James Phelan

James Phelan


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James Phelan, die seun van Ierse immigrante, is gebore in San Francisco, Kalifornië, op 20 April 1861. Hy studeer regte aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, maar werk nooit as advokaat nie.

Phelan, lid van die Demokratiese Party, het as bankier gewerk voordat hy burgemeester van San Francisco geword het (1897-1902). Hy het ook gedien as president van die Hulp- en Rooi Kruis -fondse ná die aardbewing in 1906.

Phelan is verkies tot die Amerikaanse senaat as voorsitter van die komitee oor spoorweë en komitee vir besproeiing en herwinning van droë lande tydens sy tyd in die kongres (1915-1921).

Nadat hy die senaat verlaat het, was hy voorsitter van die United Bank & Trust Company. James Phelan is op 7 Augustus 1930 in Saratoga, Kalifornië, oorlede.


James D. Phelan, "Waarom die Chinese uitgesluit moet word" (1901)

James D. Phelan, die burgemeester van San Francisco, het die volgende artikel geskryf om steun te gee vir die uitbreiding van wette wat Chinese immigrasie verbied.

[Die Chinese uitsluitingswet is in 1882 aangeneem, en weer in 1892.] Die uitsluitingswette wat toe aanvaar is, is beperk tot tien jaar. In Mei volgende verval die jongste wet beperkend, en die kongres sal gevra word om dit te hernu, want tot dusver is Chinese uitsluiting in diplomatieke kringe en elders as die vaste beleid van die land beskou. Was daar 'n verandering in die aard van die kwaad, of in die gevoel van die mense? Beslis nie aan die Stille Oseaan-kus nie, waar tydsverloop die nie-assimilatiewe karakter van die Chinese en hul ongewenste as burgers nog duideliker gemaak het.

Die uitsluitingswet was redelik effektief, alhoewel die Chinese met min of meer sukses hul bekende geslepe het om die bepalings daarvan te ontduik deur bedrog en bedrieglik die Verenigde State binne te gaan. Die wet het egter 'n versperring gekant teen die groot immigrasie wat hierdie land baie jare voor 1880 bedreig het ...

As die toestroming nagegaan is, is die gevaar vir Kalifornië afgeweer en gevolglik dui industriële toestande op vergelykende voorspoed gedurende die afgelope dekade, terwyl dit welbekend is dat die staat Kalifornië voor die uitsluitingswette ernstig gely het onder arbeidsprobleme en bedrywighede . Werklose mans, honger na werkloosheid, het deur die strate van die stede gestap, politieke partye ingehuldig, die vrede van gemeenskappe versteur deur oproerige uitbrake wat soms die grondslag van wet en orde bedreig het, en hierdie feite het James Bryce 'n vrugbare tema vir bespiegeling gegee oor demokrasie in sy uitstekende werk, “The American Commonwealth. ” Hy bestee twee hoofstukke aan die anti-Chinese kruistog in Kalifornië en beskou dit as 'n ras-, arbeids- en politieke vraagstuk, wat vroeër of later, tensy opgelos, Amerikaanse instellings sou bedreig. Destyds is beskuldigings gemaak, wat Ho Yow herhaal, dat die opposisie teen die Chinese alleen van demagoge kom. Om die eenstemmigheid van die mense te toon, kan ek daarop wys dat die wetgewer die vraag na Chinese immigrasie by 'n volksstem deur 'n referendum voorgelê het. Vir Chinese immigrasie is 883 stemme ondervra, en teen Chinese immigrasie 154,638 stemme. In die stad San Francisco, wat die rykdom en intelligensie verteenwoordig en die vakbondorganisasies van die staat bevat, is slegs 224 stemme ten gunste van die immigrasie uitgebring en 41,258 stemme daarteen. Hierdie resultaat het duidelik getoon dat die inwonende bevolking van Kalifornië, met die breë grond van selfbehoud, geweier het om self te laat ontneem van hul erfenis deur Chinese koelte. Dit is wat die uitspraak beteken het.

'N Geselekteerde komitee van die kongres, nadat hy die vraag ondersoek en getuienis afgelê het in Kalifornië, het ten gunste van Chinese uitsluiting gerapporteer, en die beleid word sedertdien beskou as 'n vreedsame voorkoming van ernstige siektes wat die liggaam beïnvloed, wat onvermydelik sou ontstaan ​​het as die National Wetgewers kon nie die blanke bevolking van die land beskerm nie. …

Die Chinese, deur 'n baie minderwaardige beskawing in kompetisie met ons eie te stel, is geneig om die bevolking, van wie die ewigheid van die vrye regering afhang, te vernietig. Sonder dat huise en gesinne die skool, die biblioteek, die kerk of die teater oortree, is hulle verslaaf aan goddelose gewoontes, ongeërg vir sanitêre voorskrifte en broeisiekte wat geen vakansiedae neem nie, geen tradisionele herdenkings respekteer nie, maar onophoudelik werk, en prakties niks vir kos en klere onderhou nie. in die toestand waarin hulle eeue lank ondergaan is, kom hulle op die lyste teen mans wat deur ons beskawing tot gesinslewe en burgerlike plig gebring is. Ons beskawing, wat self deur die patriotte, martelare en weldoeners van die mensdom uit die barbaarsheid gered is, is die vraag: Is dit in gevaar? Is Chinese immigrasie nie 'n skade nie?

As die Chinese toegelaat word, waarvandaan moet die geledere van die vrye bevolking gewerf word? Wie sal ons beskawing bewaar en wie sal ons gevegte voer? Die Chinese is miskien goeie arbeiders, maar hulle is nie goeie burgers nie. Hulle kan in klein getalle individuele werkgewers bevoordeel, maar hulle kweek die kieme van 'n nasionale siekte, wat versprei namate hulle versprei en groei namate hulle groei.

[Bron: James D. Phelan, "Waarom die Chinese uitgesluit moet word" The North American Review 173 (November, 1901).]


Geskiedenis en oudhede van die bisdom Ossory - James Phelan

Eerwaarde James Phelan is in 1834 in Kilkenny, Ierland, gebore. Hy is opgelei aan die Carlow College, Ierland, een of ander tyd voordat hy in 1854 na Prince Edward Island immigreer. James se jonger broer William Phelan (1836-1921), kom ook uit Ierland na PEI. Beide die broers was priesters, sowel as opgeleide klipmesselaars.

Die jaar na sy aankoms het James ds Angus McDonald gehelp met die opening van Saint Dunstan's College. James en eerwaarde Angus was die enigste twee fakulteitslede in 1855.

In Augustus 1856 is James deur Biskop Bernard MacDonald in Rustico georden. Hy het twee jaar lank professor aan die Saint Dunstan's College gebly en daarna aangestel as die gemeentepriester in East Point, St. Margaret's en Vernon River.

Gedurende sy tyd as Parish Priest het James toesig gehou oor die bou van 'n nuwe parochiale huis, 1862, en 'n nuwe kerk in Vernon River, 1877.

Van 1863-1874 was James die besoekende priester by die St. Michael's Mission in Iona. In 1891 word hy die voltydse predikant in St. Michael's.

In 1895 word hy die Algemene Vikar van die Bisdom.

In 1906 vier James sy 50ste bestaansjaar en sy neef, Patrick J. Phelan van die Ursuline -klooster, gee 'n stel van vier boeke aan sy oom. In volume 4 van Die geskiedenis en oudhede van die bisdom Ossory, deur eerwaarde William Carrigan, C.C., het Patrick die volgende opskrif geskryf:

Aan eerwaarde Monsignor James Phelan
-ter ere van die 50ste herdenking van u ordening
As teken van liefde en dankbaarheid
van sy liefdevolle neef
Patrick J. Phelan
Ursuline -klooster
? ?
1906 (6 oorskryf met 7).

Hieronder is dit geskryf (in 'n ander skrif):
van eerwaarde Jas. Phelan, aan sy ou en dierbare vriend Re Philip Henibery
Hobart, Tasmanië

Dieselfde jaar, 1906, dat James die geskenk van sy neef ontvang het, het pous Pius X hom vereer met die onderskeiding van Binnelandse Prelate. James tree twee jaar af nadat hy met hierdie titel vereer is.

James kom uiteindelik uit pensioen, in 1912, toe hy die administrateur van die bisdom in Charlottetown is. Hy het in hierdie posisie gebly totdat die nuwe biskop aangestel is, sodat James uiteindelik in 1913 kon uittree.

Eerwaarde James Phelan is op 5 November 1915 in die Charlottetown -hospitaal oorlede. Hy was die enigste oorlewende van die vroeë sendelinge na Prince Edward Island.

Hy het sy hele boedel ($ 20 213,28) aan die Katolieke Kerk nagelaat om te belê, met alle rente uit die beleggings aan die Charlottetown -hoofstuk van die St. Vincent de Paul's Society, om onder die armes te verdeel.

Ander boeke in die UPEI Provenance -versameling:

O'Donovan, John. Annale van die vier meesters: Annale van die koninkryk Ierland. 1856. V. 1-7. [Ingeskryf "Aan die biblioteek van St. Dunstan's College aangebied deur eerwaarde James Phelan V. G. Iona? Julie 1905. "Inskripsie is slegs in volumes 1, 6 en 7.]

O'Curry Eugene. Oor die maniere en gewoontes van die ou Iere. Londen: Williams en Norgate, 1873. V 1-3. [A. McLean Sinclair -handtekening in volume 1, met “by wie hierdie werk deur eerwaarde James Phelan gekoop is, vir S.D.C. daaronder geskryf. Ook ingeskryf "Presented to the Library of St. Dunstan's College, by Rev. James Phelan 28 May 1905."]

Bourke, eerwaarde Ulick J. Die Ariese oorsprong van die Gaeliese ras en taal: die ronde torings, die Brehon -wet, die waarheid van die Pentateug. Londen: Longmans, Groen 1875. [Inskrywing "Aan die biblioteek van St. Dunstan's College aangebied deur eerwaarde James Phelan, 28 Mei 1905."]

1881 Sensus van Kanada. Sensusplek: Lot 49, Queens, Prince Edward Island Roll: C_13164 Bladsy: 26 Gesinsnr: 99.

1901 Sensus van Kanada. Sensusplek: Lot (township/kanton) 57, Queen's (oos/oos), Prince Edward Island Bladsy: 7 Gesin nr: 87.

Red., Bolger, Francis W.P. The History of Vernon River Parish: 1877-1977. 1977, bl. 23-24.

Historic Places, Prince Edward Island: St. Paul's Rooms Katolieke Kerk. 'Waarom is hierdie plek belangrik?' Toegang op 27 Oktober 2016.

"Sal getoets word". Charlottetown Guardian 13 November 1915, p.5. Toegang verkry vanaf Island Newspapers op 27 Oktober 2016.


Sien ook: Geregtelike verkiesings in die plaaslike verhoorhof in Kansas, 2016 Kansas het behoud en partydige verkiesings vir plaaslike regterlike kantore gehou op 8 November 2016. 'n Primêre verkiesing het plaasgevind op 2 Augustus 2016. Die sperdatum vir indiening van kandidate wat in hierdie verkiesing wou deelneem, was 1 Junie 2016. Γ ] James E. Phelan is behou in die Kansas District 10 (landdros 3) verkiesing met 68,71 persent van die stemme. Δ ]
Kansas District 10 (landdros 3), 2016
Naam Ja stemme
James E. Phelan68.71%
Bron: Johnson County, Kansas, "Algemene verkiesing 2016", 19 November 2016

Phelan het op 6 November 2012 vir behoud gestaan. Ώ ]

Regterlike keuringsmetode

In 17 van die distrikte van die Kansas-distrikshowe word regters gekies deur middel van 'n politieke aanstellingsmetode. Hierdie beoordelaars staan ​​vir die behoud na hul eerste ampstermyn en dien termyn van vier jaar as hulle behoue ​​bly. Ζ ] Η ]

Kwalifikasies
Om in hierdie hof te dien, moet 'n regter: Ζ ] wees


James Phelan - Geskiedenis

James D. Phelan, die burgemeester van San Francisco, het die volgende artikel geskryf om steun te gee vir die uitbreiding van wette wat Chinese immigrasie verbied.

[Die Chinese uitsluitingswet is in 1882 aangeneem, en weer in 1892.] Die uitsluitingswette wat toe aanvaar is, is beperk tot tien jaar. In Mei volgende verval die nuutste wet beperkend, en die kongres word versoek om dit te hernu, want tot dusver is Chinese uitsluiting in diplomatieke kringe en elders as die vaste beleid van die land beskou. Was daar 'n verandering in die aard van die kwaad, of in die gevoel van die mense? Sekerlik nie aan die Stille Oseaan-kus nie, waar die tydsverloop nog duideliker die nie-assimilatiewe karakter van die Chinese en hul ongewenste as burgers nog duideliker gemaak het.

Die uitsluitingswet was redelik effektief, alhoewel die Chinese met min of meer sukses hul bekende geslepe het om die bepalings daarvan te ontduik deur bedrog en bedrieglik die Verenigde State binne te gaan. Die wet het egter 'n versperring gekant teen die groot immigrasie wat hierdie land baie jare voor 1880 bedreig het ...

As die toestroming nagegaan is, is die gevaar vir Kalifornië afgeweer en gevolglik dui industriële toestande op vergelykende voorspoed gedurende die afgelope dekade, terwyl dit welbekend is dat die staat Kalifornië voor die uitsluitingswette akuut gely het onder arbeidsprobleme en bedrywighede . Werklose mans, honger na werkloosheid, het deur die strate van die stede gestap, politieke partye ingehuldig, die vrede van gemeenskappe versteur deur oproerige uitbrake wat soms die grondslag van wet en orde bedreig het, en hierdie feite het James Bryce 'n vrugbare tema vir bespiegeling gegee oor demokrasie in sy uitstekende werk, "The American Commonwealth." Hy bestee twee hoofstukke aan die anti-Chinese kruistog in Kalifornië en beskou dit as 'n ras-, arbeids- en politieke vraagstuk, wat vroeër of later Amerikaanse instellings sou bedreig, tensy dit opgelos is. Destyds word beskuldigings gemaak, wat Ho Yow herhaal, dat die opposisie teen die Chinese alleen van demagoge kom. Om die eenstemmigheid van die mense te toon, kan ek daarop wys dat die wetgewer die vraag oor Chinese immigrasie by 'n volksstem deur 'n referendum voorgelê het. Vir Chinese immigrasie is 883 stemme ondervra, en teen Chinese immigrasie 154,638 stemme. In die stad San Francisco, wat die rykdom en intelligensie verteenwoordig en die vakbondorganisasies van die staat bevat, is slegs 224 stemme ten gunste van die immigrasie uitgebring en 41,258 stemme daarteen. Hierdie resultaat het duidelik getoon dat die inwonende bevolking van Kalifornië, wat die breë grond van selfbehoud het, geweier het om self te laat ontneem van hul erfenis deur Chinese koelte. Dit is wat die uitspraak beteken het.

'N Uitgesoekte komitee van die kongres, na ondersoek na die vraag en getuienis in Kalifornië, het ten gunste van Chinese uitsluiting gerapporteer, en die beleid word sedertdien beskou as 'n vreedsame voorkoming van ernstige siektes wat die liggaam beïnvloed, wat noodwendig sou ontstaan ​​het as die National Wetgewers kon nie die blanke bevolking van die land beskerm nie. …

Die Chinees, deur 'n baie minderwaardige beskawing in kompetisie met ons eie te stel, is geneig om die bevolking, van wie die ewigheid van die vrye regering afhang, te vernietig. Sonder dat huise en gesinne die skool, die biblioteek, die kerk of die teater oortree, is hulle verslaaf aan goddelose gewoontes, ongeërg vir sanitêre voorskrifte en broeisiekte wat geen vakansiedae neem nie, geen tradisionele herdenkings respekteer nie, maar onophoudelik werk, en prakties niks vir kos en klere onderhou nie. toestand waarvoor hulle eeue lank ondergaan is, kom hulle in die lyste op teen mans wat deur ons beskawing tot gesinslewe en burgerlike plig gebring is. Ons beskawing, wat self deur die patriotte, martelare en weldoeners van die mensdom uit barbaarsheid gered is, is die vraag: Is dit in gevaar? Is Chinese immigrasie nie 'n skade nie?

As die Chinese toegelaat word, waarvandaan moet die geledere van die vrye bevolking gewerf word? Wie sal ons beskawing bewaar en wie sal ons gevegte voer? Die Chinese is miskien goeie arbeiders, maar hulle is nie goeie burgers nie. Hulle kan in klein getalle individuele werkgewers bevoordeel, maar hulle kweek die kieme van 'n nasionale siekte, wat versprei namate hulle versprei, en groei namate hulle groei.

[Bron: James D. Phelan, "Waarom die Chinese uitgesluit moet word" The North American Review 173 (November, 1901).]


James Phelan

James Phelan onderrig en skryf oor narratiewe teorie, die mediese geesteswetenskappe, die Engelse en Amerikaanse roman, veral van modernisme tot die hede, en nie -fiksieverhaal. Hy is die eerste persoon in die geskiedenis van die Engelse departement wat beide die Alumni Distinguished Teaching Award (2007) en die Distinguished Scholar Award (2004) ontvang het. Hy is die outeur of mede-outeur van 10 boeke en redakteur of mederedakteur van nog 10, asook ongeveer 175 opstelle. Sy navorsing is daarop gemik om na te dink oor wat dit beteken om narratief as retoriek te beskou, selfs al het sy individuele boeke gefokus op spesifieke aspekte van die opvatting. Hy het geskryf oor styl in Wêrelde uit woorde (1981) oor karakter en narratiewe vordering in Lees mense, lees plotte (1988), oor 'n retoriese benadering tot 'n reeks narratiewe tegnieke en die gevolge daarvan Vertelling as retoriek (1996) oor karaktervertelling in Lewe om daaroor te vertel oor oordele en narratiewe vordering (weer) in Fiksie ervaar (2007) oor literatuurgeskiedenis en 10 Amerikaanse romans in Lees die twintigste-eeuse Amerikaanse roman (2013) oor die groter projek van retoriese poëtika in Iemand wat iemand anders vertel (2017) en oor sy konsepte van mimetiese, tematiese en sintetiese komponente van die narratief in 'n dialoogboek met Matthew Clark, Debat oor retoriese narratologie (2020).

Sedert 1992 is Phelan die redakteur van Narrative, die tydskrif van die International Society for the Study of Narrative, wat onlangs die eerste plek in die kategorie "Literatuur en skryfwerk" deur googlescholar was. Phelan redakteur saam met Katra Byram en Faye Halpern, die Ohio State University Press boekreeks, Die teorie en interpretasie van vertelling.

Onder die bundels wat Phelan ook geredigeer of saam geredigeer het, is die Blackwell -metgesel by die narratiewe teorie (met Peter J. Rabinowitz, 2005) Onderrig in narratiewe teorie (met David Herman en Brian McHale 2010) Na getuienis: die etiek en estetika van die Holocaust -vertelling (met Jakob Lothe en Susan R. Suleiman, 2011) Feit, fiksie en vorm: geselekteerde opstelle van Ralph W. Rader (met David H. Richter, 2011) en die komende Fiksionaliteit in letterkunde: kernbegrippe herbesoek (met Lasse Gammelgaard, Stefan Iversen, Louise Brix Jacobsen, Richard Walsh, Henrik Skov Zetterberg-Nielsen en Simona Gjerlevsen Zetterberg-Nielsen.

In 2013 ontvang Phelan 'n eregraad van die Universiteit van Aarhus. 'N Ere -toekenningsvideo wys sy prestasies. In 2016 is hy verkies tot lid van die Norwegian Academy Science and Letters. In 2021 is hy aangewys as die wenner van die Wayne C. Booth Lifetime Achievement Award van die International Society for the Study of Narrative.

557 Denney Hall
164 Annie & amp; John Glenn Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210


Wayback -masjien: James Merlin Phelan

Afrigter Jimmy Phelan, hurkend, spreek sy Huskies uit 1936 toe. Onder die meer opvallende spelers is, van links na regs, Byron Haines (29), Elmer Logg (14), Max Starcevich (66), Vic Markov (65) en Jimmy Cain (62, heel regs). Starcevich en Markov het die College Football Hall of Fame gemaak. / David Eskenazi -versameling

Deur David Eskenazi en Steve Rudman

Dit is byna 70 jaar gelede James Merlin Phelan laas 'n sokkerwedstryd vir die Universiteit van Washington afgerig, 'n ampstermyn wat geëindig het met 'n 14-13 woede van Suid-Kalifornië in Los Angeles, en sy daaropvolgende dagvaarding in die kantore van Ray Eckmann, die atletiese direkteur van die Huskies.

Eckmann, 'n Husky-halfback van 1919-21, het nie Phelan se teenwoordigheid geëis om hom met lof of verhoging te besweer nie, maar om Phelan met blydskap in kennis te stel dat hy 'n goner was.

Phelan het die voetbalspan van die Universiteit van Washington van 1930-41 afgerig, USC vyf keer geklop en die Huskies na rugbywedstryde geneem. / David Eskenazi -versameling

Phelan het tydens sy 12 seisoene by die skool baie voetbalwedstryde gewen, 'n deel waarin Washington 'n Pacific Coast Conference -titel verower het, in twee rolbalwedstryde verskyn het en slegs twee verloorseisoene beleef het.

Phelan het ook 'n gees van avontuur en 'n sin vir humor na die Washington -program gebring, feite wat Eckmann toegegee het.

Maar Eckmann ken ook die ander kant van hierdie Ier, Jimmy Phelan-die harddrinkende, hel-met-politiese kant en sy berugte sarkasme. Phelan het nooit gesukkel om te sê wat hy in gedagte het nie, maak nie saak wie se gevoelens hy gekneus het of wie se ore skarlakenrooi geword het nie. Gevolglik het Phelan altyd 'n gewelddadige reaksie geïnspireer, met min middel.

Jimmy Cain het tussen 1933-36 onder Phelan gespeel en het All-America as 'n halfback sy senior jaar gemaak.

'Wat my betref,' het Cain eenkeer aan 'n verslaggewer in Seattle gesê, 'Jimmy Phelan was die grootste. Hy was een van die grootste ouens wat ek nog ooit ontmoet het. ”

Jack Keene het 'n teenoorgestelde siening. Keene, 'n UW -student in die 1930's, was 'n halwe eeu lank die sokkerman van Washington.

'Hy was 'n baie klein ou,' het Keene gesê. 'Ek het sy klas,' Elements of Football ', geneem. Hy was nie 'n besonder liefdevolle man nie.

'N Paar jaar nadat Phelan Washington verlaat het, het hy die New York Yankees (wat in die Dallas Texans ingeskakel het) van die All-America Football Conference afgerig, 'n span wat aanvallende lineman ingesluit het Art Donovan, wat later 'n Pro Football Hall of Famer geword het na 'n lang loopbaan by die Johnny Unitas-geleide Baltimore Colts.

Dit is die voorblad van die Washington-Whitman-spelprogram van 1930. In die eerste wedstryd van Phelan as hoofafrigter, wen die Huskies met 48-0. / David Eskenazi -versameling

"Ek sal nooit vergeet om vir daardie man te speel nie," skryf Donovan in sy boek, "Fatso: Football When Men Were Really Men." 'Hy was 'n regte pisser. Niks het Jimmy Phelan gefaseer nie.

Ek onthou die eerste Pro Bowl -wedstryd waarna ek gegaan het, na die '53 -seisoen. Ons was in die Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, en Doak Walker en Bobby Layne het 'n monsterpartytjie in een van die suites gehou.

'Wel, soos hierdie partye wil, het hierdie een ontaard in 'n drankwedstryd wat die hele nag deur is. In 'n hoek van die suite was daar 'n halfdosyn ouens wat op die mat opgooi.

Jimmy Phelan en sy vrou stap in, neem die situasie aan, en sonder om 'n maat te mis, sê Phelan vir my: 'Wel, Donovan, jy het beslis vanaand baie goeie atlete bymekaar gekom, nie waar nie. '”

Emmett Watson het Phelan moontlik in die beste perspektief geplaas. In een van sy ou Seattle Post-Intelligencer-klassieke het Watson geskryf: 'Hy het hard afgerig, hard gedrink en was allesbehalwe versigtig. Hy was die teenstelling van die Organisasie -mens. Hy het byna alles gesê wat by hom opkom.

Hy was 'n individualis, 'n vinnig bewegende katalisator wat al te duidelik insien dat die middele van die oorlewing van sokkerafrigting nie altyd op die veld gevind word nie. 'Ek sou eerder,' het hy eenkeer gesê, 'die bastards op die boonste kampus uitoorlê as om die staat Oregon af te slaan.'

Phelan, gebore op 5 Desember 1892 in Sacramento, het grootgeword in Portland en het hom deur die Columbia High School gebring deur in verskillende visserye aan die monding van die Columbia -rivier te werk.

Hy betree die Universiteit van Notre Dame in 1915 en wag tafels om sy geld te verdien. Phelan het in sy eerste wedstryd van die bank af gekom en die Iere tot 'n oorwinning van 32-0 oor Alma College gelei. Vir die volgende drie jaar was hy Knute Rockne se begin van die quarterback, en studeer hy af met Rockne en sê: 'Hy was een van die slimste en beste quarterback in die Notre Dame -sokkergeskiedenis.'

Voorblad van die Washington-USC-spelprogram van 1932. Die Trojans het die wedstryd met 9-6 in die Husky-stadion gewen. / David Eskenazi -versameling

Phelan dien toe 'n haakplek in die diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en word daarna 'n hulpafrigter by Missouri. In 1951 huur Purdue hom as die hoofafrigter, en Phelan wen 35 wedstryde oor die volgende agt seisoene.

Nadat Enoch Bagshaw (1920-29) deur Washington na 'n 2-6-1 flop in 1929 deur Washington laat gaan is, het Phelan 'n oproep ontvang van dr. Albert Strauss, 'n prominente UW-aluin in Chicago. Strauss het Phelan gevra of hy in die Washington -pos sou belangstel. Phelan het belangstelling getoon, Strauss het 'n paar oproepe gemaak en Phelan het die pos gekry.

Dit is nie moeilik om woorde te vind om Phelan te beskryf nie. Maak net die woordeboek oop, en dit lyk asof almal van toepassing is. Baie wat hom sien afrig het, het beweer dat hy die beste bankafrigter was om 'n span van Washington te lei, dat sy motiverende maneuvers met spelers legendaries was, dat daar nooit 'n slimmer afrigter geleef het nie, noemenswaardige opmerkings in die lig dat Gil Dobie en Bagshaw hom voorafgegaan het. Maar ander het volgehou dat Phelan oorskat en te konserwatief was, dat hy meer gepraat het as wat hy gelewer het.

Keene het in daardie kategorie geval.

'Toe hy hier uitkom (van Purdue af),' het Keene gesê, 'was hy na bewering die man wat sy sak toertjies sou oopmaak. Die klop op Bagshaw was dat hy voorspelbare bal gespeel het. Phelan was veronderstel om 'n progressiewe afrigter te wees, maar hy was super konserwatief. Hy het nooit wonderwerke verrig nie. ”

Miskien nie. Maar Phelan het 51 van 99 konferensiewedstryde gewen terwyl hy in diens was van Washington, 'n afrigterekord wat nog steeds onder die bestes in die geskiedenis van die liga is. Hy het ook die Huskies afgerig na die Rose Bowl na die 1936 -seisoen, en het hulle in Desember 1937 na die Pineapple Bowl in Honolulu geneem en die eerste afrigter geword wat UW na agtereenvolgende rolbalwedstryde gelei het.

Phelan het nege spelers onderrig wat All-America-erkenning ontvang het, waaronder drie konsensuskeuses, Max Starcevich (1936), Rudy Mucha (1940) en Ray Frankowski (1941). Van die 33 spelers wat in 1950 op die Washington All-Time Team gelys is, het 17 vir Phelan gespeel.

Van die 11 Huskies wat in die National Football Foundation College Football Hall of Fame ingeskryf is, het drie - Paul Schwegler (verkies tot 1967), Vic Markov (1976) en Starcevich (1990) - onder Phelan gespeel.

Dit is die agterkant van die 1932-Washington-USC-spelprogram met hoofafrigters Howard Jones van USC en Phelan. / David Eskenazi -versameling

Baie van Phelan se beste spelers kom van buite die deelstaat Washington. 'N Beduidende aantal, waaronder Starcevich en Frankowski, is namens Phelan gewerf deur Strauss, wat 'n groot rol gespeel het in die UW -aanstelling van Phelan, uit etniese buurte van Chicago.

Phelan het 'n aantal ander gewerf deur gebruik te maak van kontakte wat hy gevestig het in Notre Dame, Missouri en Purdue. As hy niks anders gedoen het nie, was Phelan 'n pionier in die nasionale werwing in Washington. 'N Uitstekende voorbeeld was Jimmy Cain, 'n Oklahoman wat Phelan deur 'n kontak by Missouri gekry het.

'Phelan het 'n brief oor my gekry, sodat hy Pest Welch (destyds 'n Phelan-assistent, later 'n hoofafrigter van die UW) na Holdenville (OK) gestuur het,' het Cain aan die Seattle Post-Intelligencer gesê. 'Ek het 'n buskaartjie en 15 dollar gekry, en dit het my vyf dae geneem om na Seattle te kom. Ek het nog nooit soveel water gesien nie. In Oklahoma het ons nie genoeg water gehad om in te bad nie. Daarom het ek aangekom en 'n week by Pest Welch gewoon. "

Kain se verhaal is soortgelyk aan dié van baie Husky -spelers wat die Noordelike Stille Oseaan in daardie jare na Seattle geneem het om vir Phelan sokker te speel. Kain het eers in 'n Bellingham -blikkie gaan werk om vis te verslind. Daarna is hy na Alaska om die lokvalle op sleepbote te werk. Kain se loon beloop ongeveer 50 sent per uur.

Dit was 1933, en dit was hoe Cain deur die Universiteit van Washington kon kom. Voordat hy afgestudeer het, het Cain Washington se vierde terugslag in Amerika geword. Dit was in 1936, toe Phelan's Huskies uiteindelik iets gewys het.

Phelan se eerste drie Washington-spanne was ordentlik, maar nie skouspelagtig nie, met 5-4-0, 5-3-1 en 6-2-2. Maar sy volgende vyf het 30 gewen, net 12 verloor, vier gelykop gespeel en in twee rolbalwedstryde gespeel. Die beste van die klubs, dié wat hy hierdie herfs 76 jaar gelede bekend gestel het, het die middelpunt van een van die beste sportjare in die geskiedenis van Seattle geword.

Emmett Watson (32), wat Rainiers -legende Fred Hutchinson by Franklin High School betrap het en later 'n prominente rubriekskrywer in Seattle geword het, genaamd Phelan “The antithesis of the Organization Man. ”/ David Eskenazi Collection

Daardie jaar-1936-het die agt man van Washington 'n Olimpiese goue medalje in Berlyn, onder Hitler se neus, verower. UW swemkampioen Jack Medica het 'n goue en twee silwer medaljes op dieselfde Spele verower. Die UW se ster -basketbalspeler, Ralph Bishop, het ook 'n goue medalje verower as deel van die Amerikaanse nasionale span (sien Wayback -masjien: UW Bonanza tydens die Olimpiese Spele van 1936).

Die basketbalspan van UW het 'n oorwinningsreeks van 17 wedstryde, 'n rekord van 25-7, gehad en het die Verenigde State in Berlyn net misgeloop. Plaaslike bokser Freddie Steele het die wêreld -middelgewigtitel gewen en 'n eenparige besluit oor Babe Risko in die Civic Stadium (eerste wêreldtitelwedstryd in Seattle) behaal.

The Huskies, wat 'n rekord van 5-3-0 in 1935 behaal het, het die seisoen van 1936 op 26 September geopen met 'n verlies van 14-7 teen Minnesota op nasionale ranglys voor 40 000 aanhangers, wat miskien gelukkig huis toe sou gegaan het as Byron Haines nie 'n punt in die vierde kwartaal wat Minnesota se wedstryd gewen het, opgestel het, wat die wenreeks van Gophers tot 19 wedstryde uitgebrei het.

Halfback Cain het All-America gemaak in 1936. / David Eskenazi-versameling Mucha was 'n eenparige All-America in 1940/ David Eskenazi Collection

Vir die Idaho -wedstryd op 3 Oktober het Phelan een van sy gunsteling truuks uitgevind: deur 'n span plaasvervangers te gebruik om die teenstander te versag vir sy junior en senior beginners.

Die subs het teen die Vandale tot halfpad in die tweede kwart tot 'n puntlose gelykopstryd geveg. Toe jaag Phelan met sy vars sterre-Haines, Fritz Wasakowitz, Elmer Logg en Ed Nowogrowski-om 'n oorwinning van 22-0 te behaal.

Dit was nie Phelan se eerste gebruik van sy sogenaamde 'Shock Troops' nie. Phelan onthul sy Shock Troop -filosofie, wat hy by Knute Rockne geleen het, in sy eerste wedstryd as hoofafrigter van Washington, 27 September 1930.

Die Huskies speel Whitman en dra soliede goue uniforms, wat volgens Phelan die regte kledingstuk sou wees vir die onthulling van die "Notre Dame Shift." Behalwe dat Phelan wel die skof gebruik het. Mededingende verkenners het die staanplekke beset en Phelan wou nie hê dat hulle sy nuwe oortreding moes sien nie. Boonop kon hy Whitman daarsonder klop. Boonop wou Phelan nie hê dat die verkenners te veel dwelm in sy eerste span moes kry nie. Die tweede eenheid het dus die wedstryd begin en die meeste daarvan gespeel, 'n oorwinning van 48-0.

Phelan gebruik sy Shock Troops as 'n gewoonte, en verdeel die span hoofsaaklik in tweede- en senior eenhede (eerstejaars kom nie in aanmerking nie), en begin graag die tweedejaars, veral in groot wedstryde.

McAdams was 'n eerste keuse in die konsep in 821741. / David Eskenazi -versameling Markov betree die Hall of Fame in 1976. / David Eskenazi -versameling

'Wat de hel,' het Phelan eenkeer gesê, 'hulle weet nie genoeg om geklop te word nie.'

Een keer in 1934 begin Phelan sy tweedejaars teen USC in Los Angeles. Nadat die tweedejaars uitgegaan en aangeteken het, was die seniors so ontsteld dat hulle ook gedruk het. Washington wen met 14-7.

'N Ander keer, in 1932, het hy Oregon -verkenners ontstel deur sy hele beginspan op die bank te hou tydens 'n wedstryd teen Montana.

'Ek wou nie 'n kans waag dat die stamgaste seerkry nie,' het Phelan gesê.

'Hy het altyd sy tweedejare teen die sterkste spanne begin,' verduidelik Cain. 'Hy het dit my tweede jaar teen Oregon gedoen.'

Vir die derde wedstryd van die 1936 -seisoen gebruik Phelan weer sy Shock Troop -strategie by UCLA voor 50 000 aanhangers op 10 Oktober. Al Cruver en Bud Douglas het die raakpunte behaal wat Washington 'n sege van 14-0 besorg het.

Haines en Cain behaal TD's in Washington se oorwinning van 19-7 oor Oregon State op 17 Oktober, en die paar het weer 'n sege van 13-0 oor Cal 25 Oktober behaal. 0 oorwinning oor Oregon, net die Huskies se tweede oorwinning oor die Eende sedert 1928.

Byron Haines, 'n inwoner van Bend, OR., Het van 1934-36 'n einde en 'n halfrugby vir Phelan gespeel en was een van die veelsydigste spelers in Washington. / David Eskenazi -versameling

Cain scored two touchdowns against Stanford Nov. 7, and the Huskies probably would have won if they hadn’t fumbled twice inside the five-yard line while driving for scores. The 14-14 tie gave Washington a 5-1-1 record.

After Washington defeated USC Nov. 15 in a Homecoming contest witnessed by 40,000 (Cain scored another TD), the Huskies needed only to defeat Washington State to secure its first Rose Bowl invitation since the 1925 squad finished the regular season 11-0-1.

“I remember we had them 20-0 at the half,” Cain recalled of that game against the Cougars. “In the locker room, Phelan gave us hell. He told us, ‘I want you to go out there and double that score. Cain, you go out there and block like hell.’”

Cain blocked like hell and the Huskies doubled the score, winning 40-0. The only bad thing: Cain suffered a broken toe, an injury that came to haunt the Huskies when they faced off against the University of Pittsburgh in the Rose Bowl.

Cover the 1935 Washington-Stanford game program. Washington lost 6-0. / David Eskenazi Collection

After receiving the invitation to play in Pasadena, Washington received permission to select its opponent. Passing over Louisiana State, a team most figured the Huskies could beat, the UW picked the Panthers after assessing them as relative softies, even though Pitt had a 7-2-1 record with victories over Notre Dame (26-0), Nebraska (10-6) and Ohio State (6-0).

A huge underdog, Pittsburgh clobbered Washington 21-0.

Phelan could be outrageously cavalier in his approach. Prior to that 1937 Rose Bowl, the Huskies spent a good deal of time carousing and sampling various California diversions instead of practicing.

“The only thing we didn’t do at the Rose Bowl was train,” Cain admitted years later. “The first week there all we did was fish.”

Phelan became a man around whom anecdotes accumulated. In 1930, when the Huskies played USC, they stopped a Trojan drive deep in Washington territory. Phelan danced around the sidelines like a man possessed, yelping, “Now we got ’em? Go for the jugular!” Phelan’s behavior must have confused his players because Washington was already well on its way to a 32-0 defeat.

Then there was the USC game in 1938. When the Huskies arrived at the train station in Los Angeles, Phelan assembled his players and told them they were nowhere near good enough to be on the same field with the Trojans. He told them that he ought to put them back on the train rather than make them endure a humiliation.

“What the hell,” Phelan said, “two of my tackles wear glasses.”

The next day the Huskies beat USC 7-6, knocking the Trojans out of the Rose Bowl.

Cover of the 1936 Washington-California game program. Phelan’s Huskies won 13-0. David Eskenazi Collection

Of all of Phelan’s accomplishments at Washington, his mastery of USC is the most curious.

Starting in 1934, Washington defeated USC five consecutive times (Don James never beat USC more than three times in a row). Phelan delighted in doing a number on the Trojans.

“Phelan’s teams really had the upper hand on USC,” said Keene. “Those were some of the most memorable games of the time because USC had all these tremendous ballplayers.”

Phelan enjoyed his skirmishes with USC because he hated Howard Jones so much. Phelan’s beef with the USC head coach stemmed from derogatory public comments Jones made about UW following USC’s 32-0 wipe-out of Washington in 1930, Phelan’s first year at Washington.

Oddly, while Phelan’s clubs beat USC, they had a lot of trouble with Stanford, and never did beat Minnesota (Phelan created the intersectional series with the Gophers, one of the most notable in Washington’s first 50 years), although all were classics. Only one of the games was decided by as many as two touchdowns, that in 1938 (15-0).

Despite Phelan’s success against USC and his routinely high conference finishes, Eckmann had his fill of Jimmy Phelan by 1941 (he hated that Phelan drank beer with his players at the Blue Moon Tavern in the U-District), deciding he would replace Phelan with Welch, a Washington assistant who had been an All-America halfback under Phelan at Purdue.

Phelan accomplished some things no other Husky head coach duplicated. In addition to beating USC five consecutive times, he is the only Husky head coach to simultaneously tutor two players who would later become members of the College Football Hall of Fame, Max Starcevich and Vic Markov, in 1936.

Starcevich made first-team All-America in 1936 and entered the College Football Hall of Fame in 1990. / David Eskenazi Collection

Phelan coached the first University of Washington players selected in the NFL draft (Starcevich was the first, going in the third round of the 1937 NFL draft, to the Brooklyn Dodgers), including the UW’s first-ever No. 1 picks (Dean McAdams and Rudy Mucha both in the first round in 1941).

Because of Phelan’s city-wide popularity, he had no idea that Eckmann planned to fire him. But when Phelan arrived in Eckmann’s office, Eckmann asked the coach to sit down. Eckmann picked up the telephone and, without a word to his coach, called United Press International.

“This is Ray Eckmann,” Eckmann told the wire service. “And I have just fired James Phelan.”

“Jimmy didn’t know a thing about it,” said Cain. “Otherwise the alums would have thrown Eckmann out on his butt.”

Phelan went on to coach at St. Mary’s where, in 1946, he returned to Washington and beat the Huskies and his former assistant, Welch, 24-20 (first modern-era former UW coach to beat the Huskies). Later, Phelan coached a number of professional teams and (first former UW coach to work at the pro level), after that, sold real estate in Sacramento.

Phelan was 73 when he wanted to get married again (his first wife died). He had a candidate in mind, a woman he had met years before who lived in Hawaii. Out of the blue, Phelan called her on a Friday and, without many preliminaries, asked if she had any faults.

She told Phelan she had two faults. She said she’d never leave Hawaii, her biggest fault was that she liked Phelan. He asked her to marry him. She did, the following Tuesday.

About a year and a half later, the 70-year-old Mrs. Jimmy Phelan came down with a triple hernia at the same time the old ex-coach suffered a cracked knee. Phelan was asked about this double dip on the DL.

“We were trying too hard,” he said.

Phelan live long enough to attend his induction ceremony into the College Football Hall of Fame. He died a year later, Dec. 14, 1974, in Honolulu.

Dean McAdams won the 1939 “Man of the Year” award, presented by The Seattle Post Intelligencer, largely on the basis of his outstanding play in Washington’s 9-7 loss to No. 1-ranked Southern California. / David Eskenazi Collection


James Phelan - History

The location of cities is not determined, however, by selection so much as by events. Yerba Buena, the original name of the port of San Francisco, was located in a sheltered cove, between Telegraph and Rincon Hills, with deep water off shore, convenient to the Golden Gate, or narrow entrance from the sea but the only back country was the stretch of land between the ocean and the bay extending southerly into Santa Clara Valley.

It can be well understood now many pioneer settlers, among them General W. T. Sherman and Thomas O. Larkin, United States Consul at Monterey, believed that the principal city on San Francisco bay would spring up at the head waters of navigation near the confluence of the great rivers of the Sacramento and San Joaquin which debouch into the bay at or near Benicia. Back of Benicia was the richest mining country, and river navigation was the familiar means of transportation.

But Benicia, auspiciously begun, has made no progress in half a century and is still a mere village, while San Francisco is a world city of commanding importance—the chief port of the United States on the greatest of the world’s oceans.

Why the one was preferred over the other shall never be known—sufficient to say, San Francisco found favor in the eyes of the men of commerce and trade before the days of railroads had, however, the western railroads been under way at that period (they did not come until 1867) there might have been a different story to narrate, for San Francisco, for the most part, is accessible to transcontinental lines from the mainland shore of the bay only by means of ferries—usually an impediment to traffic. But some cities, predestined to greatness, overcome all impediments and so prove their necessity and fitness.

General Sherman tells in his Memoirs (p.55) how Dr. Semple and others, in 1847, believed that the great city of the Bay of San Francisco would rise on Carquinez Straits how General Vallejo gave them title to a league of land on condition that the city should bear the name of Vallejo’s wife, Francisca how, soon after the name of Yerba Buena was changed to the City of San Francisco, by Alcalde Bartlett, in order to checkmate the founders of Francisca, thus forcing them to rename their town site, Benicia, the second baptismal name of the Senora Vallejo. Now, this is what General Sherman says: "I am convinced that this little circumstance was big with consequences. That Benicia was the best natural site for a commercial city I am satisfied and had half the money and half the labor since bestowed of San Francisco been expended at Benicia, we should have at this day a city of palaces on the Carquinez Straits. The name ’San Francisco’ fixed the city where it now is, for every ship in 1848-49, which cleared from any part of the world, knew the name of San Francisco not Yerba Buena or Benicia, and consequently ships consigned to California came pouring in with their contents and were anchored in front of Yerba Buena, the first town."

General Sherman understood surveying and might have attained the first rank as a "builder of cities" if his "bump of location" were more pronounced. He confesses to surveying Colonel J. D. Stevenson’s newly projected city "New York of the Pacific," situated at the mouth of the San Joaquin river, for which he received $500, and ten or fifteen lots, enough of which he sold to make up another $500, and abandoned the balance. This city met the fate of numberless other projects about the bay. (Memoirs p.74)

There must be some magnet in the site of San Francisco. As Bret Harte sang of the metropolis: "Thou drawest all things small or great, To thee beside the western gate." San Francisco (when R. H. Dana, Jr., looked upon it in 1835) was a hilly and barren waste. The pioneer in city building has something to subdue. By him the sand-dunes were dumped into the cove below Battery and Market and Montgomery and Washington streets, making a new shore line, reclaiming many acres of land from the bay and giving deep water for the wharves but the conspicuous fault of the men of that time was perhaps a lack of esthetic sense, for instead of circling the hills with roads, rectangular blocks were laid out on their slopes. Furthermore, the city suffered from the confusion arising out of land litigation. When California was ceded by Mexico to the United States, existing property rights had to be respected, but these rights were hard to determine. It was the practice of Spain to settle its Pacific colonies by the establishment of missions, representing the religious branch presidios, the military authority, and pueblos (limited to four square leagues), the town or civil government. The pueblo lands of the city were sacred, and it has been decided that they were "held in trust for the inhabitants," so after squatters and judgment creditors against the city had taken possession of much public property, they were finally compelled to compromise their alleged claims by the assertion of the city’s pueblo rights. (Harte vs. Burnett, 15 Cal. Reports, 1860 U.S. Supreme Court, Townsend vs. Greely, 1866.) In 1856 and in 1865 the city was given the "Van Ness Ordinance" and other municipal enactments by which the public parks, places, school and fire lots and streets were finally confirmed to the people out of the public domain. But first, what is the history of Spanish and Mexican dominion?

After conferring plenary powers on viceroys and "presidents of my royal audiences" to sell uncultivated lands, the Spanish King, in 1754, added this wholesome and provident restriction, to which is due the little that the city inherited in the way of public lands: "But in regard to lands of community, and those granted to towns for pasturage and commons, no change shall be made the towns shall still be maintained in possession of them." (Wheeler’s Land Titles, p.4). They were inalienable. (Ibid) After the acquisition of California by Mexico in 1821, the ayuntamiento (the council which Spain set up in its municipalities), was authorized by the Territorial Assembly to grant lots 200 varas back from the beach, a restriction designed to save the harbor front for the common benefit.

Jacob P. Leese, who left Los Angeles for better commercial prospects in San Francisco, built in 1836 the first house erected by an American on the west line of the present Dupont street. (An Englishman, W. A. Richardson, however, had preceded him by one year, but had built a mere shanty.) The cove of Yerba Buena had not at that time been surveyed but was used as a landing-place by ships trading in grain, hides and tallow㬐,000 hides and 2,000,000 pounds of tallow having been exported in one year. Exclusive of the Indians, there were but sixty persons living at the Mission (founded October 9, 1776) and fifteen soldiers at the Presidio.

This Mission was called San Francisco de Assisi or, sometimes, de Dolores. The Mission fathers of the Franciscan order, who gave the name of San Francisco to the bay in 1769, which they had discovered from the land, and to which they believed they were led by the patron of their order, St. Francis, converted the native Indians to Christianity. The Indian population in 1802, according to the authority of Humboldt, was, male and female, 814. They were as low as any known race in the scale of humanity, but they were patiently taught useful arts. The Mission accumulated surprisingly large flocks of sheep, herds of cattle, horses and grain. In 1825 it was credited with 76,000 head of cattle and 79,000 sheep, and there was village at the mission which Captain Benjamin Morrell estimated to contain 500 inhabitants. The Indians were dispersed and disappeared after the secularization of the missions by Mexico in 1833, and the lands and property of the fathers were confiscated to regranted to settlers.

In 1837 a law was promulgated for the government of pueblos which remained in force until July 7, 1846, when California was taken by Commodore John D. Sloat. Two days later the American flag was raised in the old plaza of Yerba Buena, now called Portsmouth Square, in honor of the United States ship, then commanded by Captain J. B. Montgomery, the flag- raiser, whose name was given to the principal thoroughfare.

It was as early as the Spring of 1839, however, that Governor Alvarado directed the alcalde, Francisco de Haro, to make a survey of Yerba Buena and in the fall of the same year Juan Vioget, a surveyor, made the first regular survey and plan of what is now San Francisco. That survey merely covered the area between Pacific, Sacramento, Montgomery and Dupont streets. It may be mentioned in passing that in 1835, W. A. Richardson claims to have made a rough plan of a small area by official authority. (The United States vs. Jose Y. Limantour. Transcript of record p.21 et seq.) But it is gratifying to note, even at this period, in the midst of confusion, that the germ of artistic planning was not foreign to the minds of the founders, although it did not bear abundant fruit. In making grants of house lots, it was ordered that "they shall be in as good order and arrangement as possible, and as the situation of the place may require, in order that the streets and plazas which may be formed may have, from the beginning, proper uniformity and harmony."

The wagon-road to Yerba Buena from the Mission was built in 1838. Then the village slumbered until awakened by the guns saluting the flag and, a little later, by the clarion cry of "Eureka!"

In March, 1847, nine months before the discovery of gold, General S. W. Kearny, after whom Kearny street is named, then Military Governor of California, ordered the sale at auction of beach and water lots, excepting those reserved by the Federal Government, "for the benefit of the town of San Francisco." Jaspar O’Farrell, a surveyor, was employed to lay them out which he did to the number of 444, between Rincon and Telegraph Hill, in size 45 feet 10 inches by 137 feet 6 inches. These lots were designated on the official map made by Wm. M. Eddy, city surveyor. Another survey was subsequently made of 328 more lots by O’Farrell, who in trying to reconcile his work with that of Vioget experienced considerable difficulty. Vioget’s lots had angles, obtuse and acute, which had to be brought into the uniform plan so that streets would cross each other at right angles. O’Farrell proposed to widen Dupont and Kearny streets, laid out by Vioget, but the expense was considered too great. Many years later these streets were widened at a large cost, the burden falling on the property one-half block distant east and west from the line of the improved street. Kearny street was widened from 45 to 75 feet, the 30 feet having been taken from the west side at a cost of $579,000. Damages and benefits were assessed by a commission. Dupont street was widened in 1878 in the same manner and renamed Grant avenue. Montgomery street was opened to Howard street, and Montgomery avenue, a great diagonal thoroughfare, was cut from Montgomery and Washington streets northwesterly to the bay— the cost of which has never been met on account of fundamental irregularity in the issuance of the bonds. None of these expenses were assumed by the city but were expressly made a district charge and the property of the district was made liable, under a prescribed procedure. It is unjust to put the whole burden of such improvements on a small district where the city is also a large beneficiary. The scandal arising out of the Dupont street and Montgomery avenue widening and extension bonds has been an injury to the city’s credit, and yet the city is not responsible, and before the bonds were issued it expressly disavowed responsibility. The bond buyers were obliged to look to the regularity of the proceedings of the commissioners charged with the duty of issuing the indebtedness.

Jaspar O’Farrell also delineated Market street— an avenue which is unique among city streets in that it seems, like a great river, whose flow is augmented by many tributaries, to drain all other streets. It was given its direction by the respective locations of the town and the Mission, which it practically connected. The survey made south of Market street bore but little relation to that on the north. The historian, John S. Hittell, says that "O’Farrell correctly appreciated the importance of making the main streets in the southern part of the town agree in general direction with a route followed by people going from Yerba Buena Cove to the Mission." That was well enough, no doubt, for his period, but since then the south side has developed on independent lines, irrespective of the Mission, and it is necessary to connect it more intimately with the north side by opening new streets and diagonals.

At the period of the O’Farrell surveys the population of San Francisco was shown by a census to be four hundred and fifty-nine. This number did not include soldiers nor the inhabitants of the Mission-village of Dolores.

Then came the discovery of gold in January, 1848. The population increased by leaps and bounds. O’Farrell’s lots were all sold, and, in October, 1849, the ayuntamiento ordered Eddy to extend the survey to Larkin street north of Post street to Leavenworth and Eighth Streets. One hundred-vara lots sold for $500, and fifty-vara [a vara = 33 inches] lots for $200.

In 1850 a franchise was granted for a plank wagon-road from California and Kearny to Fifteenth street, by way of Mission street to the Mission Dolores. Mission was favored over Market street because the latter from Second to Fifth street was covered by a high ridge of sand. There was a deep cut in the sand hills at Kearny and Post streets where tolls were collected. This road did not become free until 1858.

In 1851, Congress created the land commission to settle land claims in California. In taking the country, Commodore Sloat had proclaimed that persons in peaceable possession under "color of right" should be protected in their holdings. This promise was ignored by the Act and the result was that squatters entered upon lands in and about the city and became a political power. The native California rancheros lost half their holdings to the lawyers and the other half in living during the litigation, and awaiting for a patent to issue— and so the Noe, Bernal, de Haro and other grants in or near San Francisco were dissipated. Just as the time limit set for the filing of claims before the commission was about to expire, in March, 1853, the Limantour, Santillan and Sherrebeck claims were filed for nearly all the property south of California street and west of Second, which ultimately was invalidated by the courts in so far as it affected pueblo lands but other properties were confirmed to him.

The boundary line of the City of San Francisco, as fixed by the act of the Legislature, approved April 15, 1851, reincorporating the city, was as follows: distant, in a southerly direction, from the center of Portsmouth square, on the west by a line parallel with Kearny street, two miles distant, in a westerly direction, from the center of Portsmouth square. Its northern and eastern boundaries shall be coincident with those of the County of San Francisco (i.e. the bay).

The westerly boundary line so fixed coincided, nearly, with what is now Divisadero street, and the southerly line with Twenty-first street.

By an act of the Legislature, passed March 11, 1858, Ordinance No. 822, passed by the Common Council of the City of San Francisco, June 20, 1855, was ratified and confirmed. By this ordinance the city relinquished all claims to lands west of Larkin and Johnston (Ninth) streets, and within the boundary line, as fixed by the act of 1851, to those persons, and their successors, who had been in actual possession thereof from January 1st, 1855, to June 30, 1855, and as to those lands lying east of said streets and above high- water mark, to those persons who deraigned title from grants made by the alcaldes of municipal authorities of the former pueblo.

By section 5 of the ordinance the city reserved the right to select and reserve such parts of the lands lying west of Larkin and Ninth streets, and within said boundary line, as might be necessary for public purposes, such as school houses, engine houses and squares, and in pursuance of such plan another ordinance, No. 845, was passed September 27, 1855, and likewise ratified by said legislative act, providing for a commission to prepare a plan of streets, squares and public building lots within this portion of the city.

Such a map was accordingly prepared (since known as the Van Ness map), and by another ordinance, No. 846, passed October 15, 1856, likewise ratified by said legislative act, it was "declared to be the plan of the city, in respect to the location and establishment of streets and avenues, and the reservation of squares and lots for public purposes in that portion of the city lying west of Larkin street and southwest of Johnston (Ninth) street," as defined by the charter of 1851.

By an act of Congress, approved July 1, 1864, such ordinances, and the act of the Legislature ratifying them, were referred to and approved, and the United States relinquished all claims to the lands delineated on said map for the uses therein respectively designated.

The rights of the city to its public reservations thereby became fixed and determined, so far as that portion of the city lying east of Divisadero and north of Twenty-first street), no action was taken by the city in the matter of confirming the title of private persons or making reservations of land for public purposes until 1868, when ordinance No. 800, approved January 14, 1868, was passed by the supervisors. This ordinance, which was confirmed by an act of the Legislature approved March 27, 1868, provided that the supervisors should immediately proceed to subdivide into blocks such portions of the city and county lying outside of the charter line of 1851 as they might deem expedient, and to make necessary reservations of lands for public building sites, squares and a park. In pursuance of this plan, the Committee on Outside Lands of the Supervisors caused to be prepared a map of that portion of said lands lying north of the Rancho Laguna de la Merced and the San Miguel rancho and of Islais creek not reserved by the United States, whereon were delineated streets, and reservations for school houses, engine houses, a cemetery, public squares, a city and county hospital and Golden Gate Park. Such map, so prepared, was finally approved and adopted by the supervisors as the city map by ordinance No. 823, approved July 24th, 1868, and has since been know as the Humphreys map.

By said ordinance No. 800 the title of the city to lands outside the charter line of 1851, and not embraced in Spanish grants, such as the San Miguel rancho, nor reserved by the United States, nor by the city for public use, was relinquished to such persons who were in actual possession thereof on March 8, 1866, and had paid taxes thereon for five years next preceding July 1, 1866.

The title to this territory was thereby settled and fixed, and the right of the city to public property lying therein determined.


17.5: Primary Source: James D. Phelan, “Why the Chinese Should Be Excluded” (1901)

[The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882, and again in 1892.] The Exclusion Acts then passed were limited to ten years&rsquo duration. In May next the latest act will expire by limitation, and Congress will be asked to renew it, because, until now, Chinese exclusion has been regarded in diplomatic circles and elsewhere as the settled policy of the country. Has there been any change in the nature of the evil, or in the sentiments of the people? Certainly not on the Pacific Coast, where the lapse of time has made still more evident the non-assimilative character of the Chinese and their undesirability as citizens.

The Exclusion Act has been reasonably effective, although the Chinese, with more or less success, have employed their well-known cunning in evading its provisions by surreptitiously and fraudulently entering the United States. The law, however, has opposed a barrier to the great volume of immigration which threatened this country for many years prior to 1880&hellip.

The influx having been checked, the danger to California has been averted, and, consequently, during the last decade industrial conditions indicate comparative prosperity whereas it is well known that prior to the Exclusion Laws the State of California suffered acutely from labor troubles and business derangement. Unemployed men, hungry from want of work, marched the streets of the cities, inaugurated political parties, disturbed the peace of communities by riotous outbreaks which threatened at times the foundations of law and order and these facts gave to James Bryce a fruitful theme for speculation on democracy in his excellent work, &ldquoThe American Commonwealth.&rdquo He devoted two chapters to the anti-Chinese crusade in. California and looked upon it as a race, labor and political question, which sooner or later, unless solved, would menace American institutions. Accusations were made at that time, which Ho Yow repeats, that the opposition to the Chinese came from demagogues alone. To show the unanimity of the people, I may point out that the Legislature submitted by referendum the question of Chinese immigration to a popular vote. For Chinese immigration 883 votes were polled, and against Chinese immigration 154,638 votes. In the City of San Francisco, representing the wealth and intelligence and containing the skilled-labor organizations of the State, only 224 votes were cast in favor of the immigration and 41,258 votes against it. This result demonstrated clearly that the resident population of California, taking the broad ground of self-preservation, refused to suffer themselves to be dispossessed of their inheritance by Chinese coolies. That is what the verdict meant.

A select committee of Congress, after investigating the question and taking testimony in California, reported in favor of Chinese exclusion, and that policy has been regarded ever since as a peaceful preventive of serious disorders affecting the body politic which would have inevitably ensued had the National Legislature failed to protect the white population of the country. &hellip

The Chinese, by putting a vastly inferior civilization in competition with our own, tend to destroy the population, on whom the perpetuity of free government depends. Without homes and families patronizing neither school, library, church nor theatre lawbreakers, addicted to vicious habits indifferent to sanitary regulations and breeding disease taking no holidays, respecting no traditional anniversaries, but laboring incessantly, and subsisting on practically nothing for food and clothes, a condition to which they have been inured for centuries, they enter the lists against men who have been brought up by our civilization to family life and civic duty. Our civilization having been itself rescued from barbarism by the patriots, martyrs and benefactors of mankind, the question now is: Shall it be imperilled? Is not Chinese immigration a harm?

If the Chinese are admitted, whence are the ranks of the free population to be recruited? Who shall preserve our civilization and who shall fight our battles? The Chinese may be good laborers, but they are not good citizens. They may in small numbers benefit individual employers, but they breed the germs of a national disease, which spreads as they spread, and grows as they grow.

[Source: James D. Phelan, &ldquoWhy The Chinese Should Be Excluded,&rdquo The North American Review 173 (November, 1901).]


James Phelan

James Phelan teaches and writes about narrative theory, the medical humanities, the English and American novel, especially from modernism to the present, and nonfiction narrative. He is the first person in the history of the English department to be awarded both the Alumni Distinguished Teaching Award (2007) and the Distinguished Scholar Award (2004). He is the author or co-author of 10 books and editor or co-editor of another 10, as well as approximately 175 essays. His research has been devoted to thinking through what it means to conceive of narrative as rhetoric, even as his individual books have focused on specific aspects of that conception. He has written about style in Worlds from Words (1981) about character and narrative progression in Reading People, Reading Plots (1988), about a rhetorical approach to a range of narrative techniques and their consequences in Narrative as Rhetoric (1996) about character narration in Living to Tell about It about judgments and narrative progression (again) in Experiencing Fiction (2007) about literary history and 10 American novels in Reading the Twentieth-Century American Novel (2013) about the larger project of rhetorical poetics in Somebody Telling Somebody Else (2017) and about his concepts of mimetic, thematic and synthetic components of narrative in a dialogue book with Matthew Clark, Debating Rhetorical Narratology (2020).

Since 1992, Phelan has been the editor of Narrative, the journal of the International Society for the Study of Narrative, recently ranked first in the category of “Literature and Writing” by googlescholar. Phelan co-edits, along with Katra Byram and Faye Halpern, the Ohio State University Press book series, The Theory and Interpretation of Narrative.

Among the volumes Phelan has also edited or co-edited are the Blackwell Companion to Narrative Theory (with Peter J. Rabinowitz, 2005) Teaching Narrative Theory (with David Herman and Brian McHale 2010) After Testimony: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Holocaust Narrative (with Jakob Lothe and Susan R. Suleiman, 2011) Fact, Fiction, and Form: Selected Essays of Ralph W. Rader (with David H. Richter, 2011) and the forthcoming Fictionality in Literature: Core Concepts Revisited (with Lasse Gammelgaard, Stefan Iversen, Louise Brix Jacobsen, Richard Walsh, Henrik Skov Zetterberg-Nielsen and Simona Gjerlevsen Zetterberg-Nielsen.

In 2013, Phelan was awarded an honorary degree from Aarhus University. An Honorary Award video showcases his achievements. In 2016 he was elected a member of the Norwegian Academy Science and Letters. In 2021 he was named the winner of the Wayne C. Booth Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for the Study of Narrative.


Kyk die video: ЗОМБИ РЕЖИМ В НОВОЙ CALL OF DUTY VANGUARD


Kommentaar:

  1. Yozshura

    dit is inderdaad vreemd

  2. Tentagil

    They were already arguing recently

  3. Ethyn

    Dit is jammer dat ek nie nou kan praat nie – daar is nie vrye tyd nie. Maar ek sal vry wees - ek sal beslis skryf wat ek dink oor hierdie kwessie.

  4. Fenrigal

    Die absurde situasie het geblyk

  5. Rui

    but I like it ... cool ...



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