124 Google Scholar sien die argumente in Simon 45.

14 Soos Christos 188 erken.

16 Harrison (nr. 8) 394 impliseer dit deur die godin en die ou man te koppel. Christos 192–3 sê dat die ou man die vegter half versteek aan die linkerkant balanseer (2), maar hierdie figuur pas eintlik met die perd se kop.

17 Kenner, H., Weinen und Lachen (Wene 1960) 38 Google Scholar en Girard, P., REG vii (1894) 360 - 361 Google Scholar bespreek gesigsuitdrukkings.

19 F. Brommer, Vasenlisten 3, 481-4 Hornbostel, W., Aus Gräbern und Heiligtümern (Mainz 1980) 126 –7Google Scholar Cressedi, G., EAA iii (1960) 217 ​​–19Google Scholar Robert, C., Oidipus (Berlyn 1915) Google Scholar passim. Oedipus verskyn af en toe met 'n baard voor die sfinks (byvoorbeeld op die bekende kylix deur die Oedipus -skilder in die Vatikaan: ARV 2 451.1 en 1654 Robert, op. cit. 51, fig. 16) maar hy is altyd jeugdig. Die kontras tussen die jeugdige Oedipus met die sfinks en die ruige Odysseus met Nausikaa op Londen E 156 is veral onthullend: ARV 2 1281 (herinner aan die Marlay -skilder): CVA British Museum iv, pl. 34,1 (227). Volgens Höfer, O., Roscher iii, 735 Google Scholar, dateer die tradisie van 'n ronddwaalde, bejaarde Oedipus uit Euripides Phoenissae aan die einde van die vyfde eeu.

20 Sien veral Touchefeu-Meynier, O., Thèmes Odyseéns dans Part antique (Parys 1968) 288 –9Google Scholar Schmidt, J. in Roscher iii 654 –81Google Scholar Paribeni, E., EAA vii (1966) 1046 –51Google Scholar Brommer, F., Odysseus (Darmstadt 1983) 110 –11Google Scholar.

Die probleem van helde sonder duidelike ikonografie word bespreek deur Robert, C., Archäologische Hermeneutik (Berlyn 1919 herdruk, New York 1975) 39 Google Scholar en meer onlangs deur Dusenberry, E., Hespetia xlvii (1978) 226 Google Scholar. Die Disney Painter oinochoe in New York, Metropolitan Museum 28.97.24 (ARV 2 1265.15 en 1688 EAA iii [1960] 141 Google Scholar, fig. 172) bied 'n soortgelyke ikonografiese probleem. 'N Middeljarige boogskutter met lang hare en baard word alleen getoon. Soos Richter uitwys (Richter, G. en Hall, L., Rooi-figuurde Atheense vase in die Metropolitan Museum [New Haven 1936] 187, pl. 150, 152Google Scholar), dui sy onstuimige hare en ummartiale voorkoms daarop dat dit geen gewone boogskutter nie, maar Odysseus s'n. Dit lyk asof Beazley oorspronklik hierdie interpretasie voorgestel het (AV 447,9) en later bygevoeg (ARV 2 1688) 'if Odysseus, 'n uittreksel uit 'n "moord op die vryers".'

21 Volgens Touchefeu-Meynier, (nr. 20) 288, n. 7, Odysseus pilos verskyn die eerste keer in die laaste derde van die vyfde eeu vC. Sien Brommer (nr. 20) 110-11.

22 Athens Agora P 18538, geskryf: ARV 2 611.40 en 1661 (manier van die Niobid -skilder, 'miskien 'n vroeë, delikate werk deur die skilder self') Para. 396 nie in Touchefeu-Meynier. Corbett, P. (Hesperia xvii [1948] 189–90) Google Scholar stel voor dat dit die held toon tydens sy sending na Skyros voor die Trojaanse oorlog F. Brommer (AA [1965] 115-19) stel Odysseus voor om na Ithaka terug te keer, vermom as 'n bedelaar.

23 Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 34.79: ARV 2 1045.2 en 1679. Hierdie vergelyking word ook gemaak deur Harrison (nr. 8) 394 n. 29.

24 Odysseus staan ​​ook met een been omhoog in twee latere onderwêreldtonele, die San Severo-sarkofaag in Orvieto (Touchefeu-Meynier [n. 20], 140, no. 236, pl. 22.2) en 'n reliëf in Parys (Louvre 574: ibid . 137-8, nr. 231, pl. 21.3). In albei gevalle kyk die held na regs en dus is die linkerbeen teen die agtergrond en daarom verhoog. 'N Figuur in 'n soortgelyke voorstelling op 'n bronsreliëf word geïdentifiseer as Odysseus deur Thompson, D., Hesperia xxxviii (1969) 242 –51CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

25 Vergelyk die beskrywing deur Pausanias (x 30.3) van die figuur van Antilochos in die Delphic Nekyia. Baie voorbeelde kan uit latere vaasskilderye aangehaal word: Jacobsthal, P., Die melischen Reliefs (Berlyn 1931) 190 –2Google Scholar Neumann, G., Gesten und Gebärden (Berlyn 1965) 118 –19CrossRefGoogle Scholar en McNiven, T., Gebare in Solder vaasverf (diss. Universiteit van Michigan 1982) 58 Google Scholar.

26 Figuur 5 het ook sy voet effens gestut. Soos hieronder sal sien, is dit om hom te verbind met figuur 9, die jeug met die helm in sy uitgestrekte hand.

27 So Six 132 Simon 50 Jeppesen 11. Harrison (nr. 8) 392 sê dat die figuur nie van die middel af gedraai het nie, maar op die punt is om daarheen te draai. Dit is moeilik om uit die posisie van die voete te sien presies wat hy doen, maar ek sou hul posisie interpreteer as 'n aanduiding dat hy na links stap. In hierdie lig is dit aanloklik om die beskrywing Plinius (Nat. xxxv 58) gee 'n skildery van Polygnotos wat in die portiek van Pompeius was, 'waarin daar twyfel bestaan ​​of hy die figuur met die skild voorgestel het as opwaarts of afwaarts beweeg'. (Trans., Pollitt, J. J., The art of Greece, [Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1965] 96) Google Scholar.

28 Ajax word skynbaar met 'n baard uitgebeeld gedurende die soldervaasskildery, of dit nou trek met Achilles, baklei, rusie maak met Odysseus of op sy swaard val. Sien in die algemeen Friis Johansen (n. 31) 66, 172 Touchefeu, O., LIMC i (1981) 312 –6Google Scholar vir die drafts-spelers, Schefold, K., JdI lii (1937) 68-70 Google Scholar die selfmoord, Schefold, K., AK xix (1976) 71 –7Google Scholar. Ajax het 'n baard op die Nekyia -krater (PLATE IIId) en in die Delphic Nekyia (Pouse. X 31.3). Op 'n swartfiguur-amfora van die Swing Painter in München (1494: ABV 308 CVA München vii, pl. 360) 'n figuur in die onderwêreld word geïnterpreteer as Ajax wat met balvuise wegdraai.

Pausanias (x 26.3) noem 'n slang op Menelaus se skild in die Iliupersis by Delphi en gee 'n twyfelagtige interpretasie daarvan. Geen positiewe interpretasie van hierdie kenmerk is moontlik nie: Chase, G., HSPh xiii (1902) 82 –3Google Scholar Robertson, M., ABSA 62 (1967) 10 Google Scholar. 'N Skild, alhoewel gewoonlik 'n Boeotiese, is 'n belangrike deel van Ajax se ikonografie in die Argaïese tydperk: Friis Johansen (n. 31) 66.

29 Christos 185-6. Sien Touchefeu, O., LIMC i (1981) 256 –74Google Scholar.

31 So Johansen, K. Friis, The Iliad in early Greek art (Kopenhagen 1967) 133, 178 Google Scholar Bocci, P., 'Achille', EAA i (1958) 25-33 Google Scholar Kemp-Lindemann, D., Darstellungen des Achilleus in griechischer und römischer Kunst (Frankfurt en Bern 1975) esp. 139 –41Google Scholar Kossatz-Deissmann, A., LIMC i (1981) 114 –22Google Scholar en plate passim. Achilles word op die jongste onbaard vertoon in teenstelling met die bebaarde Ajax (ongeveer 430 v.C.) uit die reeks tekenaars, 'n kolomkrater deur die Hephaistos-skilder (Berlyn 3199: ARV 2 1114.9 Para. 452 JDAI lii [1937] 70 Google Scholar, fig. 1 LIMC i (1981) pl. 100 Google Scholar Achilleus 420).

Dat Patroklos 'n parallelle verandering ondergaan, blyk uit die bespreking in Friis Johansen, op. cit., bv. 230. Die tradisie is egter verwar. Beide helde is in Polygnotos as jonk en onbaard vertoon Nekyia by Delphi (Paus. x 30.3) en op 'n stamnos deur die Kleophrades -skilder (Villa Giulia 26040: ARV 2 188.63 sien die interpretasie in Friis Johansen, op. cit., 184-6, fig. 75). Op die beroemde beker van die Sosias Painter (Berlyn F2278: ARV 2 21.1) Achilles word as onbaard uitgebeeld terwyl Patroklos 'n yl baard het. Achilles het 'n yl baard op die naamstuk van die Penthesilea Painter (München 2688: ARV 2 879.1) maar niks oor die van die Achilles -skilder (Vatikaan 16571: ARV 2 987.1).

In die Simposium (reël 180), laat Plato Phaedrus aanvoer dat Achilles die jongste, mooier was ἐραοτής en nie die έρώμενος van Patroklos, wat Aiskylos weerspreek, so daar was selfs in die ou tyd onenigheid. Sien die bespreking in Lenschau, T., 'Patroklos (2)', RE xviii 4 (1949) 2280 –1Google Scholar.

32 Jeppesen 24, n. 19 en (n. 4) 160 toon aan dat hy Athena nie kan groet nie, maar die werklike doel van sy aandag is nie duidelik nie.

33 Die bespreking van hierdie episode deur Clark (nr. 8) 37-8 is veral insiggewend.

34 Pouse. x 29.1. Vir Theseus onder die see, sien Bologna 303 deur die Kadmos -skilder: ARV 2 1184.6 Ses 139-41 Barron 40-1 Robertson (n. 2) 256.

35 Daar word dikwels aanvaar dat sommige kunstenaars 'n literêre bron noukeurig gevolg het, maar ook goed gedemonstreer, soos in Friis Johansen (n. 31) 127, 188-91, 202-6, 226. Hierdie voorbeelde toon 'n noue afhanklikheid van die Ilias vir die name en situasies wat uitgebeeld word. Sien ook Boardman, J., AK xix (1976) 11 Google Scholar. Friis Johansen (n. 31) bv. 190, 206, gee ook gevalle waar figure uit 'n reeks gebeurtenisse in een toneel verenig word sodat die kunstenaar 'n breër punt kan maak.

36 Webster, T. B. L., Der Niobidenmaler (Leipzig 1935) 15 - 16 Google Scholar.


Niobid -skilder, - Geskiedenis

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Opmerklike veilings wat onlangs geëindig het
Tableaux Dessins Sculptures 1300-1900, Sessie I

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Verbeel jou Landskappe. Skilderye deur Helen Frankenthaler, 1952–1976

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Die J. Paul Getty Museum

Groot fragment, saamgestel uit sewe saamgevoegde fragmente, van 'n rooi figuur hidria (76.AE.88). Dele van die nek, skouer en liggaam van die hidria word bewaar. It depicts most of a youth wearing a petasos and a chlamys, and carrying two spears over his left shoulder. He looks left at a woman, only her head, left shoulder hand, and drapery are preserved. She wears a sakkos with a net pattern and grasps her drapery with her left hand. To the right of the youth is another figure wearing a petasos and facing the other direction. At the transition from the shoulder to the neck is a panel with circumscribed palmettes and lotus buds. Much of the gloss has worn away on some parts. The inside of the neck is also glossed.

Related Works
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Herkoms
Herkoms

Gordon McLendon (Dallas, Texas), donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976.

Uitstallings
Uitstallings
Painting on Vases in Ancient Greece (March 20 to April 22, 1979)
Bibliografie
Bibliografie

Frel, Jiří. "The Kleophrades Painter in Malibu." Die J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 4 (1977). pp. 63-76, p. 76, no. 39.

Frel, Jirí. Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum: January 1 to April 3, 1977, eks. kat. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1977), no. 44.

Frel, Jirí. Painting on Vases in Ancient Greece: a Loan Exhibition from The J. Paul Getty Museum. Exh. cat., Art Gallery, Loyola Marymount University, March 20-April 22, 1979, no. 29.

Prange, Mathias. Der Niobidenmaler und seine Werkstatt: Untersuchung zu einer Vasenwerkstatt frueklassischer Zeit. Frankfurt: 1989, pp. 66, 202, no. N102 pl. 39.

Prange, Mathias. "Der Raub der Leukippiden auf einer Vase des Achilleusmalers," Antike Kunst 35, 1 (1992), pp. 3-17, p. 8, pl. 3, 3, ill.

Hierdie inligting word gepubliseer uit die museum se versamelingsdatabasis. Opdaterings en toevoegings wat voortspruit uit navorsings- en beeldingsaktiwiteite word voortgesit, met nuwe inhoud wat elke week bygevoeg word. Help ons om ons rekords te verbeter deur u regstellings of voorstelle te deel.

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Niobid Painter, - History


MOVEMENT IN STATUES.

No Archaic artist would have known how to combine the two figures into a group so compact, so full of interlocking movements. Strenuous action, of course, had already been investigated in pedimental sculpture of the late Archaic period (see vye. 163 en 164). However, such figures, although technically carved in the round, are not free-standing. They represent, rather, a kind of super-relief, since they are designed to be seen against a background and from one direction only. To infuse the same freedom of movement into genuinely free-standing statues was a far greater challenge. Not only did it run counter to an age-old tradition that denied mobility to these figures, but also the unfreezing had to be done in such a way as to safeguard their all-around balance and self-sufficiency. The problem could not really be tackled until the concept of contrapposto had been established, but once this was done, the solution no longer presented serious difficulties.

Large, free-standing statues in motion are the most important achievement of the Severe style. The finest figure of this kind was recovered from the sea near the coast of Greece (fig. 191): a magnificent nude bronze, almost seven feet tall, probably of Zeus throwing a thunderbolt. Here, stability in the midst of action becomes outright grandeur. The pose is that of an athlete, yet it is not so much the arrested phase of a continuous succession of movements as an awe-inspiring gesture that reveals the power of the god. Hurling a weapon thus becomes a divine attribute here, rather than a specific act aimed at a particular adversary.



191. Zeus, . 460-450 B.C. Bronze, height 6'10" (2.1 m). National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Some years after the Zeus, about 450 B.C., Myron created his famous bronze statue of the Discobolus (Discus Thrower), which came to enjoy a reputation comparable to that of the Doryphorus. Like the latter, it is known to us only from Roman copies (fig. 192). Here the problem of how to condense a sequence of movements into a single pose without freezing it is a much more complex one. It involves a violent twist of the torso in order to bring the arms into the same plane as the action of the legs. The pose conveys the essence of the action by presenting the fully coiled figure in perfect balance. (The copy makes the design seem harsher and less poised than it was in the original.)


192. Discobolus (Discus Thrower).
Roman marble copy after a bronze original of c. 450 v.C. by MYRON.
Lifesize. Museo delle Terme, Rome

CLASSICAL STYLE.

Die Discobolus brings us to the threshold of the second half of the century, the era of the mature Classical style. The conquest of movement in a free-standing statue now exerted a liberating influence on pedimental sculpture as well, endowing it with a new spaciousness, fluidity, and balance. Die Dying Niobid (fig. 193), a work of the 440s, was carved for the pediment of a Doric temple but is so richly three-dimensional, so self-contained, that we hardly suspect her original context. Niobe, according to legend, had humiliated the mother of Apollo and Artemis by boasting of her seven sons and seven daughters, whereupon the two gods killed all of Niobe's children. Our Niobid has been shot in the back while running. Her strength broken, she sinks to the ground while trying to extract the fatal arrow. The violent movement of her arms has made her garment slip off. Her nudity is thus a dramatic device, rather than a necessary part of the story. Die Niobid is the earliest known large female nude in Greek art. The artist's primary motive in devising it was to display a beautiful female body in the kind of strenuous action hitherto reserved for the male nude. Still, we must not misread the intent. It was not a detached interest in the physical aspect of the event alone but the desire to unite motion and emotion and thus to make the beholder experience the suffering of this victim of a cruel fate. Looking at the face of the Niobid, we feel that here, for the first time, human feeling is expressed as eloquently in the features as in the rest of the figure.



193. Dying Niobid. c. 450-440 B.C. Marble, height 59" (150 cm). Museo delle Terme, Rome

A brief glance backward at the wounded warrior from Aegina (fig. 1 63) will show us how very differently the agony of death had been conceived only half a century before. What separates the Niobid from the world of Archaic art is a quality summed up in the Greek word pathos, which means suffering, but particularly suffering conveyed with nobility and restraint so that it touches rather than horrifies us. Late Archaic art may approach it now and then, as in the Eos and Memnon group (fig. 148). Yet the full force of pathos can be felt only in Classical works such as the Niobid. Perhaps, in order to measure the astonishing development we have witnessed since the beginnings of Greek monumental sculpture less than two centuries before, we ought to compare the Niobid with the earliest pedimental figure we came to know, the Gorgon from Corfu (fig. 157). As we do so, we suddenly realize that these two, worlds apart as they may be, do in fact belong to the same artistic tradition, for the Niobid, too, shows the pin wheel stance, even though its meaning has been radically reinterpreted. Once we recognize the ancient origin of her pose, we understand better than before why the Niobid, despite her suffering, remains so monumentally self-contained.



194. Dionysus, from the east pediment of the Parthenon. . 438-432 B.C. Marble, over-lifesize. British Museum, London

PHIDIAS AND THE PARTHENON.

The largest, as well as the greatest, group of Classical sculptures at our disposal consists of the remains of the marble decoration of the Parthenon, most of them, unfortunately, in battered and fragmentary condition. Much of the sculpture was removed between 1801 and 1803 by Lord Elgin the Elgin Marbles are today housed in the British Museum.) The centers of both pediments are gone completely, and of the figures in the corners only those from the east pediment are sufficiently well preserved to convey something of the quality of the ensemble. They represent various deities, most in sitting or reclining poses, witnessing the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus (vye. 194 en 195). (The west pediment was devoted to the struggle of Athena and Poseidon for Athens.) Here, even more than in the case of the Dying Niobid, we marvel at the spaciousness, the complete ease of movement of these statues even in repose. There is neither violence nor pathos in them, indeed no specific action of any kind, only a deeply felt poetry of being. We find it equally in the relaxed masculine body of Dionysus and in the soft fullness of the three goddesses, enveloped in thin drapery that seems to share the qualities of a liquid substance as it flows and eddies around the forms underneath. Though all are seated or half-reclining, the turning of the bodies under the elaborate folds of their costumes makes them seem anything but static. Indeed, the "wet" drapery unites them in one continuous action, so that they seem in the process of arising.



195. Three Goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, . 438-432 B.C. Marble, over-lifesize.
British Museum, London

The figures are so freely conceived in depth that they create their own aura of space. It is hard to imagine them "shelved" upon the pediment. Evidently the great master who achieved such lifelike figures also found this incongruous, for the composition as a whole (fig. 196) suggests that the triangular field is treated as no more than a purely physical limit. For example, two horses' heads are placed in the sharp angles at the corners at the feet of Dionysus and the reclining goddesses. They are meant to represent the chariots of the rising sun and the waning moon emerging into and dipping below the pedimental space, but visually the heads are merely two fragments arbitrarily cut off by the frame. Clearly, we are approaching the moment when the pediment will be rejected altogether as the focal point of Greek architectural sculpture. In fact, the sculptural decoration of later buildings tends to be placed in areas where it would seem less boxed in, as well as more readily visible.


196. JACQUES CARREY. Drawings of the east pediment of the Parthenon. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

The frieze of the Parthenon, a continuous band 525 feet long (fig. 173), shows a procession honoring Athena in the presence of the other Olympic gods. It is of the same high rank as the pedimental sculptures. In a somewhat different way it, too, suffered from its subordination to the architectural setting, for it must have been poorly lit and difficult to see, placed as it was immediately below the ceiling. The depth of the carving and the concept of relief are not radically different from the frieze of the Siphnian Treasury (vye. 160 en 161), but the illusion of space and of rounded form is now achieved with sovereign ease. The most remarkable quality of the Parthenon frieze is the rhythmic grace of the design, particularly striking in the spirited movement of the groups of horsemen (fig. 197).

The metopes, which date from the 440s, are very different in character from the rest of the sculpture on the Parthenon in showing violent action. We have encountered two of the subjects before: the battle of Lapiths and Centaurs, and the combat of the gods and giants (see vye. 147 en 161). It is the other two subjects that provide the key to their meaning. They are the Sack of Troy by the Greeks, and Greeks fighting Amazons, who, according to legend, had desecrated the Acropolis. The entire cycle forms an extended allegory of the Athenian victory over the Persians, who likewise destroyed the Acropolis. But rather than presenting the war as historical fact, the Greek mind insisted on cloaking it in the guise of myth and legend in order to explain the outcome, as if preordained.

Although the metopes do not form a fully coherent program and vary in the quality of their execution, the best of them, such as our scene of a Lapith fighting a Centaur (fig. 198), have a compelling dramatic force that is still grounded in the pediment at Olympia almost 20 years earlier (see fig. 190). Our sculptor has been remarkably successful in overcoming the obstacles presented by the metope. Because it was placed high above the ground where it could barely be seen, the figures fill as much of the limited field as possible and are carved so deeply as to appear nearly in the round. If the action seems somewhat forced in both pose and expression, it has been beautifully choreographed for maximum clarity and impact.


197. Horsemen, from the west frieze of the Parthenon, . 440 v.C. Marble, height 43" (109.3 cm). British Museum, Londen.

198. Lapith and Centaur, metope from the south side of the Parthenon, c. 440 v.C. Marble, height 56" (142.2 cm). British Museum, London


PHIDIAN STYLE.

Who was responsible for this magnificent array of sculptures? They have long been associated with the name of Phidias, the chief overseer of all artistic enterprises sponsored by Pericles. According to ancient writers, Phidias was particularly famous for a huge ivory-and-gold statue of Athena he made for the cella of the Parthenon, a colossal Zeus in the same technique for the temple of that god in Olympia, and an equally large bronze statue of Athena that stood on the Acropolis facing the Propylaea. None of these survives, and small-scale representations of them in later times are utterly inadequate to convey the artist's style. It is hard to imagine that enormous statues of this sort, burdened with the requirements of cult images and the demands of a difficult technique, shared the vitality of the Elgin Marbles. The admiration they elicited may have been due to their size, the preciousness of the materials, and the aura of religious awe surrounding them. Phidias' personality thus remains oddly intangible. He may have been simply a very able coordinator and supervisor, but more likely he was a great genius, comparable to Imhotep , capable of giving powerful expression to the ideas that motivated his patron, Pericles. The term "Phidian style" used to describe the Parthenon sculptures is no more than a generic label undoubtedly, a large number of masters were involved, since the frieze and the two pediments were executed in less than ten years (c. 440-432 B.C.). Albeit of questionable accuracy, it is justified by its convenience. The Phidian ideal was not merely artistic but no doubt extended to life itself: it denotes a distinctive attitude in which the gods are aware of, yet aloof from, human affairs as they fulfill their cosmic roles.

It is hardly surprising that the Phidian style should have dominated Athenian sculpture until the end of the fifth century and beyond, even though large-scale sculptural enterprises gradually came to a halt because of the Peloponnesian War. The last of these was the balustrade erected around the small Temple of Athena Nike about 410-407 B.C. Like the Parthenon frieze, it shows a festive procession, but the participants are winged Nike figures (personifications of victory) rather than citizens of Athens. One Nike (fig. 199) is taking off her sandals in conformity with an age-old tradition, indicating that she is about to step on holy ground . Her wings one open, the other closed are effectively employed to help her keep her balance, so that she performs this normally awkward act with consummate elegance of movement. Her figure is more strongly detached from the relief ground than are those on the Parthenon frieze, and her garments, with their deeply cut folds, cling to the body. (We have seen an earlier phase of this "wet" drapery in the Three Goddesses of the Parthenon, fig. 195.)

"Phidian," too, and also from the last years of the century, is the beautiful Grave Stele of Hegeso (fig. 200). Memorials of this kind were produced in large numbers by Athenian sculptors, and their export must have helped to spread the Phidian style throughout the Greek world. Few of them, however, can match the harmonious design and the gentle melancholy of our example. The deceased is represented in a simple domestic scene that was a standard subject for sculptured and painted memorials of young women. She has picked a necklace from the box held by the girl servant and seems to be contemplating it as if it were a keepsake. The delicacy of the carving can be seen especially well in the forms farthest removed from the beholder, such as the servant's left arm supporting the lid of the jewel box, or the veil behind Hegeso's right shoulder. Here the relief merges almost imperceptibly with the background, so that the ground no longer appears as a solid surface but assumes something of the transparency of empty space. This novel effect was probably inspired by paintings.



199. Nike, from the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, . 410-407 B.C. Marble, height 42" (106.7 cm). Acropolis Museum, Athens.

200. Grave Stele of Hegeso. . 410-400 B.C. Marble, height 59" (150 cm). National Archaeological Museum. Athene


CLASSICAL PAINTING

According to literary sources, Greek painters of the Classical period achieved a great breakthrough in mastering illusionistic space. Alas, we have very few murals or panels to verify that claim. Vase painting by its very nature could echo the new concept of pictorial space only in rudimentary fashion. Still, there are vessels that form an exception to this rule. We find them mostly in the lekythoi (oil jugs) used as funerary offerings. These had a white coating on which the painter could draw as freely and with the same spatial effect as his modern successor using pen and paper. The white ground in both cases is treated as empty space from which the sketched forms seem to emerge if the draftsman knows how to achieve this.

Not many lekythos painters were capable of bringing off the illusion. Foremost among them is the unknown artist, nicknamed the "Achilles Painter," who drew the woman in figuur 201. Although some 25 years older than the Hegeso stele, this vase shows a similar scene, and there is the same mood of "Phidian" reverie, as a woman (perhaps a poetess seeking inspiration) listens to the muse playing her lyre on Mount Helikon accompanied by a nightingale. Our chief interest, however, is in the masterly draftsmanship, With a few lines, sure, fresh, and fluid, the artist not only creates a three-dimensional figure but reveals the body beneath the drapery as well. What persuades us that these shapes exist in depth rather than merely on the surface of the vase? First of all, the command of foreshortening. But the "internal dynamics" of the lines are equally important, their swelling and fading, which make some contours stand out boldly while others merge with one another or disappear into the white ground. The effect is completed by the color, unusually elaborate for a lekythos: vermilion for the himations and the muse's head scarf, ocher for her chiton. The artist has made skillful use of the white ground to enliven the "empty" space by adding an inscription: " Axiopeithes, the son of Alkimachos, is beautiful."

Considering its artistic advantages, we might expect a more general adoption of the white-ground technique. Such, however, was not the case. Instead, from the mid-fifth century on, the impact of monumental painting gradually transformed vase painting as a whole into a satellite art that tried to reproduce large-scale compositions in a kind of shorthand dictated by its own limited technique. The result, more often than not, was spotty and overcrowded.

Even the finest examples suffer from this defect, as we can see in figuur 202, which is taken from a vase produced near the end of the Classical period by an Athenian master known as the "Marsyas Painter." It shows Thetis, who is about to bathe in the sea, being abducted by Peleus as two of her maidservants flee in panic. The main figures are placed on a firm ground-line, with a bit of wavy water in order to suggest the spatial setting of the scene. The others, intended to be farther away, seem suspended in midair. Although the turning poses are a further attempt to create the illusion of space, the effect remains flat and silhouettelike, because of the obtrusive black background. In an attempt to enlarge the color range, the body of Thetis has been painted white, as has that of Eros crowning Peleus. (Her dress has been filled in with green as well.) This expedient, too, fails to solve the problem, since the medium does not permit shading or modeling. Our artist must therefore rely on the network of lines to hold the scene together and create a maximum of dramatic excitement and, being a spirited draftsman, almost succeeds. Still, it is a success at second hand, for the composition must have been inspired by a mural or panel picture. The "Marsyas Painter" is, as it were, battling for a lost cause. We have reached the effective end of Greek vase painting, which disappeared altogether by the end of the century.


201. THE "ACHILLES PAINTER." Muse and Maiden, on an Attic white-ground lekythos. 440-430 B.C. Height 16" (40.7 cm).
Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich

202. THE "MARSYAS PAINTER." Peleus and Thetis, on a Kerch-style pelike. 340 B.C. Height 16W (42.5 cm).
British Museum, London

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wtfdoesitmean: Depicts a wounded bison in a fetal position. Very sensitively created with natural pigments. Some pigments are sprayed on. The world's first "airbrush" painting.

Fettish sized. Sculpted from stone with stone tools yet she is amazingly sensitive and fleshy. Fertility aspects are accentuated and the face, feet, and hands are minimalized, hence the name, "Venus". She and several similar Paleolithic "Venuses" give evidence of the belief in a great goddess and perhaps the existence of matriarchal beliefs in prehistoric culture.

-Megalithic stone post and lintel construction
-The larger stones weigh up to 45-50 tons and were not indiginous to the site!
-Built in the plan of the older timber cromlechs
-Accurately marks the point where the sun rises anualy during the midsummer solstice

Jericho- Great Stone Tower

Jerico may be man's oldest permanent city. It was amazingly sophisticated despite the fact that it was created with stone tools. It was quite self-contained with it's own well and grain silos. Mud brick houses built on oval stone foundations covered about ten acres. A rock-cut ditch and a 5 foot thick stone wall surrounded a population of about 2000 people. The wall was 13 feet high and encompassed a 28 foot stone tower. This tower was 33 feet wide at the base and contained a spiral staircase inside. Thus begins man's long history of monumental stone architecture.

Schematic Plan of Catal Huyuk

Catal Huyuk (uitgespreek Chatall Hooyook) is the second oldest civilized settlement to be excavated. The plan of this city is unusual because there are no streets. Inhabitants of this city walked across timber and rush roofs to get from one point to another. Openings in the roofs were fitted with ladders for access into each house perhaps to keep wild animals out. Ulike Jericho there were no walls or defense towers at Catal Huyuk. The houses were covered with white painted stucco.

Other unusual features of Catal Huyuk are the burial shrines located in the "basement" under each house. Great Goddess figures, bull horns, and painted bulls on the walls were found in these shrines.

stylized massively. rigid. movement.

Signs, consisting of checks, dots, squares, or other arrangements of lines often accompany the pictures of animals. Representations of human hands also are common.

This vase is covered with scenes of offerings for the goddess Inanna. She and the King are shown in the top register.

The front panel of the sound box from the so-called Great Lyre was recovered among grave goods in the royal tomb at Ur. The panel is made of shell and bitumen and is divided into four registers. The top panel is of a male embracing two human headed bulls, the three lower panels show scenes from a funerary banquet in which animals play the roles normally assumed by humans.

In this collection, found in the Abu Temple, there are eight bearded standing male figures, one clean-shaven standing male, one kneeling male, and two standing females. All of the figures display large wide open eyes, many of which are inlaid. Additionally, some of the figure's eyebrows are also inlaid. Males wear fringed skirts and belts and females wear robes with a cloak draped over the left shoulder. All of the figures hold their hands before them, many are clasping a cup. The figures are thought to represent worshippers.

This Akkadian example of a seal impression shows a hero wrestling with a water buffalo (left) and a bull-man struggling with a lion (right). The figures are separated by a tree on a mountain. The hero faces the viewer and dominates the scene. Akkadian seals tend to be arranged into clusters of figures that display physical tension in scenes of active combat.


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Kommentaar:

  1. Maushakar

    Heeltemal reg! Dis hoe Dit Is.

  2. Acharya

    and here there are really cool ones

  3. Shiro

    Jy is baie talentvolle mens



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