Slag van Nashville

Slag van Nashville


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In die Slag van Nashville, wat van 15 Desember tot 16 Desember 1864 tydens die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog (1861-65) plaasgevind het, is die eens magtige Konfederale Weermag van Tennessee byna vernietig toe 'n leër van die Unie onder leiding van generaal George Thomas (1816) -70) oor die Rebel -loopgrawe rondom Nashville.

Slag van Nashville: Agtergrond

Die Slag van Nashville was die finale in 'n rampspoedige jaar vir die Konfederate van generaal John Bell Hood. Die rebelle het in September 1864 'n lang somerveldtog vir Atlanta, Georgia, verloor toe Hood (1831-1879) die stad aan die leër van William T. Sherman (1820-91) oorgelaat het. Hood neem toe sy verminderde mag noordwaarts na Tennessee. Hy het gehoop om Sherman uit die diep suide te trek, maar Sherman het genoeg troepe gehad om sy mag te verdeel en 'n deel daarvan te stuur om Hood na Tennessee te jaag. In November neem Sherman die res van sy leër op sy opmars oor Georgië.

Op 30 November val Hood die troepe van generaal John Schofield (1831-1906) in Franklin, Tennessee, aan. Die Konfederate het groot slagoffers gely en 'n groot deel van die leierstruktuur van die weermag is vernietig. Toe Schofield noordwaarts na Nashville verhuis om by generaal George Thomas aan te sluit, het Hood hom gevolg en sy leër ingegrawe buite Nashville se formidabele verdediging.

Slag van Nashville: 15-16 Desember 1864

Thomas sien sy kans om 'n deurslaggewende slag vir Hood te gee. In Nashville het 'n groot mag Yankees te kampe gehad met 'n rebellemag wat op ongeveer die helfte van sy grootte geskat is, en historici het bevraagteken waarom Hood selfs die sterk versterkte stad genader het met die kans wat hom so groot was. Vroegoggend op 15 Desember stuur Thomas 'n mag onder generaal James Steedman (1817-83) teen die regterflank van die Konfederate. Die Unie -troepe het die Konfederale loopgrawe oorrompel en die rebelle meer as 'n kilometer teruggery. Die kort Desember -dag het die gevegte gestaak, maar Thomas het weer op 16 Desember toegeslaan. Hierdie keer het die hele Konfederale lyn meegegee en Hood se manne in 'n totale roete gestuur. Slegs die dapper agterhoede-optrede van generaal Stephen Lee (1833-1908) het die totale vernietiging van die Konfederale weermag verhoed.

Hood en sy beskadigde leër het teruggetrek na Mississippi, die Army of Tennessee is nie meer 'n lewensvatbare offensiewe vegmag nie. In Januarie 1865 bedank Hood sy bevel.


Slag van Nashville

Na die onttrekking uit die hoofkonfederale lyn by Peach Orchard Hill, het luitenant -generaal Stephen D. Lee 'n geveglyn gevorm oor Franklin Pike 400 meter oos van hier met 200 man uit die oorblyfsels van brig. Genl Henry Clayton se afdeling en twee kanonne van die Eufaula Light Artillery. Hierdie laaste verdedigingslinie het die federale strewe vir die nag gestop toe die Konfederale weermag deur die heuwels na die suidweste terugtrek.

2008 opgerig deur The Historical Commission van Metropolitan Nashville en Davidson County. (Merkernommer 134.)

Onderwerpe en reekse. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplys gelys: Oorlog, Amerikaanse burger. Boonop is dit ingesluit in die lys van die reeks Tennessee, The Historical Commission of Metropolitan Nashville en Davidson County.

Ligging. 36 & deg 4.658 ′ N, 86 & deg 46.616 ′ W. Marker is in Nashville, Tennessee, in Davidson County. Marker is op Tyne Boulevard, aan die regterkant wanneer u oos ry. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Nashville TN 37220, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne 2 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet soos die kraai vlieg. Robertson Academy (ongeveer 0,3 myl weg) Travellers 'Rest (ongeveer 0,6 myl weg) 'n ander merker ook genoem Travellers Rest (ongeveer 0,7 myl weg) 'n ander merker ook genoem Slag van Nashville


Slag van Nashville - GESKIEDENIS

Slag van Nashville was 'n tweedaagse geveg in die Franklin-Nashville-veldtog wat die einde van grootskaalse gevegte in die Westelike Teater van die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog verteenwoordig het.

Dit is geveg in Nashville, Tennessee, op 15-16 Desember 1864 tussen die Konfederale Weermag van Tennessee onder luitenant -generaal John Bell Hood en die federale magte onder generaal -majoor George H. Thomas.

Teen 1864 het 'n half-sirkelvormige verdedigingslinie van die myl van 7 myl aan die suid- en westekant van die stad Nashville beskerm teen aanvalle uit daardie rigtings. Hierdie lyn was besaai met forte, waarvan die grootste Fort Negley was.

Die slootlyn is na 1 Desember na die weste uitgebrei. Die Cumberlandrivier vorm 'n natuurlike verdedigingshek aan die noord- en oostekant van die stad. Die troepe van Smith het op 30 November met die rivier aangekom en hul vervoer is begelei deur 'n kragtige vloot tinclad- en ystergekleurde geweerbote, sodat die rivierversperring goed verdedig is.

Hood het 'n ernstige strategiese fout gemaak voor die geveg. Op 2 Desember stuur hy die drie brigades van William B. Bate ’s Division of Cheatham ’s Corps om die Nashville & amp; Chattanooga Railroad tussen Nashville en Murfreesboro sowel as die federale garnisoen in laasgenoemde stad aan te val.

Drie dae later stuur hy nog twee brigades infanterie en twee afdelings kavallerie, almal onder Forrest se bevel, om Bate te versterk. Hood het geglo dat hierdie afleiding Thomas uit die vestings van Nashville sou trek, wat Hood in staat sou stel om Thomas in detail te verslaan of om Nashville met 'n staatskaping te gryp sodra die garnisoen uitgeput was.

Terwyl die spoorlyn tussen Nashville en Murfreesboro op 'n aantal plekke stukkend was, het die Murfreesboro -garnisoen op 7 Desember die Konfederate in die Derde Slag van Murfreesboro (ook die Slag van die Seders) afgery.


Die stad is beskerm deur 55 000 man, wat verdere offensiewe operasies moes uitgesluit het, maar Hood was vasberade en sy situasie was erg. Hood het Nashville op 2 Desember bereik en 'n posisie suid van die stad ingeneem, in die hoop om die Unie -magte in 'n duur aanval te lok.

Ulysses S. Grant en Abraham Lincoln het 'n beroep op generaal George Thomas gedoen om aan te val, maar hy het byna twee weke vertraag, met verwysing na ysige weer en beperkte ondersteuning van kavallerie. Op 15 Desember beweeg Thomas uiteindelik vorentoe.

Die vakbond van die Unie vereis 'n betoging aan die regterkant van die Konfederasie, terwyl die hoofaanval 'n klompie erdwerpe aan die linkerkant van die Konfederasie tref. Die afleidingsaanval breek teen artillerie wat op die huidige Battery Lane geplaas is.

Die kort Desember -dag het die gevegte gestaak, maar Thomas het weer op 16 Desember toegeslaan. Hierdie keer het die hele Konfederale lyn meegegee en Hood se manne in 'n totale roete gestuur. Slegs die dapper agterhoede-optrede van generaal Stephen Lee (1833-1908) het die totale vernietiging van die Konfederale weermag verhoed.


Die westelike draai in die lyn was geanker op die hoogtes van Shy's Hill, die oostelike buiging bo -op die steil hellings van Peach Orchard (Overton's) Hill. Federale aanvalle op Peach Orchard Hill, wat bo -op die bome gemaak moes word wat die konfederate op die hange laat val het, het geweldige vuur van die 2 000 infanteriste en ondersteunende artillerie van luitenant -generaal Steven D. Lee se korps teëgekom.

Sowat 6 000 Federals, waaronder twee afdelings van USCT, het dapper pogings aangewend teen die posisie, maar is afgeweer. Die heuwel het eers na die geveg bekend gestaan ​​as Shy's Hill. Konfederale kolonel William Shy, van Franklin, was een van die verdedigers. Sy lyk is later op die heuwel gevind, met bajonet teen 'n boom, 'n koeëlgat in sy voorkop. Daar is steeds kontroversie oor die vraag of die Unie- of Konfederale soldate verantwoordelik was.


Die Slag van Nashville (1864)

Die Slag van Nashville het plaasgevind op 15-16 Desember 1864 suid van Nashville, Tennessee. Die geveg, tussen ongeveer 22 000 unie -troepe onder leiding van generaal -majoor George Henry Thomas en 40 000 konfederale troepe onder leiding van luitenant -generaal John Bell Hood, word beskou as 'n groot oorwinning van die Unie in die Westelike Teater van die Burgeroorlog (die gebied wes van die Appalachiese berge) . Dit was ook belangrik omdat die troepe van die Afro -Amerikaanse Unie 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel het in die oorwinning van die Unie.

Soldate van die Afro -Amerikaanse Unie dien in die regimente van die Colored Troops (USCT) van die Verenigde State. Die USCT was agt regimente - die 12de, 13de, 14de, 16de, 17de, 18de, 44ste en 100ste - almal eenhede van die Amerikaanse gekleurde infanterie onder leiding van wit offisiere. Na raming het 13 000 USCT -soldate deelgeneem aan die Slag van Nashville, die grootste aantal swart soldate op enige slagveld tot dusver in die burgeroorlog.

Op 15 Desember 1864 is die 13de USCT en die 2nd Coloured Brigade (drie regimente swart troepe) beveel om in posisie te beweeg vir 'n aanval op 'n Konfederale batteryposisie langs die Nashville- en Chattanooga -spoorweg naby Nolensville Pike. Die Konfederate wat 'n Unie -aanval verwag het, het hul artillerie geposisioneer om op die USCT -brigade te skiet. Konfederale troepe het ook op die 13de USCT losgebrand, maar hulle is deur grondwerke bewaak. Die 13de USCT het die grondwerke as skuiling gebruik terwyl hulle vuurwapens met die Konfederale magte uitruil. Die 20ste Indiana Battery het aangekom om die 13de USCT -manne te ondersteun, en met die versterkings het hulle die Konfederate gedwing om hul kanonne terug te trek.

Die volgende dag het kolonel van die Unie, Charles R. Thompson, bevele ontvang om sy 2de gekleurde brigade te neem om by generaal Thomas J. Woods se 4de korps aan te sluit. Die 13de USCT saam met die 12de en 100ste USCT het by Peach Orchard Hill aangekom waar die Konfederate onmiddellik op hulle losgebrand het, maar nie een van die USCT het enige verliese gely nie. Generaal Wood het aan Thompson gesê dat hy die Konfederale posisie by Overton Hill sou aanval en het drie USCT -regimente versoek om sy linkerflank te ondersteun. Omstreeks 15:00 begin die Unie -troepe met hul aanval. Thompson plaas die 100ste en 12de USCT voor en gebruik die 13de as ondersteuning. Die 12de het 'n digte ruigtes teëgekom wat hul opmars vertraag het. Intussen kom die 100ste USCT op verskeie bome wat omgeval het, wat ook hul vordering vertraag het. Beide regimente het swaar vuur gekry van die Konfederale troepe wat Overton Hill beset het.

Kolonel Thompson het die 12de USCT beveel om skuiling te neem om te hergroepeer. Die 100ste USCT en 4de Korps het probeer vorder, maar is deur die Konfederate teruggedruk. Die 13de USCT het egter verby die 2de brigade gestoot en voortgegaan om die heuwel op te styg terwyl dit blootgestel was aan verwelkende vuur van die konfederale troepe. Met geen steun van die blanke Unie -troepe of ander swart regimente wat uit hul posisies teruggeval het nie, het die 13de USCT die Konfederale grondwerke bestorm. Die regiment het groot slagoffers opgedoen, maar kon Overton Hill nie inneem nie. Ondanks die mislukking, was die Konfederale troepe verplig om terug te trek.

Die Unie -leër sou die Slag van Nashville wen en die Army of Tennessee (Confederates) as 'n vegmag in Tennessee beëindig. Die stryd het die 13de USCT egter duur te staan ​​gekom. Die 900-soldaat-regiment het vier wit offisiere verloor en 55 aangewese mans vermoor, saam met 4 wit offisiere en 165 gewese mans. Hulle dapper in die geveg is egter erken deur hul blanke eweknieë en offisiere. Generaal George H. Thomas, die Unie -bevelvoerder wat 'n Virginiër was van geboorte en wat voorheen twyfel gehad het oor die swart soldate onder sy bevel, het oor die slagveld gery terwyl hy die lyke van swart Unie -soldate en wit Konfederale soldate sien lê het, het aan sy offisiere gesê , "Menere, die vraag is afgehandel, negersoldate sal veg."


Inhoud

Die eerste bekende setlaars in die omgewing van die moderne Nashville was inheemse Amerikaners wat ten minste 13 000 vC in die streek aangekom het tydens die Paleoindiaanse tydperk van die voorgeskiedenis. [1] Vir millennia het die afstammelinge van hierdie eerste Tennesseans bly woon langs die rivierterrasse en hooglande wat uitkyk oor die Cumberlandrivier, en 'n digte argeologiese rekord agtergelaat wat strek oor die Paleoindiaanse, Archaïese, Woodland en Mississippiese tydperke. [2] Die laaste prehistoriese inheemse Amerikaanse kultuur om in te woon wat in Nashville sou word, was 'n plaaslike manifestasie van die Mississippiese kultuur, bekend as Middel Cumberland Mississippian, geïdentifiseer deur argeoloë op grond van die spesifieke kombinasie van begrafnispraktyke, artistieke styl en keramiekstyle. [3] Onlangse studies dui daarop dat die Mississippiaanse kultuur in die middel Cumberland die gevolg kan wees van interaksies tussen plaaslike bevolkings en buitestaanders van die Amerikaanse bodem wat omstreeks 1000 na die westelike deel van die Nashville -kom ingetrek het, en hulle op die plek van Mound Bottom gevestig het. [4] Die argeologiese voetspoor van die Mississippiaanse kultuur in die Midde -Cumberland verskyn in Nashville as die talle platformheuwels, uitgebreide begraafplase met klipbakke, palisade dorpies en klein prehistoriese plaasopstalle wat deur antikvariese geleerdes, relikwiejagters en stedelike ontwikkeling vernietig is. Dit lyk asof alle argeologiese bewyse vir die Mississippiese kultuur omstreeks 1475–1500 nC uit die Nashville -gebied verdwyn. Argeoloë is van mening dat hierdie ineenstorting van die streek moontlik die gevolg was van uiterste druk wat veroorsaak word deur 'n vinnige bevolkingsaanwas en 'n afnemende beskikbaarheid van hulpbronne as gevolg van langdurige droogtes wat lei tot verhoogde voorkoms van siektes, voedingstekorte en oorlogvoering. [3] [4]

Daar is geen betroubare historiese of argeologiese bewyse vir die inheemse Amerikaanse teenwoordigheid in die Nashville -gebied tussen 1500 en laat 1600's nie. Die gebied tussen die riviere Ohio en Tennessee was 'n jagveld vir baie stamme, en terwyl die Shawnee die gebied in die later deel van die 17de eeu beset het, word hulle teen 1700 deur die Cherokee en Chickasaw uitgedaag. [5]

Die eerste Europeërs wat in Tennessee sou ingaan, was deel van die ekspedisie onder leiding van Hernando de Soto in die 16de eeu. Alhoewel die presiese roete van die Desoto -ekspedisie onduidelik is, blyk dit nie dat hulle Midde -Tennessee of die Nashville -gebied bereik het nie. In plaas daarvan was die eerste Europeërs in wat in Nashville sou word, Franse pelshandelaars soos Martin Chartier, wat in 1689 'n handelspos op die Cumberlandrivier, naby die huidige stad, gevestig het. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Jean du Charleville (oftewel Charles Charleville) het in 1710 'n handelspos gestig by 'n natuurlike swael- en soutwaterbron naby die huidige Bicentennial Capitol Mall State Park. Die natuurlike soutlek het diere aangetrek, wat op hul beurt inheemse Amerikaanse jagters gelok het waarmee die Franse handel kon dryf, en die gebied het bekend gestaan ​​as 'French Lick'. Dieselfde deel van Nashville sou later bekend staan ​​as Sulphur Spring Bottom en Sulphur Dell. [12] In 1769 begin die Frans-Kanadese jagter Timothy DeMonbreun met 'n reeks reise met die Cumberland na Nashville en bou 'n kajuit naby die lek om as basis te gebruik vir die vang van bont tydens sy besoeke aan die gebied. DeMonbreun vestig hom in 1788 permanent in Nashville en bedryf 'n taverne en handelsonderneming. [13]

John Buchanan Sr., gebore in Skotland of Ierland, migreer saam met sy gesin uit hul huis in Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania, na die Watauga -vallei, Washington -distrik in Noord -Carolina. Daarna het hulle 'n lang perduitstappie na Kentucky geneem, hul vroue verlaat en einde 1778 na die Cumberland -nedersettings gereis en 'n stasie aan die suidekant van die Cumberlandrivier bo die French Lick gebou op die hoë grond waar Nashville nou staan, in die vroeë lente van 1779. Sy seun, majoor John Buchanan, bekend vir die beleg van Buchanan's Station, word beskou as een van die stigters van Nashville, Tennessee. [14] 'n Ander nedersetting kom toe James Robertson op Kersdag 1779 die Watauga -nedersetting in die noordweste van Noord -Carolina verlaat, twee maande oor die land reis en op die oewer van die Cumberlandrivier aankom naby die sentrum van die huidige sentrum van Nashville. [15] Hulle die grond skoongemaak en 'n houthuis gebou wat hulle die Bluff -stasie genoem het. Richard Henderson het beplan om die nedersetting Nashborough te noem ter ere van generaal Francis Nash, wat lof in die Amerikaanse Revolusie gewen het. Vir 'n kort rukkie het die hofrekords wel die Nashborough -benaming gebruik, maar daar is geen bewys dat enige van die setlaars dit gedoen het nie. Robertson se vriend en mede -watauga -setlaar John Donelson, saam met ongeveer 60 gesinne, waaronder vroue en kinders, kom in 30 woonbote en verskeie pirogues langs die Tennessee -rivier en die Cumberland aan, en arriveer op 23 April 1780. [16] Hulle stig 'n nuwe gemeenskap dit was toe 'n deel van die deelstaat Noord -Carolina. Die stad is amptelik in 1784 gestig en Nashville genoem, op grond van die wet van die Noord -Carolina wetgewer.

As die noordelike eindpunt van die Natchez Trace, het die stad vinnig ontwikkel as 'n katoen sentrum en rivierhawe en later as 'n spoorwegknooppunt. Dit word gou die kommersiële sentrum van die hele Midde -Tennessee -streek. [17] Teen 1800 het die stad 345 inwoners gehad, waaronder 136 verslaafde swartes en 14 gratis swartes. [18]

Na die mislukte eksperiment van die deelstaat Franklin, het Noord -Carolina sy grond van die Alleghenyberge na die Mississippirivier afgestaan ​​aan die federale regering. In 1796 is die gebied toegelaat tot die vakbond as die staat Tennessee. Nashville was destyds nog 'n klein nedersetting in 'n uitgestrekte wildernis, maar sy sentrale ligging en status as die hoofstad van die staat het dit die politieke, kommersiële, finansiële en godsdienstige sentrum van die staat gemaak. [ twyfelagtig - bespreek ]

In 1806 is Nashville as 'n stad gehuur. Die stad se eerste skuld- en eerste grootskaalse openbare werke-projek was die bou van die Nashville Water Works, gesentreer rondom die reservoir op 'n bluff suid van die stad, nou bekend as Rolling Mill Hill. Die geld is geleen deur sakelui in Philadelphia, en 'n deel van die bedrag is gebruik om ongeveer 12 slawe van swart mans in Virginia aan te koop om aan die projek te werk. Die lening van $ 50,000 was onvoldoende om die boukoste van $ 55,000 te dek, maar die stygende waarde van die slawe wat deur die stad gekoop is, het die verskil gedek toe almal behalwe een of twee aan die einde van die projek verkoop is. Water uit die Cumberlandrivier word met 'n stoomenjin in die reservoir gepomp, wat vandag nog gebruik word. [19]

Andrew Jackson Edit

In die oorlog van 1812 verslaan generaal Andrew Jackson, 'n advokaat en politikus in Nashville, die Creek [20] Indiane tydens die Slag van Horseshoe Bend en die Britse invalsleër in die Slag van New Orleans en word 'n nasionale held, grootliks te danke tot die vegvaardighede van die Tennessee -burgermag. Jackson het 'n westerse held geword, en voortgebou op sy milisieverbindings, [21] bou Jackson 'n sterk politieke basis, en in 1828 word Jackson tot president verkies. [22]

Meer as 30 jaar nadat hy sy handves ontvang het, is Nashville op 7 Oktober 1843 gekies as die permanente hoofstad van Tennessee. Nashville wen met slegs een stem. Voorheen het die stede Kingston (vir een dag) en Knoxville in Oos -Tennessee, en Murfreesboro, net soos Nashville in Middel -Tennessee, elk as tydelike hoofstad gedien.

Die Tennessee State Capitol -gebou is oor 'n tydperk van veertien jaar van 1845 tot 1859 gebou. [23] Dit is ontwerp deur die Philadelphia -argitek William Strickland, wat dit na 'n Griekse Ioniese tempel gemodelleer het. Kommersiële, veroordeelde en slawe -arbeid is in die projek gebruik. Vyftien verslaafde swart mans het van 1845 tot 1847 aan die steenhouer van die Nashville, A.G. Payne, gewerk aan die kerf van die kalksteenkelder van die Capitol van 1845 vir hul arbeid. Dit word beskou as 'die belangrikste projek waar die [Tennessee] staatsregering slawe -arbeid gehuur het. [24] Dit huisves die wetgewer van Tennessee en die kantoor van die goewerneur.

Nashville word jare lank beskou as een van die rykste suidelike hoofstede, en 'n groot deel daarvan is afkomstig van die ysterbedryf. Nashville het die suide gelei vir ysterproduksie. [25]

Tennessee was die laaste staat wat op 24 Junie 1861 by die Konfederasie aangesluit het toe goewerneur Isham G. Harris 'alle verbindings deur die staat Tennessee met die Federale Unie ontbind het' verklaar en dat Tennessee 'n vrye, onafhanklike regering is, vry van alle verpligtinge met of verband met die federale regering van die Verenigde State van Amerika. " [26] Nashville was 'n onmiddellike teiken van die Unie -magte. Die stad se betekenis as skeepshawe aan die Cumberlandrivier en die simboliese belangrikheid daarvan as die hoofstad van Tennessee, het dit 'n gewilde prys gemaak.

Die Algemene Vergadering was in sitting in Nashville toe Fort Donelson op 16 Februarie 1862 val. Kort daarna, aan die einde van die maand, word Nashville die eerste staatshoofstad wat onder die bevel van Don Carlos Buell aan die troepe van die Unie val. Daarvoor is Nashville ontruim en goewerneur het 'n toespraak gehou waarin hy die burgers aanbeveel om hul privaat eiendom te verbrand, terwyl troepe wat die Cumberlandrivier oorbrug, vernietig het. [27] Goewerneur Harris het 'n oproep gedoen dat die wetgewer byeenkom in Memphis, en die uitvoerende kantoor is na die stad verskuif. Intussen het president Lincoln toekomstige president Andrew Johnson as militêre goewerneur van Tennessee aangestel. Hy het kantore in die hoofstad in Nashville opgerig. Konfederale opstande en guerrilla -aanvalle het sporadies in die stad voortgeduur.

Op 2 Desember 1864 het die Konfederale Weermag van Tennessee (nie te verwar met die mededingende Union Army of the Tennessee nie) aangekom suid van die stad en vestings opgerig wat die Unie -leër in die gesig staar. Na 'n lang stand-by het die Unie-magte op 15 Desember aangeval en die Slag van Nashville begin. Die getal Konfederale magte is erg verslaan en suidwaarts na die Tennessee -rivier teruggetrek.

Vlugtelinge het tydens die oorlog in Nashville ingestroom omdat daar baie werk was in die depots, pakhuise en hospitale wat die oorlogspoging bedien, en die stad was ook 'n baie veiliger plek as die platteland. Vakbondlede en Konfederale simpatiseerders het beide ingestroom, net soos vrye swartes en ontsnapte slawe, en sakelui uit die Noorde. [28] [29] Nashville, met sy baie groot verbygaande bevolking, het florerende rooi lig distrikte gehad. Vakbondregulasies in die unie het prostitute gedwing om lisensies aan te skaf en mediese ondersoeke te slaag, hoofsaaklik om soldate teen geslagsiektes te beskerm. Hulle handel is gedereguleer sodra die militêre beheer beëindig is. [30]

'N Geheime Konfederale ondergronds het in die stad gewerk en wapens, medisyne en inligting aan die Konfederasie gesmokkel, gevangenes gehelp om te ontsnap en inligting aan Konfederale spioene gegee. [31]

Na die Burgeroorlog het Nashville vinnig uitgegroei tot 'n belangrike handelsentrum. Die bevolking het gestyg van 16 988 in 1860 tot 80 865 in 1900. [32] Afro-Amerikaners het tussen 1860 en 1870 van 23 tot 38 persent van die bevolking toegeneem. [33] Intussen is die Nashville-hoofstuk van die Ku Klux Klan deur die Konfederale gestig. veteraan John W. Morton, wat generaal Nathan Bedford Forrest begin het. [34]

Toe die leër van die Unie weg is, het die Fisk Free Coloured School die Fort Gillem-terrein oorgeneem, naby waar die vrye swartes gewoon het voor die burgeroorlog en noord van die middestad, en in 1872 tot Fisk-universiteit herdoop, het dit 'n toonaangewende instelling geword vir Afrika- Amerikaanse hoër onderwys. 'N Swart sakegebied het grootgeword langs die wa se fort, met die naam Jeffersonstraat. Net oorkant die Cumberlandrivier se middestad het verskeie ander groot Afro-Amerikaanse distrikte rondom voormalige kampe in Oos- en Noord-Nashville ontwikkel. [33]

Aan die einde van die 1880's is die Afro-Amerikaanse en armblanke bevolkings geraak deur die wetswysigings deur die staatswetgewer, wat kieserregistrasie en stemreg bemoeilik het, insluitend die heffing van 'n meningspeilbelasting in 1889. Die uitwerking was om die meeste swartes uit te skakel. en baie arm blankes, nadat Tennessee ná die burgeroorlog polities een van die mededingendste state was. Ongeveer 'n derde van die burgers van die staat is dus uitgesluit van die politieke proses, 'n status wat dekades lank geduur het, tot nadat wetgewing gedurende die middel-sestigerjare aangeneem is as gevolg van die burgerregtebeweging.

In 1897 het Nashville die Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition aangebied, 'n wêreldbeurs wat die 100ste herdenking van Tennessee se toetrede tot die Unie vier. 'N Replika van die Parthenon is vir die geleentheid gebou. Die Parthenon -replika is nou die middelpunt van Centennial Park.

'N Interessante aantekening het plaasgevind tydens die administrasie van Theodore Roosevelt. President Roosevelt het Nashville besoek en by die Maxwell House Hotel gaan bly. Joel Cheek, eienaar daarvan, het 'n spesiale mengsel koffie by die restaurant van die hotel bedien, en nadat hy 'n koppie koffie gedrink het, het Roosevelt dit "goed tot die laaste druppel!" Cheek het die versnit daarna aan General Foods verkoop, en tot vandag toe geniet Maxwell House -koffie miljoene mense.

In 1913 was Nashville die laaste van verskeie groot stede in Tennessee wat 'n kommissie-regeringsvorm aangeneem het, met alle lede van 'n klein kommissie wat algemeen verkies is. In vergelyking met distrikte met een lid, het hierdie verandering daartoe gelei dat die politieke mag van Afro-Amerikaners wat kon stem, verder beperk is, aangesien hul kandidate nie steun kon kry deur die meerderheid van die stad, wat wit was nie. Ander stede wat hierdie regeringsvorm in hierdie tydperk aangeneem het, was Clarksville in 1907, Chattanooga en Knoxville in 1911 en Jackson in 1915. As gevolg van regsuitdagings wat aan die einde van die sewentigerjare begin het, het al hierdie stede nuwe stelsels aangeneem, die meeste teen 1990 Hierdie gevestigde raad of kommissies met meer lede, waarvan die meeste uit distrikte met een lid verkies word, stel minderhede in staat om een ​​of meer kandidate van hul keuse te kies.

Op 22 Maart 1916 het 'n brand in Oos -Nashville uitgebreek wat meer as 500 huise vernietig het. Die brand is vererger deur buitengewoon hoë rukwinde, sodat dit vinnig kon versprei voordat brandbestryders dit kon onderdruk. Dit het bekend geword as die Groot Brand van 1916. Alhoewel daar min beserings was en slegs een sterftes, het die brand die ekonomie van Oos -Nashville dekades lank aansienlik beskadig.

Die Groot treinwrak van 1918 het op 9 Julie 1918 in Nashville plaasgevind toe 'n inkomende plaaslike trein met 'n uitgaande snelweg bots en 101 mense dood is. Dit was een van die dodelikste spoorongelukke in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Tennessee was die staat wat die 19de wysiging geplaas het, waardeur vroue in staat was om te stem, en die bekragtigingstryd het die stad in Augustus 1920 verward.

Op 1 Maart 1941 begin W47NV met sy bedrywighede in Nashville, as die eerste kommersiële FM -radiostasie met volle gelisensieer in die Verenigde State.

In 1949 het die stadsadministrasie 96 hektaar geëis in Hell's Half Acre, 'n swart woonbuurt noordwes van die hoofstad van die staat wat die armste Afro-Amerikaners in die stad gehuisves het. Die stadsadministrasie het dit regverdig deur te sê dat hulle die stad van ondeug sou verwyder, aangesien die plek destyds bekend was vir salonne, prostitusie en ander ondeugdes, maar ook 'n paar van die stad se oudste Afro-Amerikaanse kerke en skole huisves. Die woonbuurt is vervang met die Staatsbiblioteek en -argief, 'n groot kantoorgebou, 'n parkeerterrein met ses bane, parkeerterreine met 'n terras en groen ruimte, met min voorsiening vir die mense wat hul huise verloor het. [33]

Musiekondernemers soos Roy Acuff (1903–1992) het Nashville na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog die country -musiekhoofstad gemaak. Acuff het hom in 1938 by die Grand Ole Opry aangesluit, en hoewel sy gewildheid as musikant aan die einde van die veertigerjare afgeneem het, was hy byna vier dekades lank een van die belangrikste persone en promotors van die Opry. In 1942 is hy mede-stigter van die eerste groot Nashville-gebaseerde country-musiekuitgewery-Acuff-Rose Music. [35] Die Second Avenue/onderste Broadway -distrik ondersteun 'n groot musiekbedryf sowel as 'n toeristiese sentrum met 'n musikale smaak. [36]

Gedurende die winter van 1951 het Nashville die ergste sneeustorm in die geskiedenis van die stad beleef. Van Sondag 28 Januarie tot Dinsdag 30 Januarie het 'n ysstorm 'n duim sneeu en ysige reën opgelewer, wat die stad versper en die kragtoevoer na baie buurte afgesny het. Op die middag van Woensdag, 31 Januarie, het 'n sneeustorm deur die stad getrek met windstoot van meer as 50 km / h en sigbaarheid tot nul. Agt duim sneeu is aangeteken, en pendel rondom die stad was feitlik onmoontlik. In die nag van 2 Februarie het lae temperature -13 grade Fahrenheit bereik, wat veroorsaak dat pypleidings bars. Baie inwoners van Nashville het nie elektrisiteit en water gehad nie. As gevolg van die erns van die ysstorm en die sneeustorm wat daarna gevolg het, staan ​​dit bekend as die ergste episode van winterweer in die geskiedenis van Nashville. Die sneeustorm van 1951 beklee die derde plek vir die meeste sneeu wat in 'n enkele stormstelsel in Nashville aangeteken is, agter die sneeustorm van 1892 en Winter Storm Jonas in 2016.

Nashville was 'n sentrum van die Burgerregtebeweging. In 1957 is openbare skole begin skei met behulp van die 'trap-plan', soos voorgestel deur Dan May, mense protesteer teen integrasie en by Hattie Cotton Elementary School is 'n bom ontplof. Niemand is dood nie, en daarna het die desegregasieplan sonder geweld voortgegaan. [37] Die skoolraad het die skooldistrikte gerrymander sodat slegs nege swart eerstegraders uit ongeveer 100 in aanmerking kom. Sewe jaar later was minder as 800 swart studente in voorheen geheel-wit skole, terwyl swart onderwysers en skoolhoofde in die gesig gestaar word deur demosies of afdankings terwyl die stad die stelsel konsolideer. [33]

Op 13 Februarie 1960 het honderde kollege studente wat by die Nashville Studentebeweging betrokke was, 'n sit-in-veldtog geloods om middagete in die stad te onderskei. Geïnspireer deur studente in Greensboro, Noord-Carolina, het studente van Fisk, die American Baptist Theological Seminary en Tennessee A & ampI soortgelyke protesoptredes en boikotte in Nashville gehad. [33] Alhoewel aanvanklik geweld en arrestasies ondervind is, het die betogers uiteindelik daarin geslaag om plaaslike ondernemings te druk om die praktyk van rasseskeiding te beëindig. Baie van die aktiviste wat betrokke was by die insittings in Nashville-waaronder James Bevel, Diane Nash, Bernard Lafayette, John Lewis en ander-het die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, wat as een van die invloedrykste organisasies van burgerregte na vore gekom het, georganiseer. beweging. Die eerste beweging wat die SNCC toegeskryf het, was die Nashville Open Theatre Movement van 1961, onder leiding en strategie van James Bevel, wat die teaters van die stad gedegregeer het.

Geïnspireer deur hul voorbeeld, het Nashville sedert 1963 'n gekonsolideerde stadsbestuur (ook bekend as '' metropolitaanse regering ') gehad. Hoewel 'n soortgelyke voorstel in 1958 misluk het, het die kiesers van Davidson County konsolidasie in 'n referendum op 28 Junie 1962 goedgekeur. [38]

Op 16 April 1998 het 'n F3 -tornado omstreeks 15:30 die middestad getref, wat ernstige skade aangerig het en honderde vensters deur wolkekrabbers uitgeblaas het, gebreekte glas op die strate gereën het en die sakegebied vir byna vier dae gesluit het. Meer as 300 huise is beskadig en drie hyskrane by die toe onvolledige Adelphia Coliseum is omgeslaan. Alhoewel slegs een persoon dood is, was dit een van die duurste stedelike tornado's wat nog in die VSA aangeteken is.

Die uitbreiding van die National Hockey League het die Nashville Predators na Nashville gebring in 1998. Hulle speel tans in die Bridgestone Arena, in die sentrum van Nashville. The franchise has performed exceptionally well in Nashville, valued at $270 million in 2016.

Shortly after the NHL expansion in 1998, the Tennessee Oilers moved from Memphis to Nashville in 1999, beginning its inaugural season as the Tennessee Titans. In two years, Nashville witnessed the expansion of two professional sports organizations. These franchises tremendously invigorated the revitalization of the downtown area.

In 2000, Nashville native Bill Frist rose to national political prominence when he became majority leader of the U.S. Senate. Frist was formerly a transplant surgeon at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

In 2006, commuter rail service from Nashville to Lebanon opened to the public. Further plans to expand Music City Star were halted during the Great Recession of 2008–09 however, plans to expand commuter rail service are once again an objective for the city.

On April 30 through May 7 in 2010, significant flooding impacted Nashville and its suburbs. Many areas in the Nashville MSA received more than 18 inches of rainfall in less than 48 hours. This caused significant damage to the downtown area, and three dozen lives were lost in the city. Due to the rarity of the amount of rainfall, meteorologists dubbed it a "thousand year event."

On January 22, 2016, Winter Storm Jonas brought blizzard conditions to Nashville, producing more than eight inches of snow. The National Weather Service issued a blizzard warning that morning. On January 22, Nashville set a record for snowfall received in a 24-hour period. The blizzard proceeded to the East Coast by January 23.

In 2016, Nashville experienced a growth of 82 residents per day. In 2017, Nashville surpassed Memphis as Tennessee's most populous city. Despite the Great Recession, Nashville has posted strong economic growth during the 21st Century and boasts one of the lowest unemployment rates in Tennessee.

From April 25–27, 2019, Nashville hosted the 2019 NFL Draft. It broke draft attendance records with 600,000 people attending and is currently the most watched draft in NFL history with 47.5 million TV views. [39]

In the early hours of March 3, 2020, Nashville was once again struck by a deadly tornado. This high-end EF-3 tornado killed two people in East Nashville and continued on into Wilson County where it killed an additional three people. [40]

On January 8, 2013, The New York Times magazine declared Nashville "It" city in a publication titled "Nashville's Latest Hit Could Be the City Itself". [41] This article is widely thought to have spurred new growth and construction in Nashville, ultimately leading to Nashville being declared the 5th fastest growing city in America by the end of 2013.

On May 28, 2013, the newly anticipated Music City Center opened its doors in the SoBro District of Downtown Nashville. This new convention center marked a major milestone by replacing the rapidly aging Nashville Convention Center, and also adding an 800-room Omni Hotel along with an expansion of the Country Music Hall of Fame's facilities. This construction project sparked a number of new construction projects in both the SoBro district and other parts of the city, and has continued to spur development up into 2015.

In November 2014, Bridgestone announced that they would be keeping their North American Headquarters in Nashville, and would invest $200 million to build a new 35 story skyscraper that would bring 1,700 jobs to downtown Nashville. [42]

On January 26, 2015, Google announced that it was bringing its Fiber service to the Nashville Area, bringing with it super fast internet using fiber optic cables in the ground. This announcement was seen as a major plus for the up-and-coming tech scene in Nashville, along with other companies that either have a presence here or looking to relocate to the Nashville Area.

On April 17, 2015 First Tennessee Park opened in the Germantown district of Nashville, which provided a new home for the AAA Baseball team the Nashville Sounds.

As a whole, at least 123 projects are planned for or under construction in Davidson County, many of which have begun recently. In downtown alone, developments consist of a 27-story Westin Hotel under construction in the SoBro district, [43] a 33-story residential apartment complex named "The Sobro", [44] a 35-story JW Marriott is proposed across from the Music City Center, [45] HCA's new 18 story headquarters along with a $1 billion development named Capitol View are both under construction in the North Gulch area, [46] and a 44-story condo and apartment building named 505 cst is proposed for the downtown core which, if built, will be the tallest building in Nashville. [47]

oneC1TY is a vibrant urban community under construction near the Charlotte Ave and 28/31st connector intersection, that will serve as a center of technology-enabled commercial, residential, research and retail activity. [48] Its sustainable design features abundant green space and a community lawn and encourages walking, biking and enjoyment of the outdoors, music and art.

Nashville became the largest city in Tennessee in 2017, surpassing Memphis by a total of roughly 8,000 people.

Zillow ranked Nashville the hottest housing market in the entire United States in 2017, [49] Milken Institute ranked Nashville as the 7th best performing city in the United States based on economic, social and communal factors on a local and national scale. [50]

In August 2017 British Airways announced the launch of the first nonstop transatlantic flight on their airline from Nashville to London's Heathrow Airport, beginning on May 4, 2018. The flight is expected to contribute $100 million to Nashville's economy and promote business connections and leisure travel to the city. [51]

In May 2018, The New York financial firm AllianceBernstein announced it would relocate its corporate headquarters to downtown Nashville in the Fifth and Broadway development, bringing at least 1000 new corporate jobs. Shortly after in June 2018 Nashville was named the host of the 2019 NFL Draft.

On November 12, 2018, Nashville was announced as the East coast operations hub for Amazon's logistics and retail department, bringing at least 5000 new corporate jobs downtown to the Nashville Yards development and becoming the largest jobs announcement in the history of the state of Tennessee. Ernst & Young announced it would be opening a tech hub on Nashville's Music Row, bringing a further 600 jobs to the Nashville region.

On December 25, 2020, a car bomb exploded in downtown Nashville at the city's business district, outside the AT&T Building, injuring at least three people. Initial reports suggested that at least one building had collapsed. Officials believe the explosion was an "intentional act". [52] [53] [54] The explosion was felt "miles" away from the blast site. [55]


In 1862, the United States government began allowing African-Americans to volunteer for all black regiments (United States Colored Troops or USCT). No less than eight USCT regiments were raised in and around Nashville. When fighting descended upon the city on December 15-16, 1864, more African-Americans fought at Nashville than in any other Civil War battle, adding another layer of significance to Nashville&rsquos Civil War story. Approximately 12,000 USCT were heavily engaged on the east end of the battlefield on both days of fighting, and they suffered heavy casualties in the process. The result of the battle was succinctly described by historian Russell Weigley: &ldquoNashville ranks as probably the most complete battlefield victory of the war.&rdquo

The Battle of Nashville is also unique because it was the last major battle in the Western Theater of the Civil War. After its virtual destruction, first at Franklin (November 30) then at Nashville, the shattered Confederate Army of Tennessee left the state to the victorious Federal Army, and made its way to North Carolina where it surrendered four months later. In his classic study of The Army of Tennessee, historian Stanley Horn called the fighting in Middle Tennessee in late 1864 &ldquothe beginning of the end.&rdquo

Nashville is an important part of our country&rsquos Civil War history. As the first capital of a Confederate state to be captured, it was an occupied city for virtually the entire war. Nashville already had a vibrant free black population, but as a Union occupied city, it became a destination for runaway slaves who sought to enact their own emancipation. Ultimately, 180,000 African Americans fought in the Union Army. And with many of the white males away fighting in the Southern army, women became the heads of households as they adapted to life and hardships behind enemy lines.

The 1989 movie &ldquoGlory&rdquo admirably portrayed what is arguably the most famous USCT regiment of the war, the 54th Massachusetts. The battle that occurred in our city late in the war was certainly &ldquoNashville&rsquos Glory&rdquo moment.


The Battle of Nashville - Crushing an Army:

While Thomas planned, Hood elected to dispatch Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry to attack the Union garrison at Murfreesboro. Leaving on December 5, Forrest's departure further weakened Hood's smaller force and deprived him much of his scouting force. With the weather clearing on December 14, Thomas announced to his commanders that the offensive would commence the next day. His plan called for Major General James B. Steedman's division to attack the Confederate right. The goal of Steedman's advance was to pin Hood in place while the main assault came against the Confederate left.

Here Thomas had massed Smith's XVI Corps, Brigadier General Thomas Wood's IV Corps, and a dismounted cavalry brigade under Brigadier General Edward Hatch. Supported by Schofield's XXIII Corps and screened by Major General James H. Wilson's cavalry, this force was to envelop and crush Lieutenant General Alexander Stewart's corps on Hood's left. Advancing around 6:00 AM, Steedman's men succeeded in holding Major General Benjamin Cheatham's corps in place. While Steedman's attack was going forward, the main assault force advanced out of the city.

Around noon, Wood's men began striking the Confederate line along the Hillsboro Pike. Realizing that his left was under threat, Hood began shifting troops from Lieutenant General Stephen Lee's corps in this center to reinforce Stewart. Pushing forward, Wood's men captured Montgomery Hill and a salient emerged in Stewart's line. Observing this, Thomas ordered his men to assault the salient. Overwhelming the Confederate defenders around 1:30 PM, they shattered Stewart's line, forcing his men to start retreating back towards the Granny White Pike (Map).

His position collapsing, Hood had no choice but to withdraw along his entire front. Falling back his men established a new position further south anchored on Shy's and Overton's Hills and covering his lines of retreat. To reinforce his battered left, he shifted Cheatham's men to that area, and placed Lee on the right and Stewart in the center. Digging in through the night, the Confederates prepared for the coming Union attack. Moving methodically, Thomas took most of the morning of December 16 to form his men to assault Hood's new position.

Placing Wood and Steedman on the Union left, they were to attack Overton's Hill, while Schofield's men would assault Cheatham's forces on the right at Shy's Hill. Moving forward, Wood and Steedman's men were initially repulsed by heavy enemy fire. At the opposite end of the line, Union forces faired better as Schofield's men attacked and Wilson's cavalry worked around behind the Confederate defenses. Under attack from three sides, Cheatham's men began to break around 4:00 PM. As the Confederate left began fleeing the field, Wood resumed attacks on Overton's Hill and succeeded in taking the position.


Blood Proof: USCT and the Battle of Nashville

The United States Colored Troops of Major General William T. Sherman’s army wanted to fight during the 1864 Atlanta Campaign, but “Cump” had a dim view of black troops and did all he could to keep them in the rear. As Sherman began his March to the Sea on November 16, 1864, he made sure he left his USCT units behind. But he also left behind a problem: John B. Hood and the Rebel Army of Tennessee. To deal with Hood, Sherman assigned to Major General George H. Thomas a racially mixed force of about 55,000 men and ordered him to react in kind should the mercurial Confederate general move north and cross the Tennessee River. Like Sherman, Thomas did not think much of the fighting acumen of black troops. But on a dreary December day in Nashville, those troops would prove both men wrong.

Thomas, a Virginia-born Unionist whose rearguard defense of Snodgrass Hill at the Battle of Chickamauga earned him the sobriquet “Rock of Chickamauga,” had moved his headquarters to Nashville in late September and begun organizing his command. Some of his units were generously sized, such as the two army corps numbering perhaps 22,000 men. The others, however, consisted of African-American regiments that had been dispersed along the state’s strategic railroad lines. What this meant was that unlike Sherman’s all-white legions headed for Savannah, the force Thomas would command against Hood in defending Tennessee consisted of both white and black units.

Though not a racist, Thomas subscribed to the conventional wisdom of the day that black soldiers were incapable of combat. In fact, he told Colonel Thomas J. Morgan of the 14th USCT outright that he didn’t believe Morgan’s men would fight in the open field. Thomas also took a dim view of subordinates who agitated to halt the common practice of assigning black troops exclusively to fatigue and garrison duties. When Colonel Reuben D. Mussey, the U.S. commissioner appointed to organize the USCT units in Tennessee, complained that the belief “that the negro is to be made a man by first being made a soldier does not seem to be comprehended yet by the commanding generals,” Thomas’ chief of staff was quick to slap him down. Such statements, Mussey was informed, “are in violation of the spirit and letter of the regulation of the army.” The commissioner was in turn placed under arrest until he made a “proper retraction and apology.”

Colonel Morgan’s persistent requests for reassignment to combat duty also drew a biting rebuke from the Department of the Cumberland’s assistant adjutant general, Lt. Col. George E. Flynt: “The Major General commanding [Thomas] directs me to say that when you shall have learned cheerfully to perform your duty to the best of your abilities in such position as may be assigned you, then shall you have learned the first lessons of that discipline, which apparently, you are so anxious should be taught your regiment.”

On November 20, four days after Sherman left Atlanta heading for the Atlantic Coast, Hood responded by marching his 40,000-man army north from Tuscumbia, Ala. Once across the Tennessee River, he moved northeast, effectively flanking a 22,000-man Federal force under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield posted to the east at Pulaski. Hood pushed his men hard, hoping to cut off Schofield’s command and destroy it, but the Yankee officer was equally anxious to stay one jump ahead of his numerically superior adversary. Hood—not fully recovered from losing his right leg and the use of his right arm the previous year—got in front of Schofield near Spring Hill, but allowed the Federals to escape. Enraged by what he felt was a lack of fighting spirit among his troops, Hood ordered a frontal assault the next day on a strong Union rear-guard position at Franklin. The resulting debacle cost him more than 6,000 men, including many of his best officers. Schofield withdrew to Nashville, followed by Hood.

On December 2, Hood worked to entrench his army along the hills south of Nashville. His effective strength was about 23,000 men (not counting units detached for subsidiary operations)—enough to pose a serious threat, but insufficient to assault the Federal earthworks. Hood’s strategy was to assume a strong defensive position, counting on pressure from Northern officials to force Thomas to attack him. Although many of Hood’s assumptions verged on pure fantasy, he hadn’t underestimated the panic caused by his presence in several nearby states. Hood wasn’t one to rush into a major offensive besides, the odds and ends left to oppose him by Sherman didn’t add up to an effective combat organization.

When Thomas reported that he intended to stand pat until his units (especially his cavalry) were properly equipped and organized, Lincoln’s military chief of staff complained to Grant—who immediately started badgering Thomas with telegrams offering gratuitous advice and telling him to attack. Thomas still moved methodically, further delayed by an ice storm. His plan called for the principal attack to be launched from the Union right flank. The mass of his mobile force, moving in a grand wheeling action, would fall on Hood’s left flank, which wasn’t anchored to any natural stronghold. Preceding this grand assault would be a diversionary attack against the Rebel right the black Union troops were assigned to this phase. The USCT units were grouped in something called the “Provisional Detachment (District of the Etowah),” under the overall command of Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman. In addition to three white brigades, Steedman’s detachment included two black ones the 1st under Colonel Morgan (consisting of the 14th, 16th, 17th, 18th and 44th USCT), and the 2nd led by Colonel Charles R. Thompson (holding the 12th, 13th and 100th USCT).

Steedman, a Pennsylvanian, had no previous experience with black troops. Soon after the Nashville fight he was heard to comment, “I wonder what my Democratic friends…would think of me if they knew I was fighting…with ‘nigger’ troops?”

True to form, Morgan rushed to Steedman’s headquarters to lobby for some frontline service. About 9 p.m. on December 14, he learned what his role would be. As Morgan recalled, Steedman “said he wished me to open the fight by making a vigorous assault on Hood’s right flank.” He explained this was to be a feint, intended to convince Hood that it was the real attack, and lead him to support his right by weakening his left, “where Thomas intended to assault him in very deed.” When Morgan asked for tactical advice, Steedman merely waved him away, saying, “Tomorrow, Colonel, just as soon as you can see how to put your troops in motion, I wish you to begin the fight.”

Leaving instructions for his men to “have an early breakfast and be ready for serious work at daybreak,” Morgan scouted the Rebel position. His appraisal was mostly limited to a long-distance scrutiny of the enemy’s campfires, leading him to believe the Confederates had constructed a spur to their main lines running northeast across the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. This spur was covered by a ring of rifle pits, and Morgan concluded that “if the rifle-pits could be carried and a column pushed well to the rear [of the spur]…the ground east of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad [would] be given up to us with little loss.” What he missed in the darkness was a small lunette the Rebels had built on the tip of the spur, where they had placed four cannons.

Recalled Captain Henry Romeyn of the 14th USCT: “Camp was astir at 4 a.m., and breakfast had been eaten long before daybreak. One hundred rounds of ammunition per man and two days’ rations were issued, and just as the first grey streaks of dawn appeared, the companies ‘fell in,’ leaving tents standing.” Even though Morgan’s men were ready to advance by 6:30 a.m., another 90 minutes would pass before Steedman released them, mostly because of a thick fog covering the area. While Morgan’s USCT regiments marched out the Murfreesboro Pike to get past the spur, one of the white brigades involved cut in behind Morgan to move more directly against the position the other black brigade would press it from the east.

At first everything went according to Morgan’s scenario. His three black regiments taking part in the operation (two other regiments were posted elsewhere) formed into three lines of battle. At the front was the 14th, with the 17th USCT under Colonel William R. Shafter next in line followed by Colonel Lewis Johnson’s 44th USCT. The black troops were supported on their right by a small white brigade under Lt. Col. Charles H. Grosvenor. A combat outfit in name only, Grosvenor’s command consisted of three regiments, one of which was detached as a flank guard, leaving him with the 18th Ohio and a unit culled from what the colonel later described as “new conscripts, convalescents, and bounty jumpers.”

When all was ready in Morgan’s front, Lt. Col. Corbin of the 14th gave the command “Forward!” waving his sword overhead. According to Romeyn, “Pushing on, the right of the skirmish-line passing through an orchard and cornfield and the left through a field lately cleared of timber and thickly strewn with stumps and piles of brush, over the crest of the slope it had ascended, it found itself on a sloping field…and face to face with heavy earthworks on its opposite side, from which, came at once a heavy and deadly fire of both artillery and infantry.” The right half of the skirmish line went to the ground, while the left trailed off to the south to engage what Romeyn called “a strong force of rebel skirmishers.”

When it was time for the 17th USCT to take up the momentum and sweep past the enemy’s exposed spur, Shafter’s men dutifully moved forward, passing abreast of the silent enemy lunette to their right. Once the black troops reached the railroad line, where they found their way blocked by a deep cut in the right of way, the Rebel cannoneers opened fire. Just then the Confederate infantry and artillery swung out from the entrenched line directly in front of Shafter’s men. The 17th USCT was caught in devastating fire from the front, right flank and rear. “It was an awful battle,” Shafter later wrote. “We had the negroes in our trap,” related a Georgia soldier on the hill, “and when we commenced firing on them, complete demoralization followed. Many jumped into the [railroad] cut and were either killed or captured.” In his after-action report, Shafter stated that the 17th USCT was “soon obliged to fall back, which was done in rather a disorderly manner.”

Even as Rebel fire was ripping into Shafter’s ranks, Morgan ordered Grosvenor’s brigade to launch a supporting attack. Although a portion of the 18th Ohio actually reached the enemy’s main line, the composite regiment— according to Shafter— “behaved in the most cowardly and disgraceful manner,” and this effort also failed. Farther to the west, Thompson’s black brigade did little more than engage the Rebel skirmishers.

The action planned and executed by Colonel Morgan accomplished none of its tactical objectives. All his units withdrew to the Murfreesboro Pike, though later in the afternoon some of his soldiers occupied the Rains house, where they knocked loopholes in the walls and sniped at the Rebel lines. Morgan later consoled himself that his efforts had achieved their strategic purpose—attracting Hood’s attention— thus making possible the grand Union success on the other flank. Sadly, he gave himself and his men too much credit. The fog and poor conditions that had held up his advance until 8 a.m. caused similar delays on the Union right. Not until 10 a.m. were things underway there by then Hood was not only apprised of the limited number of troops operating against his right, he also knew that Morgan’s effort had failed.

The heaviest casualties among the black troops occurred in Shafter’s regiment. The colonel of the 17th USCT later reported 17 of his men killed or mortally wounded and 67 wounded. In the 14th USCT there were 4 killed, 41 wounded and 20 missing, while the 44th suffered four wounded. “Colored soldiers had fought side by side with white troops,” Morgan enthused. “They had assisted each other from the field when wounded, and they lay side by side in death….The day that we had longed to see had come and gone, and the Sun went down upon a record of coolness, bravery, manliness, never to be unmade. A new chapter in the history of liberty had been written. It had been shown that marching under a flag of freedom, animated by a love of liberty, even a slave becomes a man and hero.”

News of the Union’s success at Nashville on the 15th reached Washington via telegraph late that evening. A copy of the message was brought to the Willard Hotel, where Grant was preparing to leave for Nashville and relieve Thomas for failing to act with enough celerity. But details of the day’s battle changed all that. “Push the enemy now,” Grant urged in his reply, “and give him no rest until he is entirely destroyed.” That is precisely what George Thomas intended to do.

On December 16, a cloudy and showery day, the Federals began feeling their way south from the line of Rebel works they had taken the previous day. Even though the Confederates had abandoned their earthworks during the night, it was not until 6 a.m.—and only after he had received orders from Thomas to do so—that Steedman moved to occupy the enemy trenches. It took him five hours to catch up with the rest of Thomas’ army, which was spreading out to confront the new defensive position occupied by Hood’s veterans.

Thomas’ basic plan for December 16 was a repeat of the first day: diversionary actions against the Confederate right, with the main blow to be delivered against the enemy’s left. But the Union IV Corps and its aggressive commander, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, moved into position opposite the Rebel right center. Having missed most of the fighting on the 15th, Wood was determined to grab a piece of the glory. He decided on his own to attack the Southern right with all his strength, hoping to cut off Hood’s retreat route.

It would not be easy. The Confederate flank was anchored on high ground known as Overton Hill in some accounts, or Peach Orchard Hill in others. As Wood prepared for the attack, his enthusiasm infected Steedman, who resolved not just to support the effort, but also to put some units into the attacking column.

Since Morgan’s brigade had taken the worst of it on December 15, Steedman decided that Thompson’s brigade would now get the call. Grosvenor’s brigade, which had performed so poorly the previous morning, would support Thompson. But this time Grosvenor had a small black regiment, the 18th USCT, added to his command. Union cannons were rolled forward to begin a heavy bombardment of the Confederate position. The artillery barrage lasted until about 2:45 p.m., when General Wood gave the order to attack.

When Captain Henry V. Freeman of the 12th USCT got a good look at the Rebel-held hill, he wasn’t happy with what he saw. “It was probably their strongest position,” he later declared. “The slope of the hill was obstructed by tree-tops. The approach was over a ploughed field, the heavy soil of which, clinging to the feet, greatly impeded progress.” Facing the 12th, Freeman noted, “was a thicket of trees and underbrush so dense as to be almost impenetrable, constituting a kind of wooded island, in the midst of the cornfield.”

Thompson’s attack was set up with the 100th and 12th USCT regiments in a first line of battle, supported by the 13th. Captain D.E. Straight of the 100th remembered that as his men watched the preparatory artillery bombardment, the rank and file understood that the cannonade was “only the prelude to an undertaking more fearful and terrible.” A few men came to their officers or sergeants with their money or valuables for safekeeping. “This and little talk among themselves showed a settled resolution, to unflinchingly face death in the cause of freedom and nationality,” Straight noted.

“One of the batteries gave the signal, and the troops moved to the assault,” Freeman later wrote. A Rebel gunner on Overton Hill observed: “On they came in splendid order, banners flying, mounted officers with drawn swords careering up and down in front of the lines. Then our artillery had its opportunity.” As Freeman recalled, “A shell took a file of men from one company, burying itself in the ground at the feet of the company following. Men were falling on all sides.” Captain Straight wrote that the “air seemed as full of the death-laden missiles as of hail in a driving hailstorm.”

One of the wounded troops in the 12th USCT seemed uncertain of how to react. “Captain, I am wounded,” he called out. “What shall I do?” That man—who would die of his wounds—was told to lie down as the battle lines moved on. Meanwhile Confederate fire continued to tear into the ranks of the 100th and 12th. A heavy thicket through which the 12th had to pass resulted in more fatalities. The officers opted to make the passage a company at a time, slowing down the 12th and separating it from the 100th, and also causing the men to bunch together as they hurried to catch up. “They were so compact that every shot from Rebel muskets and cannon was telling with fearful effect,” Freeman noted. Het geskryf New York Times correspondent Benjamin C. Truman, “The rebel infantry blazed away at a fearful rate, and the artillery discharged sixteen shots of canister, which made the assaulting column reel, waver, and almost fall back.”

As these two regiments stumbled to a halt, unable to advance any farther, the 13th USCT kept moving. It was the 13th’s first battle, and what the raw soldiers saw that day was demoralizing. Among the first to be hit was Private Alexander Helms. A friend caught him as he was spun around by the impact of the bullet, then gently lowered him to the ground. “Lord have mercy,” Helms groaned as his comrades moved past. Nearby, Private William Smith was struck in the breast by a Minié ball that tore through several layers of clothing before flattening itself, merely bruising the stunned soldier.

Also advancing in the 13th USCT was Private Newton Tucker, whose family lived in Nashville. During the regiment’s march to the front earlier that month, the men had passed through town, but there had been no time for a halt. Tucker’s wife Mary and their 2-year-old son had anxiously scanned the passing files until he passed. When he finally did see his family, Tucker had stopped just long enough to bow to them.

Helped by the attention focused on the other two USCT units, and by the efforts of Wood’s troops farther to the right, the 13th USCT got closer to the Rebel works than any other regiment in action on that flank that day. Perhaps the unluckiest surviving member of the unit was Private John Beach, a 200-pounder who had bragged that a “man could bust an inch plank over my head and not faze it….” Midway through the charge, Beach was knocked to the ground by a shell that tore off his knapsack and equipment. Although he injured his hip in the fall, Beach continued on. But nearing the enemy’s line, he was shot in his head and face. “This so jarred my hard skull & fractured it,” Beach later testified, “I fell senseless to the ground.” Roused to consciousness when the regiment began retreating, Beach lumbered after his comrades—only to be hit a third time, this time in the side. Amazingly, he lived to tell this story for many years after the war.

Rebel gunfire also decimated the 13th’s color guard, which had brought the standards to within 30 feet of the enemy line. “There were very few negroes who retreated in our front,” declared an Alabama soldier on Overton Hill, “and none were at their post when the firing ceased for we fired as long as there was anything to shoot at.” While the 13th’s shattered ranks tumbled back, the adjutant of the 18th Alabama Infantry stepped out from behind the breastworks to pick up the fallen flag. “The bearer was dead, as were nearly all of his comrades,” the Alabamian reported.

As Thompson’s troops retreated, they passed a section of the 14th USCT that had come forward to cover them. Captain Romeyn had no trouble tracing their path, as “the ground [was] strewn with dead and wounded as thickly as a farmer’s field with sheaves of a more peaceful reaper.” He remembered the “color corporal of the 12th, the only man of it left on his feet, standing beside his color, the staff of which he had driven into the soft ground, and loading and firing….Before many seconds had passed a glancing shot struck the side of his head, and pulling up his flag he drew from beneath the dead [color] sergeant the stars and stripes, and with both under one arm, and his musket in the other hand, the blood streaming down his face, he strode proudly back through the supporting line.”

Wood’s unscheduled attack achieved none of its objectives. On the extreme left of the Rebel position, long hours of stalemate were broken when Federal infantry captured a key hill, unleashing Thomas’ cavalry to sweep into the enemy’s rear, instigating a dramatic collapse of the entire Confederate line. A jubilant 100th USCT officer wrote in his diary that the “Rebs under Hood are the worst-whipped army that was ever in this part of the U.S.”

As the Confederate left flank dissolved into fleeing remnants, troops posted on Overton Hill began to pull back as well. Along Wood’s front, what one officer called a “wave of action” occurred as regiments, without orders, rushed into the emptying Rebel trenches. Steedman’s troops were also caught up in the moment reporter Truman watched as a group of USCT men “reached the top [of the hill], and with a yell, went over the works….As soon as the hill was taken, the colored troops pitched after the retreating rebels, chasing them through a valley nearly a mile.”

Behind them, scattered across Overton Hill, were the black men who had paid such a terrible price for Steed – man’s impulsive decision to join in Wood’s unplanned assault. The 100th lost 12 killed, 121 wounded the 12th had 10 killed, 104 wounded. But the 13th had suffered the worst: 55 dead and 166 wounded or missing. Among the dead in the 13th was Newton Tucker, who had bowed to his wife and child as his regiment hurried through town.

On December 17, General Thomas ordered his forces to pursue the remnants of Hood’s army. For the next 10 days, Billy Yanks and Johnny Rebs staggered through a nightmare of hard marches in abominable weather with few supplies. “Many of the officers and men were barefoot,” reported Colonel Hottenstein of the 13th USCT, “and never did men display more soldierly qualities than on this march without shoes and a great time without rations, they performed their duty cheerfully and without murmur.” On Christmas Day the first survivors of Hood’s beaten army reached the Tennessee River. A pontoon bridge was erected the following day, allowing the weary Rebels to cross over, ending the campaign.

Looking back, some of the white officers in the USCT units found inspiration in the record of the black troops who had fought at Nashville. “Who will say that men who fought and suffered as did these colored soldiers have not fairly earned for themselves and their race the freedom which the war gave them?” Captain Freeman asked in 1888. In concluding his 1885 account of the battle, Colonel Morgan declared, “I cannot close this paper without expressing the conviction that history has not yet done justice to the share borne by colored soldiers in the war for the Union.” Morgan also related that soon after the Federals had seized Overton Hill, Thomas and his staff had ridden over the bloody ground there. Gazing across a muddy field where black and white bodies lay in the ultimate equality, Thomas had turned to those accompanying him and announced, “The question is settled negro soldiers will fight.”

Sergeant Major Daniel W. Atwood of the 100th USCT believed that the courage and sacrifice shown by the black troops contributed to more than a battlefield victory:

It was the first time in the memorable history of the Army of the Cumberland that the blood of black and white men flowed freely together for one common cause for a country’s freedom and independence. Each was cheered on to victory by the cooperation of the other, and now, as the result, wherever the flag of our love goes, our hopes may advance, and we may, as a people, with propriety claim political equality with our white fellow-soldier and citizen and every man that makes his home in our country may, whatever be his complexion or progeny, with propriety, exclaim to the world, “I am an American citizen!” I ask, is there not something in this over which to rejoice and be proud?

Noah Andre Trudeau is the author of Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War 1862-1865. Sy mees onlangse boek is Robert E. Lee: Lessons in Leadership, and he’s currently working on a book about Abraham Lincoln’s visit to City Point, Va., in 1865.

Originally published in the February 2013 issue of Civil War Times. Klik hier om in te teken.


Battle of Franklin Civil War Museum

Located just 20mi (32km) south of Nashville in the heart of historic downtown Franklin, the Battle of Franklin Civil War Museum is a must-see attraction for history buffs. Step back in time and discover one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War while touring pivotal war sites: the Carnton and Carter House. (The Lotz House is also nearby.) The museum offers classic guided tours every 30 minutes or so until 4pm, as well as extended tours, battlefield tours and slavery tours. Recommended by local insider Chaney Curd


Battle of Nashville

The battle of Nashville, fought December 15-16, 1864, continued the destruction of the Confederate Army of Tennessee that had begun when it suffered devastating casualties at Franklin. After that engagement, army commander John Bell Hood faced limited options. A withdrawal would further dishearten the army, and Hood rejected his former notion to bypass Nashville and head northward. The high toll at Franklin prevented him from seriously contemplating an assault at Nashville, another earlier scheme. Hood opted instead to bring his army to the city’s outskirts and await an attack from the Federals, hoping to counterattack if the enemy left an opening.

The Confederates moved north from Franklin in early December and established a five-mile defense line. There were serious flaws in the position, since it did not come close to covering all the major roads leading from the city. The army was situated so that Frank Cheatham’s corps occupied the right near the Nolensville Pike, Stephen D. Lee’s corps the center astride the Franklin Pike, and A. P. Stewart’s corps the left, crossing the Granny White Pike and bent back near the Hillsboro Pike. In spite of their efforts to entrench and strengthen their defenses, the Confederates were vulnerable on both flanks.

Hood’s adversary, General George Thomas, enjoyed several compelling advantages. His Federals occupied extraordinarily strong works, since Nashville by late 1864 was one of the most heavily fortified cities in America. Although it had taken time for Thomas to amass his force, by mid-December he had over fifty-four thousand effectives on hand at Nashville, well over twice Hood’s numbers. Thomas’s force represented a conglomeration of disparate elements, including the Fourth Army Corps from the Army of the Cumberland and John Schofield’s Twenty-third Army Corps, both sent back by William T. Sherman before he began the March to the Sea. There were also twelve thousand rugged troops led by Andrew J. Smith recently arrived from Missouri. Thomas intended to use these battle-hardened units to smite Hood. He concocted a plan to keep Cheatham on the Confederate right occupied, then concentrate the bulk of his army against Stewart, wheeling around the Southern left flank with overwhelming numbers.

Bitterly cold and inclement weather pushed into Middle Tennessee the second week of December, forcing Thomas to delay his attack. This sensible decision did not sit well with Union officials in far-off Washington or with Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia, who worried about Hood’s lingering presence in Middle Tennessee. Grant seriously contemplated replacing Thomas, but a thaw set in on December 13 and allowed Thomas to convene his officers and issue final orders for offensive operations.

Union troops under James Steedman moved out against Cheatham early on the morning of December 15. Bitter fighting erupted when Cheatham’s veterans discerned that black soldiers made up a portion of the Federal assaulting party. Although Steedman suffered heavy casualties, he effectively neutralized Cheatham while the main Yankee blow fell on Stewart. Although Stewart’s men resisted valiantly, they were outnumbered ten to one, and the massive pivot devised by Thomas threatened to crush the Confederates. Hood sent reinforcements, first from Lee and then from Cheatham, but relentless pressure forced Stewart back towards the Granny White Pike.

After dark Hood ordered a withdrawal nearly two miles to the south and aligned his men in a more compact position. Cheatham replaced Stewart on the Confederate left. Thomas for his part had no intention of abandoning his plans and decided to continue with his successful tactics the next day. He did modify his strategy to attempt an envelopment of both Confederate flanks, however. On December 16, Thomas impatiently awaited as his units, somewhat scattered and out of position, sorted themselves out. He grew increasingly frustrated at Schofield’s reluctance to attack, but Union artillery pounded the makeshift Southern defenses before the infantry assaulted. When they finally did so, Cheatham’s defenses crumbled. A pivotal salient occupied by the Twentieth Tennessee held out against a fierce Union artillery barrage from three directions, but Colonel William Shy and his men atop the hill were practically obliterated when Union infantry overran the summit. The remainder of Cheatham’s left collapsed, and the panic extended to Stewart’s troops in the center.

Only a skillful defense by Stephen D. Lee prevented Thomas from achieving his goal of encircling the Confederates and annihilating them. Lee pulled his corps back to the Overton Hills and managed to stave off the Federals. Lee continued his rear guard actions the next day, while the rest of the army passed through Franklin. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry and infantry fragments from eight brigades led by General Edward C. Walthall covered the withdrawal. Union cavalry persistently hounded the retreat until the Confederate survivors managed to cross the Tennessee River. Thomas called off the pursuit on December 29.

Hood lost some six thousand men at Nashville, many of them captured when they failed to make good their escape from the battlefield. Union casualties were just over three thousand. Tennessee historian Stanley Horn entitled a 1956 book about the campaign The Decisive Battle of Nashville, and Horn’s work is aptly titled when one considers that Thomas narrowly missed destroying Hood’s entire force. Yet Federal success at Nashville was aided tremendously by the earlier action at Franklin, which had demoralized many Southerners and decimated Hood’s best combat units. Psychologically devastated by the losses at Franklin and unwilling to be sacrificed at Nashville, many of Hood’s most courageous veterans broke and fled there.

The result of Hood’s Tennessee campaign, which began with such heady optimism in the fall, was the near-total disintegration of his army. The remnants of the army finally halted at Tupelo, Mississippi, but large numbers of men deserted along the way and others did so shortly after reaching Mississippi. Hood asked to be relieved on January 13, and Richmond authorities accepted the request. Twee noodlottige besluite deur Hood, die eerste wat 'n frontaanval op Franklin geloods het, en die tweede om Thomas in Nashville te wag, het sy leër in die veldtog gedoem. En George Thomas ontken sy reputasie as 'n stadige, onstuimige bevelvoerder deur 'n goed deurdagte uitklophou in Nashville te lewer.


Kyk die video: 2020 Gator Bowl Tennessee vs Indiana


Kommentaar:

  1. Sayad

    Dit stem saam, dit is 'n merkwaardige frase

  2. Icarius

    Dit is onnoselheid!

  3. Ordway

    Hierdie briljante frase sal handig te pas kom.

  4. Forrester

    Ja, dit is alles fantasties

  5. Edwaldo

    Ek kan nie nou aan bespreking deelneem nie - dit is baie beset. Maar ek sal vrygestel word - ek sal noodwendig skryf wat ek dink.

  6. Pericles

    Na my mening is jy nie reg nie. Ek kan die posisie verdedig. Skryf vir my in PM, sal ons bespreek.



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