Frazer Nash FN20 Tail Turret vir Avro Lancaster

Frazer Nash FN20 Tail Turret vir Avro Lancaster


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Frazer Nash FN20 Tail Turret vir Avro Lancaster


Hierdie foto toon die Frazer Nash FN20 stertoring, soos gebruik op die Avro Lancaster.


Outomatiese geweerlegende rewolwer

Die outomatiese geweer-lê-rewolwer, ook bekend as die Frazer-Nash FN121, was 'n radargerigte, agterste geweer-rewolwer wat op 'n paar Britse bomwerpers vanaf 1944 aangebring is. kon naderende vyandelike vegters opspoor, mik en masjiengewere outomaties aktiveer - in totale duisternis of wolkbedekking indien nodig. Die radarwaarskuwings- en brandbeheerstelsel self was algemeen bekend onder die kodename Village Inn and Z Equipment ", sowel as die reeksnommer TR3548.
Daar word aanvaar dat alle Royal Air Force -bomwerpers en vliegtuie verbonde aan bomwerpervliegtuie IFF -infrarooi lamp in die neus gehad het wat die agterste kanonne in staat sou stel om broedermoord te voorkom. In die praktyk het geallieerde vliegtuie sonder lampe egter dikwels die AGLT -vliegtuig oorgesteek, en selfs wanneer hulle geïnstalleer en in 'n werkende toestand was, was die lamp nie altyd vir kanonniers om verskillende redes sigbaar nie. As gevolg hiervan is die dorp Inn gewoonlik slegs as 'n vroeë waarskuwingstelsel gebruik. Volgens die amptelike geskiedenis van die weermag tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is die outomatiese "blinde skietery" deur die kanonne slegs vier uit elke 1.000 soorte gebruik.

1. Ontwikkeling. (Развитие)
Die stelsel is ontwikkel deur 'n span onder leiding van dr. Philip Dee en ontwerp onder die leiding van hoofontwerper dr Alan Hodgkin, nadat hy vroeg in 1943 'n versoek van die ministerie van lugdienste ontvang het vir so 'n stelsel. Village Inn is ondersoek en getoets in wetenskaplike telekommunikasie die skepping van die Tre by RAF Defford met behulp van die Lancaster merk I reeksnommer ND712 Lancaster merk III JB705 en MK II LL736 en LL737 en daarna in produksie gebring.
Die stelsel bevat 'n sender / ontvanger wat in die navigasie -kompartement geïnstalleer is, wat werk deur 'n koniese skanderingsparaboliese antenne wat aan die agterkant van die rewolwer vasgemaak is. Hy werk op 'n golflengte van 9,1 cm 3 GHz met 'n herhalingsfrekwensie van 660 Hertz. Gebruik die magnetron was CV186 ongeveer 35kW. Elektronika stuur 'n sein terug na die toring, waar dit op 'n katodestraalbuis -CRT -skerm langs die sig, vertoon word, waarvan die beeld op die merk IIC -gyrosig via die deurskynende spieël geprojekteer is.
Aanvanklik is slegs uitgebreide inligting verskaf aan die sender, wat in die kompartement vir die navigators geleë is, en aan die skutter oor die interkom voorgelees, terwyl die skutter voetpedale gebruik om die doelwit op die oë te stel. In produksietoerusting was die proses outomaties; die reikwydte -inligting word elektronies direk in die visier ingevoer, terwyl die navigators slegs 'rapporteer' ten behoewe van die res van die bemanning. Gunner het net met sy wapen in die plek "Blip" in die middel van die toerisme -aantreklikhede gery en op die vuur geskiet toe die afstand gepas was. Wind, koeëlval en ander faktore is reeds op die oog af bereken.
Die eerste eskader wat vir die online dorp Inn gebruik is, was eskader 101 van RAF, gebaseer op Ludford Magna, in die herfs van 1944, kort na nommer 49 in die aanval op Darmstadt op 11 September / 12, 156 en 635 eskaders.
Die dorpshotel het uiteindelik vier handelsmerke vervaardig:
AGLT Mark II (AGLT Марк II) - aangepas, verbeter, Mark I - gou gestaak - ARI 5561.
AGLT Mark III (AGLT Марк III) - skanningsantenne wat op afstand van die rewolwer gemonteer is. Skandeer onafhanklik van toringsbewegings - ARI 5562.
AGLT Mark IV (AGLT Марк IV) - ARI 5632.
AGLT Mark I (AGLT Марк я) - aanvanklike ontwerp - Radioinstallasie in die lug ARI 5559.
Die stelsel is ook geïnstalleer in die toring van roos, ten minste een van Avro Lincoln B. MK. II, hoewel hoeveel nie bekend is nie. Sommige Lincolns is toegerus met 'n Bolton Paul tipe D -sterttoring en het die toerusting aangeskakel.
Hierdie tipe stelsel is vervaardig in die VSA, Emerson Electric St. Louis, Missouri, toe Emerson model III sterttoring toegerus was met APG8 blinde radaropsporing Emerson en geïnstalleer op die Kanadese rede Lancaster KB805. Daar is bevind dat die stelsel geen voordele bo die Britse stelsel inhou nie, en die projek is daarna laat vaar.

  • 'n geweertoring of 'n rewolwer is 'n plek waarvandaan wapens afgevuur kan word wat beskerming, sigbaarheid en 'n vuurkegel bied. 'N Moderne geweertoring is
  • Met 'n geweer lê is die proses om 'n artillerie -stuk of 'n rewolwer, soos 'n geweerhubber of mortier, op land, lug of op see, teen oppervlak- of lugdoelwitte te rig
  • Outomatiese geweer - lê -rewolwer met 'n 3 GHz 9,1 cm radar. Die beeld van die radar se katodestraalbuis is op die rewolwer geprojekteer
  • geweer wat van die individuele torings na 'n sentrale posisie lê, gewoonlik in 'n plotkamer onder wapenrusting, alhoewel individuele geweerhouers en veelwapen torings
  • die rewolwer word beset deur die kanonnier en die eerste laaier en huisves die verskillende brandbeheeroptika, elektromeganiese pistole vir die lê van wapens, die outomatiese dryfmiddel
  • het ontstaan ​​en die hoofgeweer outomaties daarin geslinger, sodat die tenkpersoneel vuur kan terugskiet en dat die sterker frontale rewolwer
  • outomatiese kanon, 'n koaksiale 7,62 mm PKT -masjiengeweer, 'n AT - 5 Spandrel ATGM, sowel as 'n AGS - 17D 30 mm outomatiese granaatwerper. Beperkte getalle is
  • APC -variant kan gewapen wees met torings gewapen met wapens wat wissel van 7,62 mm masjiengeweer, sien variant met BTM - 208 rewolwer tot 20 mm kanon MILAN Anti -tenk
  • vuur vir ontplooiing van die voorste linie. Vliegtuigweerpistole word gewoonlik gemonteer in 'n vinnig deurkruisende rewolwer met 'n hoë hoogte, vir die opsporing van vinnig bewegende
  • tornpjas m 57 75 mm rewolwergeweer model 1957 is in die 1950's vir die Sweedse kusartillerie ontwikkel as 'n ligte en relatief goedkoop geweer wat sou vervang
  • gekanselleer en die rewolwer wat gebruik word op die T22E1 T20E2: 3 duim geweer en torsiestangvering. Voltooi as die T20E3. T20E3: 76 mm geweer- en torsiestangvering
  • op 'n stadium: nr. 23 operasionele opleidingseenheid RAF nr. 1323 outomatiese geweer wat rewolwer vlieg RAF nr. 1409 meteorologiese vlug RAF nr. 1696 bomwerper
  • eenvoudiger as die L7 -geweer, veral die terugslagstelsel
  • volledige T - 55 tenk rewolwer sonder stabilisator, maar toegerus met 'n handbediende ammunisiehysbak, 'n uitlaatbak vir gebruikte kaste en 'n geweerlegging
  • masjiengeweer Binne die rewolwer is die stasies van beide die kanonnier en die bevelvoerder. Die 60 mm outokanon kan vervang word deur 'n verskeidenheid gewere van 25 mm
  • met 45 mm geweer ST - 26 ST staan ​​vir saperniy tenk of ingenieurs tenk - ingenieur tenk 'n brug - tenk gebaseer op die tweekantige T - 26 mod. 1931
  • stelsels, gewoonlik weggesteek in goed gekamoefleerde pantsertorings, byvoorbeeld Sweedse 12 cm outomatiese rewolwergeweer In hierdie lande was die kusartillerie
  • dreadnoughts het twee gewere na 'n rewolwer gehad Een oplossing vir die uitleg van die rewolwer was om drie of selfs vier gewere in elke rewolwer te plaas. Minder torings beteken dat die skip
  • 14 - silinder, 1130 pk radiale vliegtuigmotor Mark 16 1 triple 6 in 47 Turret Amerikaanse vlootgeweer in drievoudige opset, gebruik op ligte kruisers Mark 16 torpedo
  • Die eerste toetsgeweer was 'n nuwe Nordenfelt -weergawe van die Finspong -geweer, waarby 'n semi -outomatiese laaimeganisme gevoeg is. Die toets van hierdie geweer in 1929
  • in 1972. 'n Nuwe tweeman -rewolwer gewapen met 'n 73 mm Zarnitsa semi -outomatiese gladde geweer en 'n 12,7 mm koaksiale swaar masjiengeweer is geïnstalleer. Die oorspronklike
  • Vuurvlieg. Die geweer, 'n aangepaste ontwerp wat spesifiek vir die Firefly vervaardig is, is 90 grade gedraai om in die toring van die Sherman te sit
  • meer effektief. Die FN - 121 was die outomatiese geweertoring AGLT en FN - 120 met Village Inn geweer - radar. Vliegtuie met Village
  • voor. Die BTR - D het geen rewolwer nie, maar is gewapen met twee booggemonteerde masjiengewere PKB en kan toegerus wees met outomatiese granaatwerpers AGS - 17
  • Die brandbeheerstelsel van die PLZ - 45 bevat 'n outomatiese lêstelsel, optiese waarnemingstelsel, geweeroriëntasie en navigasiestelsel, en 'n GPS -ontvanger
  • om die outomatiese mikstelsel te toets, het hulle die uitsette van die radar aan 'n geweertoring vasgemaak uit 'n Boeing B - 29 -bomwerper, die gewere verwyder en vervang
  • aangepas. Aangesien die 2,5 ton pseudo -rewolwer deur die geweerloop beweeg is, het die momentum daarvan geneig om die sig te versteur. Hierdie probleem is in 1939 opgelos
  • rewolwer van die rewolwer. In teenstelling met vorige tenks, wat gewapen was met tenkgewere, was die T - 62 die eerste tenk gewapen met 'n gladde tenkgeweer wat
  • van 'n 12,7 mm masjiengeweer RCWS tot 'n 30 mm kanon rewolwer wat op die dak aangebring is. Outomatiese kanon 30 mm 2A42 koaksiale masjiengeweer 12,7 mm Zastava M02 Coyote
  • met lading en die dop moet afsonderlik gelaai word. Die geweer was voorsien van 'n semi -outomatiese laaistelsel met 'n vuurtempo van 5 7 rondes per minuut

International Bomber Command Center AGLT - Village Inn.

Die outomatiese geweer wat 'n rewolwer lê, ook bekend as die Frazer Nash FN121, was 'n radargerigte, agterste geweertoring wat op 'n paar Britse bomwerpers vanaf 1944 aangebring is. Die Lancaster Operations oor Duitsland - The Aviation Geek Club. Geweer lê is die proses om 'n artillerie stuk of 'n rewolwer te rig, soos 'n geweer. Gunnery Training Ted Church Tail End Charlie. Die FN 121 was die Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, 'n FN 120 wat toegerus was met 'n Village Inn geweer -radar. Vliegtuie met Village Inn was. ZBD05 ZLT05 Gevorderde amfibiese aanvalvoertuie. Die Automatic Gun Leging Turret AGLT was 'n FN121 -rewolwer met 'n radar wat in 1944 op 'n paar Lancaster- en Halifax -bomwerpers aangebring is. Die AGLT -stelsel is ontwerp.

BRM 3K Derivatsiya PVO Glob.

Outomatiese rewolwer -rewolwer. Hoe om outomatiese torings in RUST op te stel - hoe om korrosie -ure te lei. CENTIMETRIC GUN LADING RADAR: SCR 584 Die outomatiese geweerleggingstelsel moes ook onderskei tussen teiken eggo's waarna navorsers 'n prototipe van 'n elektriese aangedrewe B 29 -masjiengeweertoring gekry het. Automatic Gun Leging Turret AGLT was 'n radar wat gerig was op waarneming. Die Automatic Gun Laying Turret of AGLT, kodenaam Village Inn, is nooit heeltemal ontfout nie en het nie wydverspreid gebruik geword nie. HOË HOOGTE. Rusland om die VAE te voorsien van 'n ligte outomatiese geweertoring van AU 220M. Gunnery -kursuswapens wat deurlopende montering en demontage van die outomatiese geweer -rewolwer AGLT oplei, was 'n radar gerig op FN121 -rewolwer.

CPC -definisie B63G AANVALEND OF VERDEDIGEND.

Monteer vir RWS en torings in Julie 2019 in die hoop om 'n meer suksesvolle wapenleggingstelsel te bied. Hierdie outomatiese mikstelsels bevat. AVRO LANCASTER Bewapening Verdedigende bewapening Warbirds. Outomatiese geweerlegging Toring AGLT Ook bekend as Village Inn of Z toerusting. AGLT is 'n sentimetergolf S Band -toerusting wat in swaar bomwerpers geïnstalleer is. Geweer van pedia WordDisk. AGLT - Village Inn - Radome Scanner Die outomatiese geweertoring AGLT was 'n radar gerigte FN121 -rewolwer wat op sommige Lancaster- en Halifax -bomwerpers aangebring is. CRUISER 8 INCH TURRET DEEL 1. Продолжительность: 1:18. Wêreldwye toerustinggids Idaho State University. Doelmasjiengewere, swaar masjiengewere en outomatiese granaatwerpers. Opsies sluit in die Kliver -rewolwer met 'n 30 mm -geweer, 7,62 mm coax MG, termiese toerisme -aantreklikhede, uitstekende dag -traagheidsnavigasie en lê- of back -up lêstelsels. The Village Inn - 460 Squadron 460 Squadron Bomber. AGL Bo die grondvlak AGLT Air to Ground Missile.

Die bemanning en opset van die toekomstige hoofgevegtenk.

Innoverende Lancaster -verdedigingstelsel - The Village Inn - Outomatiese geweer -rewolwer wat ook AGLT genoem word. Avro Lancaster B. Mk VII - binnekort is daar drie! Daaglikse Kos. Die Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, ook bekend as die Frazer Nash FN121, was 'n radargerigte, agterste geweer rewolwer wat op 'n paar Britse bomwerpers uit 1944 aangebring is. Automatic Gun deur Michael Crichton van The Andromeda Strain. Terwyl B63G 6 00 voorsiening maak vir die lê van seemyne ​​of dieptelade, sowel as vir die beheer van die houding of diepte van onderwatervoertuie, bv. outomatiese vlieënier. Toring. Draaibare of draaibare geweer. Umbilical. 'N Kabel of buis.

Gegewens vir outomatiese geweerlegging.

Dit verdeel die rewolwer in sy belangrikste funksionele ruimtes van die geweerkompartement en dit is luike van die bedieningsstasie wat toegang bied tot die noodgeweer. Nash & Thompson FN4A WW2 Tail Gunner Turret YouTube. In meer tale. Konfigureer. Taal, etiket, beskrywing, ook bekend as. Engels. Outomatiese rewolwer -rewolwer. Geen beskrywing gedefinieer nie. Laaste verbeterings in gewere en wapens. Automatic Gun Leging Turret AGLT was 'n radar gerigte stelsel. Dit is bedink om toe te laat dat 'n teiken in totale duisternis opgespoor en afgevuur kan word. Luggeskiedenis.

Tail gunner pedia.

Die APC Turret Gun is 'n volledig outomatiese granaatlanseerder wat op die Dark gemonteer is. Dit het 'n gemiddelde vuurtempo, wat meer as genoeg is om dodelik neer te lê. Gyroskope en die geskiedenis van stabilisering vir afgeleë wapens. 47, KB805 Outomatiese geweerlegging Torentoetse SOC 3.7.47, LL736, LL737, ND712 vir toetse op afstandbeheerde torings, ND823 H2S Mk.VI -proewe, NG408 ,. Mikrogolfradar by oorlog 2 -vektore. Alhoewel dit amptelik die Automatic Gun Laying Turret, of AGLT, genoem is, het dit die Vilage Inn gekodeer, wat ook sy naam gedeel het met 'n beroemde watergat. Slagskip -rewolwer -rangskikking Navsource. Dit beheer die rewolwer se treintoevoer in outomatiese werking, en die geweer lê in die aanwyser van die wyser. Dit vuur alle gewere af deur 'n aangewese plaaslike skakelaar.

Outomatiese geweerleggingstelsel vir selfaangedrewe artillerie Dtic.

Twee AS90 -torings is aangebring op voertuie wat deur OBRUM van Pole gebou is. Vir indirekte afvuur 'n outomatiese geweerleggingstelsel AGLS met elektroniese hoogte en. 1975 Pioneer Award IEEE Xplore. Die bekendstelling van outomatiese laai in Russiese MBT's in die sewentigerjare, en meer, as ons verder wil gaan van die 120 mm tenkgeweer na gewere met behulp van selfs by die kanonnier en die moontlikheid om die geweer outomaties neer te lê, en hierdie ekstra Gelukkig is die die oordrag van die MBT's twee belangrikste bemanningslede van die rewolwer. APC Turret Gun F.E.A.R. Fandom. Die FN 121 was die Automatic Gun Leging Turret AGLT, 'n FN 120 wat toegerus was met Village Inn geweerradar. Bykomende wysigings aan die vliegtuig het hulle toegelaat. Deel F Toringbrandbeheertoerusting Vol 2 Brandbeheer: Hoofstuk 20. Wapen, laai -toestel, rewolwer, vuurbeheerstelsel en ammunisieberging, en is ten volle in werking met 'n rewolwer. Gewig: dwars. Hoogte bereik. Lê stelsel. Bemanning. Ammunisie elektriese semi -outomatiese hidro -pneumaties.

Geweer lê pedia.

Die oorspronklike stertoring was toegerus met vier Browning.303 Mark II -masjiengewere Die FN 121 was die Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, 'n FN 120. BCCardNotes2 GMT -speletjies. En installeer een prototipe Automated Gun Laying System AGLS in 'n reaksie op 'n rewolwer van die rewolwer, verrekening van die kontroleerder en servoklep. Outomatiese granaatlanseerder Artikel oor outomatiese granaat. 1 Die handgranaatlanseerder is 'n ligte draagbare wapen wat tot 15 kg weeg, wat ontwerp is om gepantserde teikens en vyandelike personeel te vernietig.

Waarom het die RAF nie hul WW2 swaar bomwerpers geskiet nie. 303 geweer.

Die outomatiese rewolwer in RUST is die noodsaaklike hulpmiddel vir outomatiese basisverdediging. Sal dit met 'n outomatiese wapen 'n vuurwapen bedek terwyl u toeslaan. UBOAT Algemene besprekings oor die einde van die lyn tegnologie. Airborne Gunlaying in Turrets AGLT. Die gebruik van Village Inn. 11 12 September, 1944 DARMSTADT: Die vorige 5 groepsoperasies teen Darmstadt het plaasgevind. Verenigde State van Amerika 6 47DP 15,2 cm Mark 16 NavWeaps. Die agterste rewolwer was soos pasgemaak vir 'n paar laatoorlogse Lancasters, 'n FN82 2 x 5 ″ Brownings met 'n outomatiese radar -toerusting vir die legging van 'n geweer. Visueel 'n outomatiese rewolwer van 'n geweer. In wese dieselfde 6 47 15,2 cm Mark 16 geweer as gewapen die vorige om die tweeling torings op nuwe skepe te vervang met 'n drievoudige volledig outomatiese DP -montering. Speld op Dare To Discover Pinterest aan. Die roterende rewolwerstruktuur word beskerm deur 'n swaar pantserplaat op die geweerhuis. Semi -outomatiese besproeiingsfasiliteite word voorsien vir geweerkompartemente, hysbakke, ligte stroombane wanneer hul onderskeie geweer op die struktuur van hul eie skepe gelê word.

Avro lancaster Sanitize It Clean.

Vir 'n afstandbeheerde geweerlegging, of een FuG 248 Eule wat op die voor- en agterkant van 3 cm MK 303 Flak geïnstalleer is, werk soortgelyk aan die outomatiese rewolwerstoring, Следующая Войти Настройки. Tail End Charlie The Doric Columns. Laastens vertaal die outomatiese geweerlegging die vuurkoördinate na 'n The BAE Army -vennootskap sal die rewolwerstruktuur en die hoof weer gebruik.

Het gewere, sal opgradeer: die M109A7 Paladin PIM selfaangedrewe.

Outomatiese geweer lê rewolwer pedia. 'N Brandbeheerradar FCR is 'n radar wat spesifiek ontwerp is om hoofsaaklik inligting te verskaf. Brochure van Patria Nemo 120 mm mortierstelsel. Waarom het die RAF nie hul swaar bomwerpers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geskiet nie? AS90 Braveheart 155mm selfaangedrewe Howitzer Army Technology. 'N Outomatiese geweerlegging A.G.L.T. is op 'n aantal FN20 -agtertorings aangebring en was einde 1944 'n baanbreker by die operasie.

Verbeterde Fire Power SPs Land Forces.

Dit was 'n radarleidingstelsel wat in die agterste rewolwerposisie van die Lancaster gebruik is om snags te werk. Die een op die foto is 'n Rose -rewolwer. CRUISER 8 INCH TURRET DEEL 2. Die ZLT05 Tracked amfibiese aanvalsgeweer gebruik 'n effens aangepaste rewolwer uit die wanneer dit gestoor lê oor die boog en gletserplaat wat 'n ander laag van die rewolwer bevat 'n 30 x 165mm outomatiese kanon, koaksiale tipe 80 7,62 x. Gaijin asseblief: Outomatiese geweer -rewolwer as 'n wysiging vir die. Опубликовано: 6 апр. 2016 г. Woordelys Terme 434 Eskader. Outomatiese geweer deur Michael Crichton: 'n Waggeweer wat kan rig en besluit om te skiet Die SCR 584 -lugvliegtuiggeweer wat radar lê, was 'n baie akkurate stelsel, 'n geweertoring uit 'n B 29 -bomwerper, wat die gewere verwyder en vervang. Vrae oor akronieme en kodename, A B Haze Gray & Underway. Politieke eerder as operasionele redes as die van outomatiese geweerlegging vir 'n bomwerper agtertoring. Hierdie sentrale gedeelte van die boek het groot historiese belangstelling vir die.


Inhoud

Oorsprong Avro Lancaster_section_1

In die dertigerjare was die Royal Air Force (RAF) hoofsaaklik geïnteresseerd in tweemotorige bomwerpers. Avro Lancaster_sin_17

Hierdie ontwerpe stel beperkte eise aan die vervaardiging en instandhouding van enjins, wat albei reeds uitgerek is met die bekendstelling van soveel nuwe tipes. Avro Lancaster_sin_18

Kragbeperkings was so ernstig dat die Britte baie belê het in die ontwikkeling van groot enjins in die klas van 2 000 perdekrag (1500 en#160kW) om die prestasie te verbeter. Avro Lancaster_sin_19

Gedurende die laat dertigerjare was nie een hiervan gereed vir produksie nie. Avro Lancaster_sin_20

Sowel die Verenigde State as die Sowjetunie is besig met die ontwikkeling van bomwerpers wat aangedryf word deur reëlings van vier kleiner enjins, en die resultate van hierdie projekte het gunstige eienskappe gehad, soos uitstekende reikafstand en billike hefvermoë. Avro Lancaster_sin_21

Gevolglik het die POF in 1936 ook besluit om die haalbaarheid van die viermotorige bomwerper te ondersoek. Avro Lancaster_sin_22

Die oorsprong van die Lancaster spruit uit 'n tweemotorige bomwerperontwerp wat ingedien is in reaksie op spesifikasie P.13/36, wat gedurende die middel dertigerjare deur die Britse lugministerie geformuleer en vrygestel is. Avro Lancaster_sin_23

Hierdie spesifikasie het gesoek na 'n nuwe generasie tweemotorige medium bommenwerpers wat geskik is vir 'wêreldwye gebruik'. Avro Lancaster_sin_24

Verdere vereistes van die spesifikasie sluit in die gebruik van 'n middel-gemonteerde cantilever monoplane wing, geheel-metaal konstruksie, die aanneming van die Rolls-Royce Vulture-enjin in ontwikkeling is ook aangemoedig ". Avro Lancaster_sentence_25

Verskeie kandidate is deur die vervaardigers vir die spesifikasie ingedien, soos Fairey, Boulton Paul, Handley Page en Shorts. Alle voorleggings is ontwerp met twee-enjin-konfigurasies met behulp van die Rolls-Royce Vulture, Napier Saber, Fairey P.24 of Bristol Hercules enjins. Avro Lancaster_sin_26

Die meerderheid van hierdie enjins was op hierdie stadium in ontwikkeling, terwyl vier-motorige bomwerperontwerpe oorweeg is vir spesifikasie B.12/36 vir 'n swaar bomwerper. Aircraft Establishment (RAE), die gevolglike toename in die totale gewig van die aanvaarding van 'n sterker vleuel, het ook 'n verdere versterking van die algehele vliegtuigstruktuur genoodsaak. Avro Lancaster_sin_27

In reaksie hierop het die Britse lugvaartonderneming Avro besluit om sy eie ontwerp, die Avro 679 aangewys, in te dien om aan die spesifikasie P.13/36 te voldoen. Avro Lancaster_sin_28

In Februarie 1937, na oorweging van die ontwerpe deur die ministerie van lugdienste, is Avro se ontwerpvoorlegging gekies saam met die bod van Handley Page as 'tweede string'. Avro Lancaster_sin_29

Gevolglik is 'n paar prototipes van albei ontwerpe gedurende April 1937 bestel. Avro Lancaster_sin_30

Die gevolglike vliegtuig, genaamd die Manchester, het RAF -diens in November 1940 betree. Avro Lancaster_sentence_31

Alhoewel dit in die meeste gebiede as 'n bekwame vliegtuig beskou word, blyk dit dat die Manchester ondermagtig en ontsteld was oor die onbetroubaarheid van die Vulture -enjin. Avro Lancaster_sentence_32

As gevolg hiervan is slegs 200 manchesters gebou en die tipe is vinnig in diens geneem in 1942. Avro Lancaster_sentence_33

Vlugtoetsing Avro Lancaster_section_2

Reeds middel 1940 het Avro se hoofontwerpingenieur, Roy Chadwick, gewerk aan 'n verbeterde Manchester-ontwerp. Avro Lancaster_sin_34

Hierdie herontwerp is aangedryf deur vier van die meer betroubare, maar minder kragtige Rolls-Royce Merlin-enjins, wat spesifiek die vorm aanneem van die Merlin "Power Plant" -installasies wat deur Rolls-Royce ontwikkel is vir die vroeëre Beaufighter II, geïnstalleer op 'n groter vleuel . Avro Lancaster_sin_35

Aanvanklik is die verbeterde vliegtuig aangewys as die Type 683 Manchester III wat dit later as die Lancaster herdoop het. Avro Lancaster_sin_36

Die prototipe vliegtuig, reeksnommer BT308, is saamgestel deur die Avro -eksperimentele vlugafdeling op die Ringway -lughawe, Manchester, die prototipe is opgebou uit 'n produksie -Manchester -vliegtuigraamwerk, wat gekombineer is met 'n nuwe vleuel sentrumgedeelte wat ontwerp is vir die bykomende enjins. Avro Lancaster_sin_37

Op 9 Januarie 1941 toetsvlieënier H. A. Avro Lancaster_sentence_38

"Sam" Brown het die eerste vlug van die prototipe uitgevoer in RAF Ringway, Cheshire. Avro Lancaster_sin_39

Vlugtoetse van die nuwe vliegtuig het vinnig bewys dat dit 'n aansienlike verbetering was van die vorige lugvaartskrywer Jim Winchester, wat na die Lancaster verwys het as 'een van die min oorlogsvliegtuie in die geskiedenis wat van die begin af' reg 'was. Avro Lancaster_sin_40

Die eerste prototipe was aanvanklik toegerus met 'n stert-uitleg met drie vinne, omdat die ontwerp van die Manchester I aangepas is, dit is vinnig hersien op die tweede prototipe, DG595, en die daaropvolgende produksie Lancasters tot die bekende groter elliptiese tweevoudige stert eenheid wat ook aangeneem is vir die later geboude Manchesters, en die stomp sentrale derde stertvin weggegooi het. Avro Lancaster_sin_41

Die aanneming van die vergrote tweevinne het nie net verhoogde stabiliteit nie, maar het ook voorsiening gemaak vir 'n groter vuurveld vanuit die posisie van die dorsale geweer. Avro Lancaster_sentence_42

Die tweede prototipe is ook toegerus met 'n kragtiger Merlin XX -enjin. Avro Lancaster_sentence_43

Sommige van die latere bestellings vir Manchesters is omgeskakel ten gunste van die Lancaster. Beide bomwerpers het verskillende ooreenkomste en het identiese ontwerpkenmerke, soos dieselfde kenmerkende kweekhuis -kajuit, rewolwerneus en tweelingstert. Avro Lancaster_sin_44

Die ontwerpe was so soortgelyk dat 'n hele groep gedeeltelik geboude Manchesters eerder as Lancaster B I -vliegtuie voltooi is. Avro Lancaster_sin_45

Op grond van die prestasie daarvan, is daar vroeg reeds besluit om tweemotorige bomwerper-eskaders so vinnig as moontlik met die Lancaster toe te rus. Avro Lancaster_sin_46

In Oktober 1941 het die eerste produksie Lancaster, L7527, aangedryf deur Merlin XX -enjins, sy eerste vlug uitgevoer. Avro Lancaster_sentence_47

Produksie Avro Lancaster_section_3

Avro het 'n aanvanklike kontrak vir 1 070 Lancasters gekry. Avro Lancaster_sin_48

Die meerderheid Lancasters wat gedurende die oorlogsjare vervaardig is, is deur Avro in sy fabriek in Chadderton naby Oldham, Greater Manchester, gebou en is vanaf die Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire getoets. Avro Lancaster_sentence_49

Aangesien vinnig besef is dat die kapasiteit van Avro oorskry word deur die vraag na die tipe oorlog, is besluit om die Lancaster Aircraft Group te vorm, wat bestaan ​​uit 'n aantal maatskappye wat die vervaardiging van die tipe onderneem het, óf self primêre montering uitgevoer het óf verskillende onderafdelings vervaardig het. komponente vir die ander deelnemende vervaardigers. Avro Lancaster_sin_50

Benewens Avro, is verdere Lancasters gebou deur Metropolitan-Vickers (1 080, ook getoets by Woodford) en Armstrong Whitworth. Avro Lancaster_sin_51

Hulle is ook vervaardig by die Austin Motor Company-werke in Longbridge, Birmingham, later in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en na-oorlog deur Vickers-Armstrongs in Chester sowel as by die Vickers Armstrong-fabriek, Castle Bromwich, Birmingham. Avro Lancaster_sin_52

Die vliegtuigfirma Short Brothers in Belfast het ook 'n bestelling vir 200 Lancaster B Is ontvang, maar dit is gekanselleer voordat enige vliegtuie voltooi is. Avro Lancaster_sin_53

Slegs 300 van die Lancaster B II, wat toegerus was met Bristol Hercules -enjins, is gebou. Dit is gemaak as 'n stop -gap -aanpassing as gevolg van 'n tekort aan Merlin -enjins as gevolg van die vervaardiging van vegvliegtuie op daardie tydstip. Avro Lancaster_sin_54

Die Lancaster is ook oorsee vervaardig. Avro Lancaster_sin_55

Gedurende begin 1942 is besluit dat die bomwerper in Kanada vervaardig moet word, waar dit deur Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario, vervaardig is. Avro Lancaster_sin_56

Van latere variante is slegs die in Kanada vervaardigde Lancaster B X in groot getalle vervaardig. Avro Lancaster_sin_57

Altesaam 430 van hierdie tipe is gebou, vroeëre voorbeelde verskil weinig van hul voorgangers in die Britse gebou, behalwe vir die gebruik van Packlin-geboude Merlin-enjins en Amerikaanse instrumente en elektrisiteit. Avro Lancaster_sin_58

In Augustus 1942 is 'n Britse geboude Lancaster B I, R5727, as 'n patroonvliegtuig na Kanada gestuur, wat die eerste van die tipe was wat 'n transatlantiese kruising uitgevoer het. Avro Lancaster_sin_59

Die eerste Lancaster wat in Kanada vervaardig is, is die naam "Ruhr Express". Avro Lancaster_sin_60

Die eerste groep Kanadese Lancasters wat aan Engeland afgelewer is, het gebrekkige ailerons gehad. Avro Lancaster_sentence_61

Fabrieke Avro Lancaster_section_4

Vervaardiger Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_0 Ligging Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_1 Koördineer Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_2 Aantal vervaardigde Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_3
A. V. Roe Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_0 Woodford Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_2 2.978 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_3
Chadderton Avro Lancaster_cell_1_2_0 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_2_1
Yeadon Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_0 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_1 695 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_2
Armstrong Whitworth Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_0 Whitley Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_2 1 329 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_3
Austin Motors Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_0 Longbridge Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_2 330 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_3
Marston Green Avro Lancaster_cell_1_6_0 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_6_1
Metropolitan-Vickers Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_0 Trafford Park Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_2 1 080 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_3
Vickers Armstrong Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_0 Castle Bromwich Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_2 300 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_3
Chester Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_0 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_1 235 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_2
Victory Aircraft Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_0 Malton (Kanada) Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_1 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_2 430 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_3

Verdere ontwikkeling Avro Lancaster_section_5

Die Lancaster B I is nooit heeltemal in produksie vervang deur 'n opvolgermodel nie, wat tot Februarie 1946 in produksie bly. Avro Lancaster_sentence_62

Volgens lugvaartskrywers Brian Goulding en M. Garbett het die Lancaster BI gedurende die produksieleeftyd min verander, gedeeltelik as gevolg van die goeie basiese struktuur en ontwerp van die sigbare veranderings, is die syvensters van die romp verwyder, die Perspex-ken van die bom-doelwagter is vergroot, en 'n groter astrodoom is voorsien. Avro Lancaster_sin_63

Verskeie ekstra stampe en blase is ook bygevoeg, wat gewoonlik radar -toerusting en radionavigasiehulpmiddels bevat. Avro Lancaster_sentence_64

Sommige bomwerpers van Lancaster B I was toegerus met borreldeure wat toegerus was om groter vragmateriaal te bewaar. Avro Lancaster_sin_65

Die vroeë produksie van Lancaster B Is was toegerus met 'n ventrale geweertoring. Avro Lancaster_sin_66

In reaksie op terugvoer oor die gebrek aan toepassing vir die ventrale rewolwer, is die ventrale rewolwer in die loop van elke vliegtuig se loopbaan dikwels uitgeskakel. Avro Lancaster_sin_67

Terwyl sommige groepe verkies het om die posisie heeltemal weg te gooi, is verskillende proewe en eksperimente uitgevoer in RAF Duxford, Cambridgeshire en deur individuele eskaders. Avro Lancaster_sin_68

'N Totaal van 50 Austin-geboude Lancaster B Is is volgens 'n nie-standaard opset gebou, met 'n Frazer Nash-rewolwer direk bokant die bombaai geïnstalleer. Avro Lancaster_sentence_69

Verskeie ander rewolwerkonfigurasies is deur individuele eskaders aangeneem, waaronder die verwydering van verskillende kombinasies van torings. Avro Lancaster_sentence_70

Die Lancaster B III word aangedryf deur Packard Merlin -enjins, wat in die Verenigde State oorsee gebou is, maar andersins identies was aan die hedendaagse B Is. Avro Lancaster_sentence_71

In totaal is 3,030 B III's gebou, byna almal by Avro se fabriek in Newton Heath. Avro Lancaster_sin_72

The Lancaster B I and B III were manufactured concurrently and minor modifications were made to both marks as further batches were ordered. Avro Lancaster_sentence_73

The B I and B III designated was effective interchangeable simply by exchanging the engines used, which was occasionally done in practice. Avro Lancaster_sentence_74

Examples of modifications made include the relocation of the pitot head from the nose to the side of the cockpit and the change from de Havilland "needle blade" propellers to Hamilton Standard or Nash Kelvinator made "paddle blade" propellers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_75


Sperry Ball Turret for Avro Lancaster? (1 Viewer)

Does anyone know if AVROs ever did any testing of adding an American Sperry Ball type ventral turret to the Lancaster? Eventually a Martin mid upper turret was adopted.

Considering that the periscopic ventral turret was a failure the manned Sperry turret would seem to be an obvious choice. It certainly would have been a surprise to your jaded German Ju88G6 pilot.

Airframes

Benevolens Magister

Timshatz

Chief Master Sergeant

Tomo pauk

Creator of Interesting Threads

Lordish

Werf

I don't think weight overall would be a problem. After all the Lanc could carry Grand Slam. By looking at the pictures (I'm an aircraft mechanic) I'd think the big problem would be either center of gravity or where to put the main attachment for the shaft the bottom of which the turret rested. In any event it would have to have been the retractable version of the turret because if it were in firing position, I'm pretty sure the tail wheel wouldn't have touched the ground.

Let me check around on the history of the turret itself.

Kration

Airman

EDIT 2: - just reread the first post and it does refer to the periscope turrets! But, thought I'd leave my post here as it raises a couple of points.

I'm not sure about the Halifax, but the initial versions of the Short Stirling had a ventral turret which I think was remotely controlled? (and apparently the Wellington too! - see below). I've always been puzzled as to why they were removed as the lack of belly cover was an obvious weakness in defensive fire. They were replaced by guns in side windows, but I'm not sure how effective they would have been!

EDIT: I'd be interested see a close-up pic or diagram which showed the FB25 turret - my cursory internet search couldn't find anything.

This quote below explains it pretty well:

"The Stirling Mk I Series I carried three Frazer Nash gun turrets – the two gun FN5A in the nose, the four gun FN4A turret at the rear and a two gun retractable FB25A ventral turret underneath the aircraft, each using the standard .0303in machine gun. The ventral turret was not a success. It had a tendency to lower itself when the aircraft taxied, suffered from poor visibility, and slowed the aircraft by around 10 mph (the same problems had caused the removal of a similar turret from the early Wellington bombers).

The main change made for the Series II Stirling was the removal of the FN25A ventral turret. Provision was instead made to carry two .303in Browning machine guns in side windows in the fuselage (just as in the Wellington). The FN4A turret at the rear was also replaced by the superior FN20A, also with four .303in machine guns."


TalkingScot.com

Alcluith - as promised in the "tennis" post, here's the information I've managed to find about Allan Henry Ross. I was amazed how easy it was to find this once I started looking - and so far it hasn't cost me anything! [Allan would have been by great uncle (my grandfather's half-brother)]. As yet I have not had to pay anything for this information (other than the cost of the books I bought to get some background about the RAF and the times).

Allan Henry Ross was born in 1922 in Edinburgh (edit: in fact born in Rothesay and moved to Edinburgh as young boy) and died on the night of 30th March 1944, whilst on the infamous Nuremberg raid. I've been able to find out, from his service number from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission web site, and where and when he joined up (Edinburgh Feb 1942 - from another web site - details of which I failed to keep!) and that he joined the RAFVR. He eventually was attached to 101 Squadron as F/S (Air Bomber).

Allan died on his 20th mission in DV276 (SR-R) on a Lancaster flying from Ludford Magna (known to those posted there as Mudford Magna - excessive mud when it rained, which was often). I've been able to trace information about 101 Sqdn from 1939 until the end of WW2.

From another web site I was able to find out that his plane began their bombing run at around 01:28 on the night of 30/31 March over Nuremberg and that his plane was the sixth (of seven lost that night by 101 Sqdn) to be shot down. There were 95 planes lost that night each carrying either 7 or 8 crew (depending on whether they were ABC planes or not). Allan was in a crew of 8 as his plane was ABC - the squadron converted in October 1943.

I have been able to find the names of the young men he was flying with (from another web page). Update: 14/7/08 From a contact on RAFCommands, I've now got the complete crew lists for the twenty missions he flew between December 1943 and March 1944. The lady I was in touch with has the ORBs (Operational Record Books) for 101 Squadron because her father flew with them at the same time Allan was there. Thanks Leslie and also Robin.

Sources I've found very helpful in my search:-
http://www.rafcommands.currantbun.com/home.html - contains information about all the RAF Sqds.

Two books by Kevin Wilson: Bomber Boys and Men of Air one book by John Nicholl and Tony Rennell. These three books were immensely readable and contained firsthand accounts and memories of those who survived the air bombing war in Europe between 1939 and 1945.

Things I still would like to find out if I can:-
What exactly was an air bomber? 14/7/08 Thanks to Alcuith I now know this!
Which other missions would he have been on? Most likely he became operational around Jan/Feb 1944 at the latest because he was on his 5th flight when he went down. 14/7/08 - I now have this information and will now try to find out where he did his training before joining the ABCs on 101 Squadron.
Where did Allan train? (I suspect it was in Canada - need to check with my mum to see if she can remember anything - although she was only about 7 at the time). I now know that Allan WAS in Canada training and have managed to track down two photos. I also now know that he was at 1656 Heavy Conversion Unit before joining 101 Squadron.

If you've taken the time to read this - thank you!

PS : Had some great help from two people I made contact with through the web pages for 156 Squadron.

Plaas deur AndrewP » Tue Jul 01, 2008 10:28 pm

He is also listed on the Scottish National War Memorial website.

Surname : ROSS
Firstname : Allan Henry
Service number : 1344679
Date of death : 31/03/1944
Place of birth : Rothesay
SNWM roll : ROYAL AIR FORCE and DOMINION AIR FORCES
Rank : Flt Sgt
Theatre of death : R.A.F.V.R. V.C.

They have his birthplace as Rothesay rather than Edinburgh as you have found elsewhere.

I read online that Dominion Air Forces were from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

Plaas deur Liz Turner » Tue Jul 01, 2008 10:43 pm

My error - my gt grandfather was the headmaster at Rothesay Academy and you're right Allan was born in Rothesay. The family moved to Edinburgh when his father retired, and Allan joined up from there. I'm annoyed with myself for not keeping a note of the web page I found which can tell people where a service member joined up (and in which month) based on their service number. I thought I'd book-marked it but didn't

Plaas deur Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 9:23 am

You have gathered quite a lot already well done, it's a minefield regarding the records.

The information on the Lost Bombers site gives you a lot of information previous missions, including who shot them down and how many hours (95 hrs) the aircraft had been flying etc.

Having his service number and provided you or your mum is the surviving next of kin you can get his service records which should tell you where he trained and when he was attached to 101 Sqn but very little else and at £30.00 might not be worth getting.
Then there are the operational records for Ludford Magna. which should tell you what missions DV276 was on.
It's likely Allan would have flown 5 previous missions as stated and possible some training flights as well.

With the information from the Lost Bombers I am sure you can get a lot more

Have a little look at http://www.lancastermuseum.ca/ quite interesting as a general view of the Lancaster.

http://raf-lincolnshire.info/ gives some info on Ludford Magna and 101 Sqn memorials.

with respect to the crew:
"
In a standard Lancaster as used in the war, the crew were accommodated as follows: starting at the nose, the bomb aimer had two positions to man. His primary location was lying prone on the floor of the nose of the aircraft, where he had access to the controls for the bombsight head in front, with the bombsight computer on his left and bomb release selectors on the right. Hy sou ook sy uitsig uit die groot deursigtige perspex -neuskoepel gebruik om die navigator te help met kaartlees. To man the Frazer Nash FN5 nose turret, he simply had to stand up and he would be in position behind the triggers of his twin Browning .303 guns. Die posisie van die bom se doelwit bevat die neusvalskermuitgang in die vloer.

Agteruit, op die dak van die bombaai, sit die vlieënier en vlugingenieur langs mekaar onder die uitgestrekte afdak, terwyl die vlieënier links op 'n verhoogde gedeelte van die vloer sit. The flight engineer sat on a collapsible seat (known as a 'second dicky seat') to the pilot's right, with the fuel selectors and gauges on a panel behind him and to his right.

Agter hierdie bemanningslede, en agter 'n gordyn om die lig te laat werk, sit die navigator. His position had him facing to port with a large chart table in front of him. 'N Instrumentpaneel met die lugsnelheid, hoogte en ander besonderhede wat nodig is vir navigasie, is aan die kant van die romp bo die grafiek tabel gemonteer.

Die radio's vir die draadlose operateur is aan die linkerkant van die kaarttafel gemonteer, na die agterkant van die vliegtuig. Agter hierdie radio's, vorentoe, op 'n sitplek aan die voorkant van die hoofspat, sit die draadlose operateur. Links van hom was 'n venster, en bo hom was die astrodoom, wat gebruik word vir visuele sein en ook deur die navigator vir hemelse navigasie.

Agter die draadlose operateur was die twee sparre vir die vleuel, wat 'n groot struikelblok vir bemanningslede geskep het, selfs op die grond. By die einde van die bombaai val die vloer tot onder in die romp, en die middelste boonste skut se Frazer Nash FN50- of FN150 -rewolwer is bereik. His position allowed a 360° view over the top of the aircraft, with two Browning .303 guns to protect the aircraft from above and to the side.

Aan die agterkant van die rewolwer was die sypersoneeldeur aan die stuurboordkant van die romp. Dit was die hoofingang van die vliegtuig en kan ook as valskermuitgang gebruik word. At the extreme rear of the aircraft, over the spars for the tailplane, the rear gunner sat in his exposed position in the FN20, FN120 or Rose Rice turret. In the FN20 and FN120 turrets he had four Browning .303 guns, and in the Rose Rice turret he had two .50 Brownings. Neither of the mid upper or rear gunner's positions were heated, and the gunners had to wear electrically heated suits to prevent hypothermia and frostbite. Many rear gunners insisted on having nearly all perspex removed from the turret to give a completely unobstructed view."

If you can find what Allan duties ere then you can see where he was positioned from above.


"At this point the Sqn specialised in a variety of Electronic Warfare roles. The first of these was the Monica active RDF system, fit in Jul 1943. This was followed by the passive Boozer radar warning receiver in Aug 1943. In Oct 1943 the airborne VHF comms jammer known as ABC (Airborne Cigar) was used on operations against Stuttgart. 101 Sqn's ABC-equipped Lancaster provided a crucial offensive electronic warfare capability to Bomber Command during strategic bombing operations. 101 Sqn was directed by HQ to have 10 ABC aircraft available on each day bombing ops were to take place. The intensity of ABC operations continued until Oct 1944 when Command informed 14 Base HQ at Ludford Magna that no more ABC equipment would be supplied to 101 Sqn as the Electronic Countermeasure mission was handed over to 100 Gp. However 100 Gp was overtasked and 101 Sqn continued to fly ABC missions up to Apr 1945. The Sqn flew just under 2500 ABC missions during World War II."

The german pilot who shot them down survived the war and there may be more information on him and the incident on some german WWII websites.

It all depends where you want to go.

I would be happy to assist you more either posting here as I find information or off forum to allow yo to decide what you want to post.

Lug bomwerper

Plaas deur Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 11:00 am

"With its distinctive twin-tail fin and four Merlin engines, the Lancaster carried a crew of seven: pilot, navigator, flight engineer, bomb aimer (doubled as front gunner), wireless operator, mid-upper and rear gunners. Irrespective of rank, the pilot was the commanding officer."

The eighth man was the operator of the ABC Jamming (Airborne Cigar).
Allan would have been the bomber doubling up as front gunner as above. Not sure if these ABC Lancaster actually bombed or just there to jam all enemy aircraft communications (will come back on this).

Therefore Allan would likely be on front gun duty until approaching target then he would take over the role of bomber, then back to front gunner on return trip after raid. (if they didn't bomb I am assuming he would stay as front gunner during the raid).

The crews were invariably in their early twenties. A crew member as old as twenty-five would be regarded as ancient.

Bombing or not

Plaas deur Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 11:33 am

to answer my previous doubt:

They did bomb with reduced payload and interestingly the eight man was a German speaker see explanation below:

"Much of the history of the secret telecommunications war against the Germans during the Second World War is still classified and shrouded in mystery, including the Radio Counter Measures (RCM) of RAF Squadron 101. Originally founded at Farnborough in 1917 as part of the RFC, Squadron 101 served as a night-bomber squadron on the Western Front, [1] was demobilized after the Armistice and re-formed at Bircham Newton in 1928. By 15 June 1943 it was based at Ludford Magna, near Louth in Lincolnshire, as part of No. 1 Group, Bomber Command, having already taken part, for instance, in the 1000-bomber raids on Germany, attacks on Italian targets and, soon after, the raid on the V1 sites at Peenemunde in August 1943.

At Ludford a far more dangerous task was assigned the squadron. Many Allied bombers were falling victim to German night-fighters guided by ground controllers scrutinizing radar screens. [2] An Allied counter-measure named ‘Window’ partially upset this, but the Luftwaffe responded by coordinating the commentaries of several controllers at different locations, and delegating overall command to a single master controller who guided the night-fighters towards the Allied aircraft. The British Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) at Malvern developed a response to this that was tested by 101 Squadron. It was called ‘Airborne Cigar’, or ABC, a battlefield version of ‘Ground Cigar’, [3] and its original code name was ‘Jostle’. [4] Using a receiver and three 50-watt [5] T.3160-type transmitters, the German VHF frequency – and language - was identified and then jammed. [6] The jamming caused a loud and constantly varying note running up and down the scale of the relevant speech channel. [7]

For this purpose, a German-speaking eighth crew member was included in the crew of especially fitted Lancaster bombers. He was known as the Special Duty Operator, ‘Spec. Op.’, or SO. All were volunteers from various aircrew trades. Since the enemy often gave phoney instructions to divert the jammers, it was essential that they know German reasonably well. In addition, if the Germans changed frequencies the SO would have to be skillful enough to do likewise. [8] The SO had to recognize German codewords – such as Kapelle, for ‘target altitude’ - and log any German transmissions for passing on to Intelligence at the post-flight debriefing. Jewish veteran Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple recalls the Germans trying to distract the SOs [9] by using screaming female voices or martial music. Some sources allege that the SOs were trained in ‘verbal jamming’, that is giving false information in German, but this was very little used. [10]

After trials on 4-6 September 1943, the first operational use of ABC was on a raid over Hanover on 22 September, although other sources mention the night of 7-8 October. [11] The system worked, but the first aircraft using it was lost the following night on another raid. More Lancasters were modified, and by the end of October most of the squadron had been fitted with ABC. The only signs of special equipment were two 7-foot aerials on top of the Lancaster fuselage, another below the bomb-aimer’s window and a shorter receiver at the top-rear of the fuselage. Because of the weight of the radio equipment and extra crew member the aircraft had a reduced bomb load of 1000 lbs.

The SO sat just aft of the main spar on the port side of the aircraft, immediately above the bomb bay, at a desk with three transmitters and a cathode-ray screen. He was cut off completely from the rest of the crew except for his intercom, and was in darkness with no window to observe what was going on. His nearest human contact were the boots of the mid-upper gunner, 4 feet away. In order to avoid distraction the intercom had to be switched off, and only a red ‘call light’, operated by the pilot, was available should there be an emergency. [12] Since there was no room for the SO in the heated forward section of the Lancaster, he, like the mid-upper and rear gunners, had to wear bulky electric suits, slippers and gloves, dangerous if a rushed exit were required. At 20,000 feet over Europe in winter, temperatures often fell to minus 50 C, so the SO would have to wear gloves even though these made it difficult to operate switches. He would lose the skin of his fingers if he attempted to touch metal without them. [13] It was common to have to pull off chunks of frozen condensation from oxygen masks during the flight. [14] The concentrated work of jamming kept the SO’s minds off minor discomforts for most of the flight. [15]

From October 1943 until the end of the war all main-force attacks on German targets were accompanied by Lancasters of 101 Squadron, sometimes up to twenty-seven in one raid. The ABC aircraft were stationed in pairs at regular intervals in the bomber stream so that if one were shot down, other parts of the stream would still be covered. [16] As losses mounted it was thought that German fighters were homing in on ABC aircraft, but no definite evidence for this has been found. However, on 18 November Flying Officer McManus’s Lancaster was brought down over Berlin and examined by the Germans, so it is possible that German ground stations knew enough to vector their fighters onto the Lancasters when ABC was transmitting, making them more vulnerable than other aircraft. [17] SO veteran Ken Lewis, DFM, [18] described how the SOs were nicknamed ‘Jo’s or ‘Jonah’s’ by the other crew members, alluding to the storm unleashed by the biblical character on the ship in which he was a passenger. On the other hand, the losses could have been caused by the rise in 101 participation on raids.

The Special Operators included a high proportion of German-speaking Jewish refugees who were especially at risk if captured, as were any of their surviving families in the Reich. One source tells of a crew member who committed suicide when captured by the Germans, [19] perhaps for this reason. There were also British and Commonwealth Jewish RAF personnel, many of whom spoke German or Yiddish at home. Special Operator 1811224 A. J. H. Clayton was captured on the night of 30 March 1944 when his Lancaster was shot down and was probably tortured to death for information on the SOs. [20] Some allege that the SOs were never to be questioned by the rest of the crew about their work. [21]

The Squadron’s casualties were enormous. Between 18 November 1943 and 24 March 1944, for example, seventeen aircraft of 101 Squadron were lost in battles over Berlin. In the Nuremberg raid, five crew members of one Lancaster were lost, including Flying Officer Norman Marrian, the SO, who was badly wounded by friendly fire from a Halifax. He had baled out, but was found dead, suspended by his harness from a tree, two days later, [22] according to a survivor, Sergeant Don Brinkhurst, mid-upper gunner. [23] Sergeant Luffman describes how an SO’s parachute failed to open fully and he died of his injuries. [24] A further four planes were lost over Nuremberg, making six in all, almost one-third of the surviving Squadron. An additional five were lost in the successful raids running up to D Day over France. But only one was lost on D Day itself, when twenty-four Lancasters of 101 helped deceive the enemy into thinking the landing was to take place in the Pas de Calais by forming an ABC barrier between the Normandy beaches to the south and the German fighter bases in Holland and Belgium to the north. Other aircraft simulated airborne landings elsewhere and jammed enemy radars. Countless lives were saved in this ‘Battle of the Ether’, fought by a squadron of which the motto was appropriately Mens Agitat Molem, ‘Mind over matter’. [25]

Maybe its time to take this off post as too much information for site.
maybe you could follow up with digest of findings.

If you make contact though PM I will sent you any more I find by email rather than posting it


Kyk die video: Low Lancaster Bomber Landing Over British Airshow Fans


Kommentaar:

  1. Asfour

    Really strange

  2. Royall

    Ek vra om verskoning dat ek ingryp, maar jy kon nie 'n bietjie meer inligting gee nie.

  3. Duggan

    Ek vra om verskoning, ek kan niks help nie. Maar dit is verseker dat jy die regte besluit sal vind. Moenie wanhoop nie.

  4. Denzil

    Jy is nie reg nie. Skryf in PM, ons sal praat.

  5. Hwertun

    Ek vra om verskoning, maar na my mening is u verkeerd. Skryf vir my in PM.

  6. Misu

    Ek sluit aan. So gebeur. Kom ons bespreek hierdie vraag.

  7. Meztirg

    Baie goeie idee



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