Nathan Meeker

Nathan Meeker


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Nathan Meeker is gebore in Euclid, Ohio, op 12 Julie 1817. Hy het 'n verskeidenheid werksgeleenthede gehad. Behalwe dat hy onderwyser was, het hy ook as joernalis gewerk. Hy het ook 'n roman gepubliseer, maar teen 1865 was hy in diens van Horace Greeley om oor die landbou te skryf New York Herald.

Meeker, 'n volgeling van Charles Fourier, was 'n sterk voorstander van koöperatiewe boerdery. In 1870 help hy om 'n landboukolonie in Colorado te stig. Hy het die volgende agt jaar aan die projek gewerk.

In Maart 1878 word hy aangestel as die Indiese agent van die White River Ute -reservaat in Colorado. Daar is gehoop dat Meeker sy kennis oor boerdery aan die Utes sou kon oordra.

Meeker het die Utes ontstel deur hulle te probeer dwing om boere te word. In September 1879 het Meeker die weermag ingeroep om die moeilikheidmakers te hanteer. Op 29 September 1879 vermoor hoofman Douglas en 'n groep krygers Meeker en sewe ander lede van die agentskap. Dit het bekend geword as die Meeker -bloedbad.


Geskiedenis van Meeker en die Witriviervallei

Die Meeker -omgewing is ryk aan geskiedenis en die van die Ute -Indiane, wat die eerste mense in die omgewing was, en dié van die blanke setlaars wat in die laat 1800's hier begin boer, boer het en boer.

Meeker was die setel van die provinsie Rio Blanco County, 'n uitvloeisel van die 'Militêre kamp aan die Witrivier', 'n weermagbasis wat opgerig is om vrede te behou na die konflik tussen die Ute -Indiane en die Indiese agent Nathan Meeker. Hierdie voorval, wat op 29 September 1879 plaasgevind het, was die laaste konflik van die 1800's waarin die weermag versoek is om in te gryp.

Twee van die oorspronklike militêre kampgeboue is nou die tuiste van die White River Museum, een blok noord van hier. Die museum spog met wonderlike versamelings wat verteenwoordigend is van sowel die ou weste as die Ute -Indiese kultuur. Historiese hoogtepunte sluit in landelike skoolhuise, gevegsterreine en rotstekeninge. Selfgeleide stap- en ry-toere deur die omgewing is by die museum beskikbaar.

Die militêre teenwoordigheid het in 1883 geëindig, toe was boerdery, boerdery en handel reeds in die vallei van toepassing. Hierdie strewes is wat die gemeenskap vandag onderhou, tesame met die ontginning van energie, toerisme en ontspanning.

Alle foto's met vergunning van die White River Museum.
Vir meer inligting, besoek die Meeker Kamer van Koophandel by 710 Market

Opgerig deur Meeker Kamer van Koophandel.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplyste gelys: Nywerheid en handel en bul Inheemse Amerikaners en bul nedersettings en setlaars en buloorloë, Amerikaanse Indiër. 'N Beduidende historiese datum vir hierdie inskrywing is 29 September 1879.

Ligging. 40 & deg 2.25 ′ N, 107 & deg 54.815 ′ W. Marker is in Meeker, Colorado, in Rio Blanco County. Marker is by die kruising van Hoofstraat en 6de Straat, aan die regterkant wanneer u weswaarts op Hoofstraat reis. Marker is langs die sypaadjie in die noordoostelike hoek van die kruising geleë. Raak vir kaart. Marker is by of naby hierdie posadres: 555 Main Street, Meeker CO 81641, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 2 ander merkers is binne 4 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet soos die kraai vlieg. Oprigting van Meeker (binne skree afstand van hierdie merker) Nathan C. Meeker (ongeveer 6 myl weg).

Sien ook. . .
1. Geskiedenis van Meeker Colorado. Meer as 10 000 jaar gelede het nomadiese mense hierdie vrugbare vallei bewoon wat hulself onderhou deur wilde wild te jaag en om eetbare plantegroei te soek. Die trotse afstammelinge van hierdie mense of die “Ute ” het hulself met verskillende name geïdentifiseer, waarvan een die “Yampatika, ” of “ diegene was wat die wortel van die Yampa -plant eet. ” Meeker was die eerste opgeneem

stad in Noordwes -Colorado en is die setel van die provinsie van Rio Blanco County. Tot die laaste paar dekades was Meeker 'n stabiele landbougemeenskap wat soortgelyk was aan groei en grootte as ander dorpe in Noordwes -Colorado. Meeker het onlangs uitgebrei na die energiebedryf en olie, aardgas en steenkool is die belangrikste ekonomiese dryfvere vir die plaaslike gemeenskap. (Ingesit op 2 Januarie 2021 deur Cosmos Mariner van Cape Canaveral, Florida.)


Boom met wortels na die stigter van Greeley, Nathan Meeker, kom neer

Deel dit:

'N Lewende stuk uit die geskiedenis van Greeley het hierdie week verskyn. Maar die dood van 'n boom van byna 80 voet wat verband hou met die stigter van Greeley, Nathan Meeker, is moontlik nie die einde van die verhaal nie.

Woensdag het die Greeley -bosbou -afdeling begin toesig hou oor die verwydering van die Oostenrykse denne op die terrein van die Meeker Home Museum. Die boom is vermoedelik een van die oudstes in die stad, dateer uit die 1870's, en waarskynlik hierheen gebring deur Meeker of 'n familielid.

'N Plaaslike boomdiensonderneming het Woensdag voor 09:00 by die huis van die 9de Laan aangekom om die proses te begin om die boom af te haal. Volgens die stad se bosboubestuurder, Shiloh Hatcher, is die verwydering Donderdagmiddag voltooi.

Bemannings beplan hoe hulle 'n ongeveer 80 voet lange Oostenrykse denneboom sal verwyder wat die afgelope paar jaar in die Meeker Home Museum in Greeley op 3 Maart 2021 aan verskeie harde vriespunte beswyk het. Die boom, waarskynlik een van die oudstes in die stad, moontlik deur 'n lid van die Meeker -familie geplant is. (Alex McIntyre/personeelfotograaf)

Hatcher het gesê dat die boom 'n slagoffer was van 'n paar ernstige vriesgebeurtenisse in die herfs van 2019 en die lente van 2020. Gegewe die ouderdom van die boom - minstens 100 jaar oud en miskien ouer, volgens Hatcher - kon dit nie die ryp en dramatiese temperatuur oorleef nie swaaie.

Hatcher is 'n boomplant, of 'n boomdokter. 'N Boomboer evalueer, ondersoek en diagnoseer toestande in bome, struike en ander houtagtige plante.

Die dood van die Oostenrykse denne, wat nie 'n inheemse spesie in Colorado is nie, was betekenisvol vir Hatcher. Hy en kollegas binne en buite die stad kyk al amper 'n jaar na die boom. Hatcher het gesê dat hulle vroeg in Mei 2020 skade aan die vries opgemerk het. Hoewel Hatcher nie verwag het dat die Meeker -denne van die vries sou herstel nie, wou die boomryke die boom die kans gee om terug te kom.

'Ek sou nie sê ek noem dit persoonlik nie,' het Hatcher gesê. 'Dit is tussenin en ernstig vernederend, met betrekking tot die klein komponente wat ons vergelyk met die lang lewe van ons wêreld. Dit is geplant deur die Meeker -gesin, en hier is ons. Dit verneder jou. Het hulle geweet dat dit vandag hier sou wees as hulle dit plant? ”

Bob Kitchell, inwoner van Greeley, het 'n groot belangstelling in tuinmaak en landskap. Hy het in die sewentigerjare na Greeley verhuis om na UNC te gaan en was betrokke by plaaslike tuinmeester- en bosbouprogramme. Hy het die verswakte gesondheid van die Oostenrykse Pine opgemerk die afgelope herfs toe die naalde bruin word.

Kitchell voel seker die boom dateer uit die 1870's, nie lank nadat Meeker en sy gesin in die omgewing aangekom het nie. Kitchell het gesê dat daar 'n historiese gedenkplaat op die perseel is met 'n prentjie uit die laat 1800's. Die boom is sigbaar op die foto, wat Kitchell laat glo dat die boom nader aan 150 jaar oud kan wees.

'Van die perde- en karretyd tot nou,' het Kitchell gesê. 'Dit is 'n hartseer werklikheid.'

Hatcher het gesê nadat die boom af is, kry hy 'n sny van die stam, behandel hy die ringe en trek dan 'n bietjie meer om 'n beter idee te kry van die ouderdom van die boom.

'Dit is meer 'n kwessie dat ons tyd het om dit so te sê onder 'n mikroskoop te plaas,' het Hatcher gesê. "Dit gaan 'n rukkie neem."

Oor ongeveer agt maande sal die boom op 'n voldoende vlak gedroog word sodat Hatcher en sy stadskollegas kan begin dink oor die hergebruik. Hatcher het gesê dat hy 'n idee gehad het om 'n deel van die boom te gebruik om nog 'n historiese gedenkplaat op die perseel te skep. Dit is 'n idee, 'n gedagte.

'Ons gaan dit in iets bruikbaar maak en die historiese aspek van die boom behou,' het Hatcher gesê. 'Dit gaan nie verdwyn nie. Dit sal bruikbaar word en dit sal behoue ​​bly en funksioneel wees. Hoe dit lyk, weet ons nie. ”

Hatcher het gesê die stad beplan om 'n boom op die Meeker -eiendom te herplant om die Oostenrykse denne te vervang. Nog 'n denne in die omgewing het verlore gegaan weens 'n kewerbesmetting wat nie in die Oostenrykse variëteit gesien is nie.

'Dit is die maklike deel,' het Hatcher gesê oor die herplanting. 'Dit is die moeilike deel om bome tot 100 jaar oud te word.'


Borge

WyoHistory.org verwelkom die ondersteuning van die volgende borge. Kontak ons ​​by [email protected] vir inligting oor vlakke en tipes beskikbare borgskappe. Vir meer inligting oor ons borge en die mense agter WyoHistory.org, besoek ons ​​webwerf oor ons:


Legends of America

Ute Indiane deur die Detroit Photographic Company

Met die moontlike uitsondering van die Ghost Dance -uitbraak van die Sioux in 1890, was die Meeker -bloedbad waarskynlik die gewelddadigste uitdrukking van die inheemse Amerikaanse wrok teenoor die reservaatstelsel.

Die Ute -Indiane, wat in September 1879 in die huidige Rio Blanca County, Colorado, by die White River Agency plaasgevind het, was keelvol vir Nathan C. Meeker, die Indiese agent, en sy handelsmerk van bestuur. ”

Die White River Agency is in 1873 gestig vir verskeie groepe Ute -Indiane, wat in 'n verdrag ooreengekom het om daar 'n reservaat te skik. Vyf jaar later het Frederick Walker Pitkin 'n veldtog gevoer oor 'n tema van “Die Utes moet gaan! ”, is verkies tot goewerneur van Colorado. Sowel Pitkin as ander plaaslike politici en setlaars het oordrewe bewerings teen die Ute -stam gemaak, omdat hulle die ryk grond wou bekom wat hulle ingevolge 'n verdrag in 1867 wou bekom.

Dieselfde jaar dat Pitkin tot goewerneur aangestel is, is Nathan C. Meeker, stigter van die stad Greeley, Colorado, aangestel as Indiese agent vir die White River Agency. Meeker, wat nie ervaring gehad het met inheemse Amerikaners nie, het probeer om die beleid van godsdiens- en boerderyhervormings uit te brei.

Die Ute weerstaan ​​Meeker se on -diplomatieke en hardnekkige pogings om hulle te laat boer, vee in te samel, hul ponie -wedrenne en jagtogte te staak en hul kinders skool toe te stuur. Hulle het ook 'n ergernis gehad oor die indringers se inbreuk op hul voorbehoud en die swak bestuur van die Indiese Buro.

Toe Meeker beweer dat hy tydens 'n klein rusie deur 'n onderdoek aangerand is, het die regering ongeveer 150-200 soldate gestuur, onder leiding van majoor Thomas T. Thornburgh, bevelvoerder van Fort Steele, Wyoming, om die saak af te handel.

Op 29 September 1879, voordat die soldate opdaag, val die Indiane die agentskap aan, verbrand die geboue en vermoor Meeker en tien van sy werknemers. Meeker se vrou, dogter en nog 'n meisie is 23 dae lank as gevangenes aangehou.

Intussen val die Ute die naderende troepe van Fort Steele aan in wat bekend staan ​​as die Slag van Milk Creek, Colorado. In hierdie skermutseling is die Ute verslaan en die opstand beëindig.

'N Ets wat verskyn het in die 6 Desember 1879 -uitgawe van Frank Leslie se geïllustreerde koerant beeld die nasleep van die “Meeker -slagting uit. ” Meeker -graf links onder W.H. Postgraf regs onder

Die gevegsterrein is geleë op Colorado Highway 64, ongeveer drie kilometer wes van Meeker. Dit word aangedui deur 'n houtmerker aan die suidekant van die snelweg, maar die geveg het eintlik plaasgevind in 'n privaat weiland aan die noordekant van die Witrivier. 'N Paar spore van die bou van fondamente onthul die ligging van die Indiese agentskap. 'N Monument dui die plek aan waar Meeker gesterf het.


Nathan Meeker

Nathanial C. Meeker (12 Julie 1817-30 September 1879) was 'n 19de-eeuse (Amerikaanse) joernalis, 'n boerdery-entrepreneur en 'n Indiese agent vir die federale regering. Hy is bekend vir sy stigting in 1870 van die Union Colony, 'n koöperatiewe landboukolonie in die huidige Greeley, Colorado. In 1878 word hy aangestel as 'n Amerikaanse agent by die White River Indian Agency in die weste van Colorado, en word hy die volgende jaar deur Utes vermoor in wat bekend geword het as die Meeker -bloedbad, deel van die Ute -oorlog. Sy vrou en volwasse dogter is vir ongeveer drie weke gevange geneem. In 1880 het die Amerikaanse kongres strafwetgewing aangeneem om die Utes uit Colorado te verwyder na reservate in die huidige Utah, en 'n stuk grond wat hulle voorheen gewaarborg het, weg te neem.

Nathan Cook Meeker is gebore in Euclid, Ohio. As jong man trou hy met 'n vrou met die naam Arvilla en hulle het 'n gesin gehad. Hy het 'n koerantverslaggewer geword vir die New York Tribune, waar hy in die 1860's, toe hy in die vyftigerjare was, as landbouredakteur gedien het. Baie geïnteresseerd in die Weste, in 1866 het hy Life in the West geskryf. Hy het in 1869 na die Rocky Mountain -streek gegaan vir die Tribune, en is geïnspireer om 'n utopiese landbougemeenskap daar te beplan.

Met die steun van sy redakteur Horace Greeley, het Meeker die Union Colony gereël om in die Colorado -gebied gevestig te word. Hy het geadverteer dat aansoekers na die South Platte River -bekken sou verhuis, in wat bedoel was as 'n samewerkingsonderneming vir mense van hoë morele standaarde.

Met die kapitaal uit die aandele, koop Meeker 2000 hektaar naby die huidige Greeley by die samevloeiing van die South Platte en die Cache la Poudre (Powder Bag) riviere. Die onderneming, wat op finansiering van Horace Greeley staatgemaak het, was aanvanklik suksesvol. Die setlaars het besproeiingstegnieke na die noordweste van Colorado gebring en het gehelp om bykomende landbou nedersettings in die streek te lok. Die stad Greeley is ingelyf in 1886. Die oorheersende Amerikaanse Indiese stamme in die omgewing was groepe van Utes, wat gesukkel het met die gevolge van Europees-Amerikaanse inbreuk op hul lande.

In 1878, agt jaar na die stigting van die kolonie, is Meeker aangestel as die Amerikaanse (Amerikaanse) Indiese agent by die White River Ute Indian Reservation, aan die westekant van die kontinentale kloof. Sy politieke aanstelling is gemaak ondanks sy gebrek aan ervaring met inheemse Amerikaners. Terwyl hy tussen die Utes gewoon het, het Meeker probeer om sy beleid oor godsdiens- en boerderyhervormings uit te brei.

Meeker wou die Utes verander van wat hy as 'n toestand van primitiewe wreedheid beskou het, om boere te word wat op 'n manier werk wat hy voorskryf. Hy is gewaarsku dat die Ute 'n hekel het aan sy hervormings en pogings tot bekering. Meeker het die waarskuwings geïgnoreer en gelas dat 'n perdewedrenbaan ondergeploeg word om die baan en die weivelde van die perde in landbougrond te omskep. Die Utes, wie se perde die belangrikste bron van status en rykdom was, het die bevel as 'n belediging beskou. Meeker het aan een man voorgestel dat die stam te veel perde het en dat hulle 'n paar moet doodmaak om meer grond aan die landbou oor te gee. [Aanhaling benodig]

Die pas verkose goewerneur van Colorado, Frederick Walker Pitkin, het hom beywer vir 'n tema van "The Utes Must Go!" Hulle wou die ryk grond verkry wat die Utes ingevolge die Verdrag van 1867 beset het.

Nadat hy die baan laat ploeg het, het Meeker 'n gespanne gesprek met 'n ontstoke Ute -hoof gehad. Meeker het militêre hulp aangesluit en beweer dat hy deur 'n Indiër aangerand is, uit sy huis verdryf en ernstig beseer is. Die regering het ongeveer 150-200 soldate, onder leiding van majoor Thomas T. Thornburgh, bevelvoerder van Fort Steele in Wyoming, gestuur om die saak af te handel. Toe die troepe ongeveer 80 kilometer van die Indian Agency af was, het 'n groep Utes hulle tegemoet gery. Die Utes het gesê dat hulle 'n vredeskonferensie met Meeker wil hê, en hulle sal toelaat dat Thornburgh en vyf soldate kom. Met die herinnering aan die Sand Creek -slagting van 1864, wou die Utes dat die hoofgroep soldate 80 myl weg was op 'n heuwel wat hulle aangewys het. Thornburgh het hul eis geïgnoreer en na die beperkte Ute -land gegaan.

Op 29 September 1879 voor troepe aangekom het, val die Utes die Indiese agentskap aan, hulle vermoor Meeker en sy tien manlike werknemers. Hulle het 'n paar vroue en kinders as gyselaars geneem om hul eie veiligheid te verseker terwyl hulle vlug, en hulle 23 dae lank aangehou. Twee van die vroue wat gevange geneem is, was van Meeker se familie: sy vrou Arvilla en dogter Josephine, pas afgestudeer aan die kollege en werk as onderwyser en dokter.

By Milk Creek aan die noordelike rand van die reservaat, ongeveer 30 kilometer van die agentskap af, het Ute -krygers Thornburgh se magte aangeval. In die eerste minute se vuurwisseling is majoor Thornburgh en 13 mans dood, insluitend al sy offisiere bo die rang van kaptein. Nog 28 mans is gewond en driekwart van die perde en muile is doodgemaak, maar troepe het agter die wa-treine en diere se lyke ingeduik vir verdediging. Een man het hard gery om 'n versoek om versterkings te kry. Die Amerikaanse magte het etlike dae aangehou, gehelp deur 35 swart kavaleriste (bekend as Buffelsoldate) van Fort Lewis in die suide van Colorado, wat deur die vyandelike lyne gekom het. Die land is geëlektrifiseer deur die nuus oor die twee Ute -aanvalle in Colorado. Verskeie van die Utes het ontsnap en oorwinter in North Park, waar hul wickiups nog staan.

Groter hulpkolomme van die Amerikaanse weermag is gestuur van forte Fred Steele en David A. Russell, albei gevestig in die Wyoming -gebied na die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog as deel van die Departement van Dakota. Kolonel David Merritt het bevel gegee oor 350 troepe wat per trein gereis en opgeruk het om die oorlewende magte op Milk Creek op 8 Oktober te bereik. Hulle het die troepe gered en die Ute -opstand in die Slag van Milk Creek neergesit. In die lente het die Amerikaanse leërmagte in die lente op die terrein van die voormalige Indiese agentskap kamp op Witrivier gebou, wat die leër tot 1883 beset het. 'N Paar geboue bly nog oor van die weermagkamp.

Die jaar daarna het die Amerikaanse kongres verhore gehou oor die slagting en ander omstandighede. Ter weerwraak van die moorde het hulle die Ute -verwyderingswet aanvaar. Die wet het die Ute 49 miljoen km2 grond ontken wat voorheen vir ewig aan hulle gewaarborg is. Die kongres het daarop aangedring dat die Utes met geweld uit die “Shining Mountains ” verwyder word en na die ooste van Utah verplaas word.

Chief Ouray van die Uncompahgre Ute, wat nie by die opstand betrokke was nie, het probeer om die vrede te behou na die bloedbad en aanval op weermagmagte. Hy en sy vrou Chipeta het gehelp om te onderhandel oor die vrylating van die vroue en kinders wat as gyselaars geneem is. Ondanks sy pogings het die regering sy mense ook gedwing om die westelike helling te verlaat en na die nuwe reservaat in Utah te verhuis. Hy is kort ná hierdie besluit dood. Op 28 Augustus 1881 is sy mense met geweld na die Utah -gebied verplaas.

Die Meeker Memorial Museum in Greeley, Colorado, die voormalige tuiste van Meeker.

Meeker, Colorado, is na hom vernoem.

Mount Meeker, 'n korter buurman van Longs Peak, die hoogste berg in die Rocky Mountain National Park, is na hom vernoem.

Die Meeker Memorial Museum is geleë op 1324 9th Avenue Greeley, Colorado. Dit was oorspronklik die huis van Nathan Meeker.


Nathan Meeker - Geskiedenis

Die tydperk onmiddellik na die verkenning van die weermag in die 1850's kan gekenmerk word as 'n periode van kulturele oorgang, die agteruitgang van een manier van lewe en die vooruitgang en oorheersing van 'n ander. Eeue voor 1860 het die Ute -Indiese inwoners van die suidweste van Colorado seisoenale jagvelde en 'n dwalende lewenswyse gehandhaaf, met slegs nominale inmenging van Europese en Amerikaanse ontdekkingsreisigers, vallers, handelaars en naburige Indiese stamme. 'N Gebrek aan belangstelling in die suidweste van Colorado as 'n gebied vir Amerikaanse uitbreiding in die 1840's en 1850's, is beperkte indringings op die Ute -gebied. Tog het die twee dekades na 1860, die tydperk van talle minerale stormloop na Colorado, soveel migrasies na die gebied bygewoon dat die Utes die byna onmoontlike taak om hul bestaan ​​te behou, die hoof gebied het. Die vroeë myngeskiedenis in die suidweste van Colorado en die agteruitgang van die Ute -Indiese kultuur is so verweef dat dit byna dieselfde verhaal is. [1]

Die lokmiddel van minerale rykdom het die poorte van die grens in die suidweste van Colorado effektief oopgemaak, en met daaropvolgende mynekspedisies wat die bergversperrings in die gebied binnegedring het, het daar gepaardgekom. Mynbou in die suidweste van Colorado was nie van die verbygaande plek wat die vroeë aktiwiteite in die sentrale Rockies gekenmerk het nie. Om die minerale rykdom in die berge effektief te onttrek, was die ontginning van tegnieke noodsaaklik. Die gevolg was 'n behoefte aan groot masjinerie, 'n aansienlike arbeidsmag, gevorderde freeswerke en vervoer. Daarom het die vroeë mynperiode in die streek baie vroeg 'n stedelike situasie meegebring. [2] Uit hul voorvaderlike jagvelde verplaas en deur 'n reeks verdrae beperk in hul bewegings, het die Utes in die 1860's en 1870's die gewig van die opkomende mynbougrens toenemend gevoel. Die oorstromende magte van die Anglo-Amerikaanse beskawing het so 'n momentum gekry dat die gebied van die Utes vinnig verander is van 'n geïsoleerde wildernis na 'n wemel van opgewondenheid en baie van die eienskappe van die meer gevestigde Front Range. [3]

Die konflik wat die gevolg was van Ute se weerstand teen die groeiende mynbougrens, was basies 'n geskil oor die 'korrekte' gebruik van die streek, eerder as 'n gevolg van ras. Die oorgang in die besetting van suidwestelike Colorado wat in die jare van 1860 tot 1881 plaasgevind het, kan beskou word as 'n reeks gebeurtenisse wat deur hierdie basiese antagonisme gevorm is. Om die oorgang te verstaan, is dit egter nodig om die geskiedenis van die Ute-Indiane en die kontak met die Spaanse nedersettings in New Mexico kortliks te hersien voordat Amerikaanse mynbelange in die streek binnegekom het.

Die dokumentêre geskiedenis van die Ute Indiane van Colorado begin met beskikbare rekords van die Spaanse administrasie in New Mexico. Die aanvanklike interaksie tussen hierdie twee kulture het gekom as gevolg van 'n geleidelike beweging noordwaarts, van Mexiko, van 'n Spaanse koloniale grens in die jare van 1540 tot 1580. [4] Die Utes het voor hierdie tyd kontak gemaak met die pueblo -dorpe van New Mexico, en was gewoond daaraan om in die omgewing te oorwinter. Gedurende die vroeë Spaanse koloniale tydperk in die suidweste, is die Ute, tesame met die Apache, in Spaanse kronieke gerapporteer dat dit naby die Spaanse grens was. Die Ute beskou die sentrums van Spaanse invloed egter, anders as die Apache, nie as inbreuk op hul eie territoriale regte nie, en daarom was die vroeë Ute -verhouding met die Spanjaarde vreedsaam. [5] Een aspek van hierdie vroeë verhoudings beïnvloed die ontwikkeling van die Ute -kultuur tot in die "besprekingsperiode".

Die bekendstelling van die perd in die Ute -kultuur omstreeks 1640 het die lewens van hierdie bergindiane oneindig verander. [6] Voor hierdie tyd het individuele Ute -gesinne elke somer en herfs op hert en elande in die berge deurgebring en neute en bessies versamel. Gewoonlik het hulle in die riviervalleie van die weste van Colorado oorwinter, elke lente het hulle kortliks in groter groepe vergader voordat hulle weer op soek was na voedsel. [7] Teen die middel van die sewentiende eeu is jagpogings op die perd uitgevoer. Utes het in die somer en vroeë herfs buffels op die oostelike vlaktes agtervolg, en in die vroeë wintermaande teruggekeer na die San Luis -vallei of die Uncompahgre -riviervallei met meer as genoeg vleis en velle om hul gesinne te voed en te beklee. Die skep van 'n ekonomiese surplus deur hierdie meer doeltreffende jagmetodes het dit moontlik gemaak vir verspreide gesinne om onder groter leiding in groter groepe saam te groepeer. [8] Bandkonsolidasie, aanvanklik 'n ekonomiese funksie vir die verskaffing van voedsel en skuiling, het ook militêre implikasies gehad. Verhoogde mobiliteit wat die perd bied, het die Utes na die gebied van die Indiese stamme van die Vlakte geneem, waar omstrede jagvoorregte dikwels tot interstamoorlogvoering gelei het. Namate die gebruik van perde vir jag en strooptogte in die laaste helfte van die sewentiende eeu wydverspreid geword het, is die sewe groepe Utes, waarmee ons vandag vertroud is, gevorm. Die Weeminuche-, Capote- en Mouache -groepe was hoofsaaklik in die San Luis -vallei gesentreer. Die Tabeguache- of Uncompahgre -band was gebaseer langs die Gunnison- en Uncompahgre -riviere. Die Grand River-, Yampa- en Uintah -bande is in die noordweste van Colorado gelokaliseer.

Om die omvang van jag uit te brei, het die Ute -bande probeer om perde te bekom deur handel met Taos en Santa Fe. In die laaste helfte van die sewentiende eeu het die Utes vreedsame betrekkinge met die New Mexico -nedersettings ontwikkel, ondanks die groei van die Spaanse militêre mag op die grens van die Ute -domein. In 1675 het die goewerneur van New Mexico, Miguel Otermin, 'n verdrag aangegaan met die suidelike Ute -bande om die tradisioneel vyandige Apache in die daaropvolgende jare te beveg; hulle is gebruik om herhalende Pueblo -afwykings te onderdruk. Nog later het die Uter dieselfde funksie as bondgenote in die Spaanse oorloë teen die Commanche gedien. Vreedsame ruilhandel, veral vir perde, het die weg gebaan vir hierdie alliansies.

Die proses van konsolidasie van die Ute -Indiese orkes en uitgebreide jagpatrone op die oostelike vlaktes het rondom die begin van die sewentiende eeu verskerp met die verskyning van die Commanche in die weste van Texas. As gevolg van die Commanche -migrasie het nuwe aansporings die Ute verder na die vlaktes getrek.

Die Commanche was ryk aan perde. Namate die mobiliteit onder die Utes toegeneem het, kon 'n nuwe aanbod perde goedkoper verkry word as deur handel met die Spaanse. Die jare 1727 tot en met 1786 word deur konstante oorlogvoering tussen die Ute en Commanche bygewoon. Ook gedurende hierdie tydperk is die alliansie tussen Spaans en Ute versterk.

Die agtiende eeu was vir die Utes 'n gebied van territoriale uitbreiding en bandkonsolidasie en vreedsame kontak met Spaanse en Nieu -Mexikaanse handelaars. Maar in die tyd toe die Utes hul jaggebied na die suide en ooste uit die suidweste van Colorado uitbrei, het hulle vasgeval weens massiewe bewegings van Commanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne en Arapaho langs die oostelike vlaktes.

Die periode van uitbreiding en konsolidasie in die agtiende eeu het teen die begin van die negentiende eeu dramaties verander. Die geleidelike inkrimping van die Ute -domein deur die groot bewegings van ander stamme en die toename van die Spaanse militêre mag in New Mexico het die bandmobiliteit belemmer en die benutting van natuurlike hulpbronne, soos die buffels op die oostelike vlaktes, beperk. Dat die Spaanse op hierdie tydstip 'n toenemende bedreiging vir hul besittings in die suidweste ervaar het, as gevolg van die bedoeling van haar Europese mededingers, is beduidend. Die Spaans was tevrede om hul noordelike grensland te behou, eerder as om dit uit te brei, maar het die beheer oor die grens in die suidwestelike deel van Colorado aan sy inheemse inwoners oorgelaat.

Gedurende die eerste helfte van die negentiende eeu, terwyl die Spaanse en Mexikaanse gesag in die suidweste afgeneem het, het die omvang van die territoriale jagvelde van Ute ook afgeneem. Die proses van territoriale verlies, vir die Utes, was goed gevestig aan die begin van die Anglo-Amerikaanse kontakperiode. Ten tyde van die verkryging van die suidweste deur die Verenigde State, na die Meksikaanse Oorlog in 1848, het die gebied van die Ute -Indiese besetting baie na die huidige buitelyne van die staat Colorado en die oostelike helfte van Utah gelyk.

Die Amerikaanse verowering van New Mexico het aanvanklik geen verandering in die vreedsame gesindheid van die Ute teenoor hul Anglo -bure behels nie, maar hierdie houding was meer die gevolg van minderwaardige militêre krag as enige begeerte om Amerikaanse oorheersing te verwelkom. [9] Binne 'n maand na die ingang van die weermag in New Mexico, in 1846, is William Gilpin, wat vyftien jaar later die eerste territoriale goewerneur van Colorado geword het, noordwaarts van Santa Fe gestuur om Navajo -versteurings in die San Juan -riviergebied te onderdruk en om te vergader met die naburige Utes. [10] Op 30 Desember 1849 is die eerste amptelike verdrag tussen die Utes en die Verenigde State onderhandel in Abiquiu, New Mexico, deur James S. Calhoun, die eerste Indiese agent vir New Mexico. [11] Die volgende jaar is 'n agentskap in Taos geopen. Deur hierdie verdrag erken die Utes die soewereiniteit van die Verenigde State en stem hulle in om nie sonder toestemming uit hul gewoontegebied te vertrek nie. Teen 1853, met Kit Carson as agent, bedien die Taos -agentskap die Mouache en Capote bands. Die Weeminuche -orkes was egter baie individualisties en het nie onder effektiewe beheer geval nie. Die Tabeguache Utes het gehoor dat rantsoene aan hul familielede toegewys word en is in 1856 na Taos. Agent Carson het aanbeveel dat 'n agentskap vir die Tabeguache nader aan hul land opgerig word, maar die Verenigde State het sy versoek vir 'n paar jaar nie nagekom nie. Gedurende die vroeë periode van die betrekkinge van die Verenigde State met die Utes of Colorado, was die hoofdoel van die federale regering en die weermag om vrede te verseker in die nuut verworwe gebiede, veral wat die aanval op Apache en Navajo betref. Die Verdrag van 1849 het uit hierdie houding ontwikkel, maar tog is daar geen grense gestel wat die omvang van die Ute -gebied sou beperk nie. Volgens die weermag se verkenningsverslae van kaptein Gunnison het Colorado gebly, maar 'n gebied wat ongeskik was vir Anglo-Amerikaanse nedersetting en beheer van die Indiese inwoners, was nie geskik nie.

In 1858, net vyf jaar na die noodlottige Gunnison -ekspedisie, is goud naby die huidige plek in Denver ontdek, en daarmee het hordes skatte soekers die sentrale gebied van Colorado binnegekom. Die bevolking van die emigrant-mynwerker het so vinnig toegeneem dat die gebied Colorado in 1861 georganiseer is. Territoriale goewerneur, William Gilpin, is aangestel as superintendent van Indiese aangeleenthede binne die gebied, en dus het die Utes onder plaaslike beheer gekom. In 1861 word 'n agentskap geopen in Conejos, Colorado, onder agent Lafayette Head vir die Tabeguache Utes, terwyl die agentskap in Taos vir die Capotes, Mouaches en Weeminuches werksaam was. Namate wrywing tussen die oprukkende myngrens en die Utes toeneem, is 'n konferensie byeengeroep deur 'n federale kommissie by die Conejos Agency op 1 Oktober 1863, met die doel om die Utes uit die pad van aankomende mynwerkers en setlaars te beweeg. Die Verdrag van 1863, wat hoofsaaklik tussen die kommissie en Tabeguache -leiers gesluit is, definieer 'n stel grense vir 'n Ute -voorbehoud. In die ooreenkoms het die Tabeguache aanspraak gemaak op baie van die grond in die sentrale Rockies wat reeds deur mynwerkers en setlaars beset is in ruil vir beloftes van vee en rantsoene vir die volgende tien jaar. Die uitvoering van die ooreenkoms het egter nooit plaasgevind nie. Die Amerikaanse regering het nie die taboesjeks voorsien van die rantsoene wat in die verdrag beloof is nie, en die Utes het in hul gewoontes bly woon. Die Utes handhaaf hul gevestigde gewoonte om te jag en te val, terwyl setlaars 'n beroep doen op effektiewe regeringsingryping. Die nuut aangekomde Coloradans kon nie verstaan ​​waarom die Utes soveel grond benodig nie, en die Indiërs beskou die nuwelinge as inbrekers en oortreders. [12]

The Ute Domain (Delaney, 1974) (klik op die prentjie vir 'n PDF -weergawe)

Vastbeslote om die Utes uit die gebiede van die Anglo-Amerikaanse besetting in Colorado te verwyder, veral in die boerderystreek van die San Luis-vallei, onderhandel territoriale goewerneur AC Hunt op 2 Maart 1868 'n nuwe verdrag by Conejos. [13] Deur hierdie verdrag, a single reservation was provided for all seven Ute bands, of which the outer limits ran northward from Colorado's southern boundary past the present day towns of Pagosa Springs, Gunnison, Crested Butte, and Basalt to a point ten or twelve miles south of where Steamboat Springs now stands, and then west to the Utah line. [14] The future townsites of Gunnison and Crested Butte lay a little to the east of the reservation line.

The Treaty of 1868, besides securing more land for Colorado settlers by removing the Utes to the unsettled western slope, also set a precedent for future government dealings with the entire Ute tribe. Realizing the futility of trying to negotiate with each of the seven Ute bands separately, an experience that proved inadequate in 1863, the federal government insisted that all talks be carried on through one supreme chief. By 1868, a 35 year old Tabeguache Ute had become that spokesman for all the Ute bands. [15] The appointment of Ouray as tribal chief was a significant event, for this reknown chief not only had the capacity to communicate effectively with government negotiators, but had an uncanny if not an overtly militaristic control over his own people. Through Chief Ouray, Anglo-Americans would most effectively deal when attempting to negotiate further land cessions, and his judgment would determine the tribe's ultimate fate as Colorado residents.

Seeking to control the movements of the Utes in western Colorado, federal authorities agreed to establish two agencies on the newly located reservation. One post was located on the White River, near the present town of Meeker, for the use of the northern Utes. The other, in the south, was to be located on the Los Pinos River, which would serve the southern and Tabeguache Utes. In return for land cessions, the agencies would disburse to the bands annual gifts of clothing, food, and supplies. Problems with the administration of the treaty however, began almost immediately. As the Tabeguache Utes advanced westward toward the site of their new agency in the summer of 1868, they halted at a branch of Cochetopa Creek, 75 miles south and slightly east of present Gunnison and refused to go any further. To avoid trouble, the officer in charge directed that the agency be built where the band wanted it, and so it was that the Los Pinos Agency was placed off the reservation boundary and not on the Los Pinos River, deep in the San Juan country. To avoid confusion and to conform to the name of the stream designated in the treaty, the tributary of the Cochetopa Creek was named Los Pinos Creek.

Travel to the Los Pinos Agency from Saguache, Colorado, 70 miles southeast of Gunnison and the nearest supply center, was difficult. Eleven days, even under the best conditions were needed to supply the agency, and often that schedule could not be met. The transportation problem led to the establishment of a supply point or "cow camp" in 1871, located just west of Gunnison near the juncture of the Gunnison River and Tomichi Creek. Josiah White, aided by James Kelley, took charge of the camp, which became the first location for cattle and sheep ranching in the area, the first stock numbering 640 head of cattle and 1,160 sheep. [16]

Despite the fact that by 1868, all the land in southwestern Colorado had been established as part of the Ute Indian Reservation, miners and prospectors continued to enter the region. When minerals were located in the San Juans, and in the Gunnison country, near what was to become the Tin Cup mining district, the Los Pinos Agency actually became a way-station for these acts of trespass. By 1872, the federal government directed troops to maintain the terms of the 1868 Treaty, but the tide of miners and new settlers could not be stemmed. As a result of persistent mineral locations in southwestern Colorado, Coloradans pushed for a revision of the 1868 Treaty.

Felix Brunot, United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Charles Adams, United States Indian Agent, with interpreter Otto Mears, a man who further opened the southwest Colorado frontier at this time through the construction of a network of toll roads, finalized negotiations for another Ute land cession on September 13, 1873. [17] The Brunot Treaty or the San Juan Cession as it was often called, removed 4,000,000 acres of land in the San Juan country from the Ute Reservation. The valley lands were retained by the Utes as part of the treaty agreement. The Brunot Treaty was of ultimate historic significance, for with the Utes gone from this rich region, thousands of miners and settlers rushed into the San Juan Mountains and established Silverton, Lake City, Rico, Ouray, and dozens of other camps in every promising gulch and mountain valley. [18] The result was the opening of southwestern Colorado's silver-laden San Juan country to permanent settlement. With the excitement and the building of permanent communities, it was not long before these early prospectors and entrepreneurs set their sights on the surrounding territory with the thought that only the Indian stood between them and potential wealth.

Colorado-Utah map illustrating the stages of Ute removal from southwestern Colorado (Delaney, 1974) (click on image for a PDF version)

By the summer of 1875, as a result of increased settlements near the Los Pinos Agency and with a threat of hostility, orders came from Washington, D. C. to remove the Utes under that agency's supervision farther west, to the Uncompahgre River Valley where the second Los Pinos Agency was established, near the present village of Colona, Colorado, twelve miles south of modern day Montrose. [19] The 1,200 head of government cattle were herded from the Taylor Park region to where Cow Creek flows into the Uncompahgre River, about seven miles to the south of the new agency site. Transfer of equipment from the Los Pinos Agency to the Uncompahgre River site over seventy-five miles of rugged terrain was no easy matter. It took twelve men, four wagons, nine yoke of oxen, and one mule team three weeks to remove the sawmill. Hundreds of Indian ponies, heavily loaded with belongings, took part in the evacuation. The final removal to the Uncompahgre Agency was completed by November, 1875. [20]

Thought to have reconciled Colorado miners and adequately compensated the Utes, the Brunot Treaty served only to compound the disputes over territorial rights. The ceded land, due to its desirability, and adjacent Ute reservation land, were trespassed time and again by Indians and Anglo-Coloradans alike. The Utes, reluctant to give up their established hunting and gathering grounds, continued to roam at will throughout the San Juan country even after the implementation of the Brunot Treaty. They became increasingly hostile as the number of settlers multiplied and more of the rich valley lands were taken up. In the mountains where farms were not practical, settlers brought in cattle to graze on the rich, abundant grass lands. The cattle competed with wild game, and diminished one source of the Utes' food supply. Coloradans violated the Treaty of 1873 as well, by trespassing on reservation lands along the Colorado-New Mexico border. Southern Utes reacted bitterly as herds of cattle were driven from both north and south across the reservation, eating most of the sparse pasture. In order to prevent open warfare, a military post was built near present Pagosa Springs in 1878. Fort Lewis, garrisoned on October 17, 1878, with about one hundred men in order to safeguard the terms of the Brunot Treaty, was positioned where the Indian and military trails crossed the San Juan River. [21] Realizing the threat of hostility, plans were underway to restructure the southern portion of the reservation in order to ensure a more tranquil co-existence between Utes and Coloradans. Before any such plans could be implemented however, events at the White River Agency in northwestern Colorado, on September 30, 1879, determined a more significant reconstruction of the Ute Reservation boundaries.

The Thornburgh ambush on Milk Creek, the murder of Agent Nathan Meeker and ten other males at the White River Agency, and the kidnapping of five females, including Mrs. Meeker and her daughter was seen as a foreshadowing of a general Ute uprising in western Colorado. However, appeals made by Chief Ouray to Ute warriors to lay down their arms, and the dispersal of Army troops to the agency and surrounding posts immediately returned a semblance of order. Following the massacre, General Phillip Sheridan ordered one thousand troops to the White River Agency on October 11, 1879 and six companies, under the command of Colonel R. S. Mackenzie, were directed north, from Texas, to Fort Garland in the San Luis Valley. [22] Earlier, on October 8, 450 men under Colonel Edward Hatch, commissioner of the United States Indian Bureau, reinforced the garrison at Fort Lewis. Acting on reports that southern Ute tribes would attempt to join the rebellion in northwestern Colorado, Hatch's command immediately departed from Fort Lewis with orders to occupy Animas City. [23]

The Meeker Massacre, while it illustrated the height of Ute-Anglo hostility, symbolized the incompatibility of the two cultures in western Colorado. The advancing mining frontier and the accustomed Ute way of life simply could not co-exist. Coloradans viewed potential mineral and agricultural resources going to waste as Ute hunting or reservation lands. The Denver Times put it bluntly: "Either they [the Utes] or we must go, and we are not going. Humanitarianism is an idea, Western Empire is an inexorable fact." [24] Thus, the Meeker Massacre became the pretext on which Coloradans sought the removal of the Utes from their ancestoral hunting grounds on the western slope. More than to rid themselves of the threat of Indian hostility, they saw an opportunity to gain access to potentially valuable land held by the Ute people.

Photograph of Fort Crawford, "The Cantonment on the Uncompahgre", showing the camp's bakery, hospital, and guard house. Denver Public Library, Western History Department

Early in 1880, a delegation of Utes, headed by Ouray, was escorted to Washington D. C., and on March 6, 1880, yet another treaty was put together. By the terms of this agreement, arrived at after long negotiations with the Utes and internal squabbles amongst the appointed commissioners, the Northern and Uncompahgre Utes were to be removed west to the Utah territory on the Uintah and Ouray reservations respectively. In May of 1880, in order to affect the removal of the Uncompahgre Utes from Colorado, Colonel Mackenzie was ordered to move the nine companies of infantry and six companies of cavalry under his command north from Fort Garland to the Uncompahgre Valley. While maintaining a temporary camp near the agency site, Mackenzie's men were directed to survey for a more permanent post. This site was established on July 21, 1880 on the west bank of the Uncompahgre River, about four miles north of the agency and eight miles south of present Montrose. Anticipating no trouble during the winter, Mackenzie withdrew his cavalry and four companies of infantry to Fort Garland, leaving the remaining soldiers to begin construction of the new post. [25] The "Cantonment on the Uncompahgre", to be renamed Fort Crawford in 1886, was completed by the summer of 1881, just prior to the final removal of the Utes from Colorado.

On September 7, 1881, under Mackenzie's supervision, the last band of Utes left Colorado. By the Treaty of 1880 the Southern Utes, having taken no direct part in the White River hostilities, were allowed to remain on their reservation on the strip of land approximately fifteen miles wide by one hundred miles long across the southwestern corner of the state. This inhospitable country was made up of only sparse pasture and a great expanse of "drylands", a domain attractive to neither farmer nor miner. In June of 1882, Congress opened six million acres of former Ute land to public settlement, an act of legislation that proved to be of major significance for the future of southwestern Colorado. [26]

In a period of twenty years from the establishment of the Colorado Territory, the Ute Indians witnessed the rapid diminution of their domain. The removal of the Utes from the Western Slope, rather than retribution for acts perpetrated against Anglo-Coloradans, was emblematic of the crushing weight of an advancing mining frontier in southwestern Colorado. This mining frontier, fundamental as it was to the Ute removal in 1881, played an even more crucial role in the future determination of the region's development and occupation.

1. Carl Ubbelohde, Maxine Benson, and Duane Smith, A Colorado History (Boulder: Pruett Press, 1976), p. 181.

2. Robert G. Athearn, The Coloradans (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976), p. 136.

3. See: Duane Smith, Rocky Mountain Mining Camps (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977).

4. Carl Abbott, Colorado A History of the Centennial State (Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1976), p. 25.

5. For excellent background material concerning Ute culture on the southwestern United States' frontier, see: Marvin K. Opler, "The Southern Ute of Colorado", in: Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes (New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1940).

6. For a general discussion of the importance of the horse to Ute culture see: LeRoy R. Hafen, Colorado A Story of the State and Its People (Denver: The Old West Publishing Co., 1945), p. 52.

See also: Eleanor Ritchie, "General Mano Macho of the Utes and Spanish Policy in Indian Relations", Colorado Magazine (IX, No. 4, July, 1932), p. 150.

See also: Opler, op. cit., p. 171.

See also: Abbott, op. cit., p. 27.

7. Duane Vandenbusche, Early Days in the Gunnison Country (Gunnison: B & B Printers, 1974), p. 3.

11. One of the more authoritative histories of the Indian in the American Southwest is: Edward E. Dale, The Indians of the Southwest (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1949). For a discussion of early United States relations with the Utes of Colorado, see pages 47-51.

12. For an informative treatment of the history of United States-Ute treaties see: Robert W. Delaney, The Southern Ute People (Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1974), pp. 40-52.

13. Vandenbusche, op. cit., p. 31.

14. Wilson Rockwell, The Utes A Forgotten People (Denver: Sage Books, 1956), p. 72.

See also: Vandenbusche, op. cit., p. 32.

15. Wilbur Fisk Stone, History of Colorado, Vol. I (Denver: S. J. Clarke and Co., 1918), p. 77.

See also: Delaney, op. cit., p. 51.

16. Vandenbusche, op. cit., pp. 32-34.

17. United States Department of the Interior, Letter From the Secretary of the Interior in Relation to an Agreement Concluded with the Ute Indians in Colorado, September 13, 1873, Ex. Dok. No. 53, January 12, 1874.

18. Vandenbusche, op. cit., p. 41.

19. Sidney Jocknick, Early Days on the Western Slope of Colorado (Denver: The Carson-Harper Co., 1913), p. 82.

See also: Rockwell, op. cit., p. 106.

21. Mary Ayers, "History of Fort Lewis, Colorado", Colorado Magazine (VIII, No. 3, May, 1930), p. 82.

22. Richard Ronzio, "Fort Crawford on the Uncompahgre", Denver Westerners Brand Book, 1963, pp. 256-257.

23. John Nankivell, "Fort Crawford, Colorado, 1880-1890", Colorado Magazine (XI, No. 2, March, 1934), pp. 54-64.

See also: Ronzio, op. cit., p. 256.

24. Quoted in Dudley Taylor Cornish, "The First Five Years of Colorado's Statehood", Colorado Magazine (XXV, September, 1948), p. 221.


Nathan Cook Meeker

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Nathan Cook Meeker, (born July 12, 1817, Euclid, Ohio, U.S.—died September 1879, White River Agency, Colo.), American journalist and social reformer who founded the utopian Union Colony at Greeley, Colo.

A wanderer from the age of 17, Meeker tried teaching and newspaper work and became interested in socialist experiments. As agricultural editor of Horace Greeley’s New York Tribune (c. 1865), he studied the Oneida Community (a radical social and religious group, near Oneida, N.Y.) and Mormon farm cooperatives. In December 1869 he organized the Union Colony, and in 1870 the first settlers, chosen for their moral and intellectual convictions, arrived at Greeley (named for the colony’s principal backer). Meeker lived there until 1878, when he became Indian agent at the White River Agency. There he tried to convert the Ute Indians from hunting and fishing to farming and a settled life. Ute resentment against the U.S. government’s failure to fulfill treaty obligations turned to fury against Meeker the following year, when he plowed an irrigation ditch across the track where they exercised and raced their horses. Meeker requested military aid, but the Utes ambushed the troops hurrying to White River and killed Meeker and all other white men at the agency.

Hierdie artikel is mees onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Amy Tikkanen, bestuurder van korreksies.


Nathan Meeker - History

Nathan B. Meeker, who has been a well known and prosperous farmer of Center Township on the old Meeker homestead for over a quarter of a century, is a member of an influential and long established family of Lake County, his brothers, J. Frank and Charles H., being worthy and successful representatives of the professional and business life of the county as he himself is of the agricultural interests. He has devoted his best efforts and endeavors to farming since arriving at years of manhood, and these thirty odd years have been prosperous from a material and individual standpoint and of eminent usefulness to the social and industrial development and progress of the community in general.

Mr. Meeker was born in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, November 4, 1850, being the eldest son of Sherman B. and Elizabeth (Gress) Meeker, whose history is further detailed in the sketches of their above mentioned sons, to be found on other pages of this work.

Mr. Meeker, when four years old, was brought from his native place to Illinois, about a year later to Calhoun County, Michigan, at the age of nine to White County, Indiana, and thence to Carroll County, and in 1865 to Lake County, where his home has been ever since. He was educated in the public schools of the last three mentioned counties, and was reared to farm life and remained at home assisting his parents until his marriage in 1873.

Mr. Meeker was united in marriage, April 29, 1873, to Miss Isadore Craft, and they have one son, Thomas C., who is studying in the Pharmacy Department of the Northern Indiana Normal at Valparaiso. Mrs. Meeker was born in Ohio, April 23, 1851, and came with his parents, Thomas and Lucinda (Forsha) Craft, to Lake County when she was about two years old, and she was reared and educated at Orchard Grove, Cedar Creek Township. There were twelve children in the Craft family, seven sons and five daughters, and there are seven now living:

Mr. and Mrs. Meeker began their married life as renters in Kankakee County, Illinois. They located in Center Township in 1878, on the homestead farm of one hundred and sixty acres, where they have resided ever since and conducted a farming and stock raising business. They are citizens of high standing socially and personally, and are held in high esteem throughout their home township.

Mr. Meeker has been a life long Republican and first voted for General Grant. He and his wife are members of the Grange, and he has fraternal affiliations with the Knights of the Maccabees at Crown Point.

Mrs. Meeker's parents are both deceased, and the following paragraphs, taken from the local press, give the details of their useful and well spent lives and add to the completeness of this biography:

"Thomas Craft, the subject of this week's half-tone illustration, is now a resident of Lowell, where he moved a short time ago to spend his remaining years.

He was born in Pennsylvania on July 24, 1826. At the age of five years he moved with his parents to Ohio, in which state he received his early education in a day when school facilities were not of the best and school hours few and far between. On arriving at manhood he first started to work for his father at one hundred dollars per year, but at the end of the first year found that his was earning money too slow, so he cleared about four acres of timber land and started into the cultivation of tobacco and made considerable money in raising and handling this product.

He was married November 30, 1848, to Lucinda Forsha, with whom he lived happily for forty years, when death claimed her in 1888. In 1854 he moved with his family to Orchard Grove, where he first purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land, to which he added other purchases from time to time until at last his total holdings were over four hundred acres of well improved real estate.

He has eight children, all of whom with the exception of one, are married and living upon farms, with the exception of the oldest son, Morgan, who is in business at Monon, Indiana.

He was married again in 1894.

He has recently sold his entire farm to James Black, of Momence, for sixty dollars per acre, the tract bringing him twenty-four thousand dollars, and a public sale of his personal property netted him two thousand dollars, thus leaving him sufficient means to provide for his welfare in his old age, and enable him to live in peace and comfort.

Passed Away -Mrs. Lucinda (Forsha) Craft was born in Marietta, Monroe County, Ohio, January 16, 1830. Died at her residence in Orchard Grove, Indiana, January 31, 1888, aged fifty-eight years and sixteen days. She was married to Thomas Craft, November 30, 1848, in Fredericktown, Ohio. In the fall of 1854 she with her husband moved to Lake County, Indiana, where she lived till her death, then crossing the bright river. She was the mother of twelve children, three in their heavenly home, nine on earth. She lived happily forty years with her husband. January 25 she was taken very ill, and after six days of intense suffering, she gave up life on earth for a brighter home above. She has passed away and left us with nothing but a pleasant memory. A break has been made in our hearts by that casket, open grave and silent mound, which can never be healed."

"Dearest mother, thou hast left us,

And gone to that better land

Would that you could have remained with us

But the voice of God you heard.

O! mother, thou hast left us,

To join that heavenly band,

Nevermore to return to return to your loved ones -

Left us here, on this desolate plain."

Encyclopedia of Genealogy and Biography of Lake County, Indiana, with a compendium of History 1834-1904 . A record of the Achievements of its people in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation. By Rev. T. H. Ball of Crown Point, Editor-in-chief. The Lewis Publishing Company, 1904, page 301, 302, 303.


NATHAN C. MEEKER PAPERS

The collection spans 1843-1951 with Nathan C. Meeker's correspondence from the 1870s comprising the bulk of the material. The Horace Greeley correspondence, which was merged into this collection, was all written by Greeley to Meeker. Correspondence received and sent by other Meeker family members is also included. Additional material includes financial records, Union Colony of Colorado letters of application and membership lists and a limited number of Nathan Meeker's personal papers.

Series 1-4 also available on microfilm: Mflm186.

SERIES 5 MICROFILM 1843-1951 MFLM58 REEL 1, MFLM144 REEL 1 Two microfilm reels, filmed by the Denver Public Library's Western History Department on March 17, 1970 form the series. All of the original documents are from the Greeley Municipal Museum, Greeley, Colorado

Microfilm reel Mflm 58 includes 275 documents. Correspondence of Nathan Meeker, Arvilla Meeker and Ralph Meeker is arranged into six groups. A seventh group includes original letters as well as excerpts, notes and transcriptions from letters written by early Union Colonists, in which they describe their experiences. The seven groups are identified by header sheets on the microfilm reel.

Microfilm reel Mflm 144 includes Union Colony of Colorado land sales records, Weld County, Colorado and Union Colony of Colorado court records and a scrapbook of newspaper clippings and memorabilia relating to the Union Colony of Colorado and to Weld County.

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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Nathan C. Meeker (1817-1879) was born on July 12, 1817 in Euclid, Ohio. At age 17, he traveled to New Orleans where he worked as a copy boy and wrote poetry. Meeker lived in several states between 1835 and 1843, working as a newspaper man, traveling salesman and teacher. In 1843, while teaching in New Jersey, Meeker suffered severe health problems and moved back to Ohio to live with his parents.

Meeker later worked for Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune . In 1869, Greeley selected Meeker, the Tribune's agricultural editor, to organize, build and supervise the Union Colony of Colorado, which Meeker established near present Greeley, Colorado in 1870. Greeley, who provided major funding for the colony, had been impressed by the area during his travels through the West in 1859. Meeker selected 700 applicants from more than 3,000 who responded to his advertisements. The colony was particularly known for its utopian and religious organization and for its extensive use of irrigation. Meeker worked tirelessly on the project, but lacked administrative skills. Although Greeley invested heavily in the colony, Meeker could not make it a financial success. When Greeley died in 1872, lawyers settled his estate, leaving Meeker deeply in debt to Greeley's heirs.

Meeker was still in debt in 1878 when he accepted a job as Indian agent at the White River Ute Indian Agency in Western Colorado. Meeker's wife Arvilla managed the agency store, and their daughter, Josephine, became the agency’s schoolteacher. Meeker proved incapable of working with the Utes, and his call for Army troops in September 1879 triggered a Ute uprising in which Meeker and numerous agency employees were killed.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE - HORACE GREELEY

Horace Greeley (1811-1872) was born in Amherst, New Hampshire. Although he was the son of a poor farmer, Greeley declined a scholarship to Phillips Exeter Academy and left school at age 14. He apprenticed as a printer in Poultney, Vermont and later moved to New York City where, in 1834, he founded a weekly paper, The New Yorker .

Greeley agreed to edit The Jeffersonian , a New York Whig newspaper in 1838. He also edited the pro-Whig journal, Log Cabin , during the 1840 presidential election. In 1841, Greeley established the New York Tribune , a newspaper he would edit for over thirty years. Greeley campaigned against alcohol, tobacco, gambling, prostitution and capital punishment while supporting socialist and feminist causes. However, Greeley's primary passion was for the abolition of slavery. In 1841, he merged his various newspapers into the New York Tribune , which became one of America's leading newspapers, while serving as a platform for Greeley's views.

Elected as a Whig to the Thirtieth Congress, Greeley served in the U.S. House of Representatives from December 4, 1848, to March 3, 1849. Following the demise of the Whig Party, Greeley supported the Free Soil Party. He campaigned against the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, and in 1854 he helped to form the Republican Party. Although Greeley supported Abraham Lincoln for President, he criticized many of Lincoln's policies. Greeley also supported Republican candidate, Ulysses Grant in the 1868 election but subsequently broke with Grant to help form the Liberal Republican Party in 1872.

The Liberal Republican Party nominated Greeley for President in 1872, and he was also officially endorsed by the Democratic Party. As a candidate, Greeley argued for an end to the post-Civil War Reconstruction of the South. Greeley proved to be an inept campaigner and became the object of vicious attacks by cartoonist Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly . Shortly after losing the election to President Grant, Greeley died on November 29, 1872. A close friend said that Greeley had been "crushed by the unmerciful ridicule Nast had heaped on him."


Kyk die video: Colorado and the West: Native American History in Colorado


Kommentaar:

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  2. Mahmud

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  4. Patroclus

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  5. Maonaigh

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