Wilfrid Laurier

Wilfrid Laurier


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Wilfrid Laurier is gebore in St Lin, Quebec, in 1841. Hy word advokaat en word in 1874 verkies tot die Ottawa -parlement. Laurier, 'n lid van die Liberale Party, word minister van binnelandse inkomste in 1877 en word uiteindelik aangestel as leier van die Liberale Party. In 1896 word Laurier die eerste minister van Kanada, die eerste Franse Kanadees en die eerste Rooms -Katoliek, wat hierdie amp beklee.

In die volgende vyftien jaar het Laurier hard gewerk vir imperiale samewerking, terwyl hy aangedring het op die reg van Kanada om besluite te neem oor buitelandse sake. Laurier het gehelp om 'n groter gevoel van eenheid in die land te skep en was verantwoordelik vir verbeterde handelsbetrekkinge met Brittanje. Sy goeie verhouding met die Britse regering is versterk deur sy besluit om Kanadese troepe te stuur om Brittanje te help tydens die Boereoorlog.

Laurier se politieke teenstanders het beswaar aangeteken teen sy planne om handelsbande met die VSA te versterk. In Oktober 1911 is Laurier se regering oor hierdie kwessie verslaan en is hy vervang deur Robert Borden, die leier van die Konserwatiewe Party.

Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Laurier die Kanadese weermag na die Westelike Front gestuur, maar het Borden se planne vir diensplig gekant.

Wilfrid Laurier is in 1919 oorlede.


waterloo

Ons Master of Arts (MA) in geskiedenisprogram is deel van die Tri-University Graduate Program in History, 'n vennootskap van Laurier, die Universiteit van Waterloo en die Universiteit van Guelph. Die integrasie van geskiedenisdepartemente maak hierdie program een ​​van die grootste gegradueerde geskiedenisprogramme in Kanada, met behoud van die klein klasse en ondersteunende professor-student-verhouding wat verband hou met geskiedenis by Laurier.


Inhoud

Laurier was die vierde langste dienende premier, van 1896 tot 1911. Sy ampstermyn van 15 jaar en 86 dae (11 Julie 1896 tot 6 Oktober 1911) bly die langste ongebroke termyn van 'n Kanadese premier. [1]

Hy het die Liberale in sewe algemene verkiesings gelei, vier gewen (1896, 1900, 1904 en 1908) en drie verloor (1891, 1911, 1917). Hy is in 'n drievoudige verhouding met sir John A. Macdonald en Mackenzie King oor die aantal algemene verkiesings wat hy as leier van 'n party betwis het.

Sy reeks van vier opeenvolgende meerderheidsregerings (1896, 1900, 1904 en 1908) is gekoppel aan Macdonald se identiese rekord as die langste reeks oorwinnings in die algemene verkiesing op federale vlak.

Laurier was die tweede van agt eerste ministers uit Quebec, die ander was Sir John Abbott, Louis St. Laurent, Pierre Trudeau, Brian Mulroney, Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin en Justin Trudeau. Hy was ook die eerste van vyf frankofone -ministers, die ander was St. Laurent, Pierre Trudeau, Chrétien en Justin Trudeau.

Laurier was 20 keer verkiesbaar tot die House of Commons van Kanada, in 1874, 1877 (twee keer), 1878, 1878, 1882, 1887, 1891 (twee keer), 1896 (drie keer), 1900, 1904 (twee keer), 1908 ( twee keer), 1911 (twee keer) en 1917 (twee keer), hoewel sommige daarvan dieselfde verkiesing in dieselfde algemene verkiesing was, soos destyds toegelaat. Hy het sewentien van die verkiesings gewen en is drie keer verslaan.

Laurier is verkies tot lid van die House of Commons vir ses verskillende kiesafdelings, en sit op verskillende tye in die Commons vir drie verskillende kiesafdelings (Drummond — Arthabaska, Quebec East, Quebec en Soulanges, Quebec. Hy het altesaam in die Commons gedien) van 44 jaar, 10 maande, 17 dae, voortdurend vanaf die 3de parlement, verkies in 1874, tot sy dood in 1919. [2]

Laurier dien kortliks in die Wetgewende Vergadering van Quebec van 1871 tot 1874, toe hy bedank om die federale politiek in die algemene verkiesing van 1874 te betree.

Laurier het die liberale in sewe algemene verkiesings gelei, vier gewen (1896, 1900, 1904 en 1908) en drie verloor (1891, 1911, 1917).

Federale verkiesing, 1891 Wysig

Die verkiesing van 1891 was Laurier se eerste verkiesing as leier van die liberale. Sy teenstander in die verkiesing van 1891 was sir John A. Macdonald, in sy laaste verkiesing. Macdonald, 76 jaar oud, het weer die konserwatiewes tot oorwinning gelei, alhoewel met 'n verminderde meerderheid. Laurier het ná die verkiesing die leier van die amptelike opposisie gebly.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1891 - Partye, leiers, gewen setels en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Konserwatief Sir John A. Macdonald 1 97 43.0%
Liberaal-konserwatief 20 5.6%
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 2 90 45.2%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 3 1.9%
Onafhanklik 2 0.8%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 1 0.7%
Nasionalistiese konserwatief 1 0.2%
Nasionalis 1 0.0% 3
Gelyke regte 0 0.3%
Progressief 0 0.1%
Onbekend 4 0 2.2%
Totaal 215 100.0%
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Eerste Minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Leier van die opposisie toe verkiesing na die verkiesing leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Bekroonde.
4 Verkiesingsopgawes in 1887 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Baie kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.

Federale verkiesing, 1896 Wysig

Laurier wen sy tweede algemene verkiesing en verslaan die konserwatiewes onder leiding van premier Charles Tupper. Die belangrikste kwessie was die Manitoba Schools Question, wat die land op taalkundige en godsdienstige wyse verdeel het. Alhoewel Tupper en die konserwatiewes die gewilde stem gewen het, het Laurier en die liberale die meerderheid setels gewen en die regering gevorm, die eerste keer op federale vlak dat die party met die grootste stemme steun nie die regering gevorm het nie.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1896 - Partye, leiers, gewen setels en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 1 117 41.4%
Konserwatief Charles Tupper 2 71 44.4%
Liberaal-konserwatief 15 3.8%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 4 1.3%
Beskermers van die nywerheid 2 3.9%
McCarthyite Dalton McCarthy 2 1.3%
Onafhanklik 1 1.4%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 1 0.2%
Nasionalis 0 1.5%
Protestantse Beskermingsvereniging 0 0.6%
Onbekend 3 0 0.2%
Totaal 213 100.0%
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Leier van die opposisie toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Eerste minister kort na die verkiesing is na die verkiesing die leier van die opposisie genoem.
3 Verkiesingsopgawes in 1896 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.

Federale verkiesing, 1900 Wysig

Laurier het weer teen Tupper te staan ​​gekom in die algemene verkiesing van 1900. Laurier en die liberale het hul gewilde stemme verhoog en die setels gewen. Tupper tree uit die openbare lewe, die laaste van die vaders van die konfederasie wat die Kanadese politiek verlaat het.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1900 - Partye, leiers, setels gewen en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 1 128 50.3%
Konserwatief Charles Tupper 2 69 43.2%
Liberaal-konserwatief 10 2.9%
Onafhanklik 3 1.4%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 1 1.1%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 1 0.5%
Onafhanklike Arbeid 1 0.4%
Arbeid 0 0.3%
Onbekend 3 0 0.0% 4
Totaal 213 100.1% 5
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Eerste Minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Leier van die opposisie toe verkiesing na die verkiesing leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Verkiesingsopgawes in 1900 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.
4 "Onbekende" kandidate het slegs 27 stemme op nasionale vlak gekry.
5 Afrondingsfout.

Federale verkiesing, 1904 Wysig

Laurier het weer die liberale gelei tydens die algemene verkiesing van 1904. Sy teenstander hierdie keer was Robert Laird Borden, wat Tupper as leier van die konserwatiewes vervang het. Laurier het weer 'n meerderheidsregering gewen.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1904 - Partye, leiers, gewen setels en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 1 137 50.9%
Konserwatief Robert Laird Borden 2 70 44.4%
Liberaal-konserwatief 5 1.5%
Onafhanklik 1 1.5%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 1 0.5%
Arbeid 0 0.2%
Sosialisties 0 0.2%
Nasionalis 0 0.1%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 0 0.0% 3
Onbekend 4 0 1.1%
Totaal 214 100.4% 5
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Eerste Minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Leier van die opposisie toe verkiesing na die verkiesing leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Onafhanklike liberale kandidate het slegs 309 stemme op nasionale vlak gekry.
4 Verkiesingsopgawes in 1904 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.
5 Afrondingsfout.

Federale verkiesing, 1908 Wysig

Laurier het weer die liberale gelei tydens die algemene verkiesing van 1908. Sy teenstander was weer Robert Laird Borden, die leier van die konserwatiewes. Laurier het weer 'n meerderheidsregering gewen, wat sy laaste van vier oorwinnings sou wees.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1908 - Partye, leiers, gewen setels en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 1 133 48.9%
Konserwatief Robert Laird Borden 2 82 45.0%
Liberaal-konserwatief 3 1.3%
Onafhanklik 1 1.5%
Arbeid 1 0.9%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 1 0.5%
Sosialisties 0 0.5%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 0 0.4
Onbekend 3 0 1.2%
Totaal 213 100.2% 4
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Eerste Minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Leier van die opposisie toe verkiesing na die verkiesing leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Verkiesingsopgawes in 1908 het nie vereis dat kandidate partyverbintenis verklaar het nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.
4 Afrondingsfout.

Federale verkiesing, 1911 Wysig

Laurier het weer die liberale gelei in die algemene verkiesing van 1911, wat geveg is oor die kwessie van wederkerigheid (verlaagde handelshindernisse) met die Verenigde State. Vloeibeleid was ook 'n probleem. Laurier verloor vir Robert Laird Borden, die leier van die konserwatiewes. Die verlies eindig Laurier se reeks van vier verkiesingsoorwinnings en vyftien jaar as premier. Hy word leier van die amptelike opposisie.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1911 - Partye, leiers, setels gewen en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Konserwatief Robert Laird Borden 1 131 48.0%
Liberaal-konserwatief 1 0.5%
Liberaal Wilfrid Laurier 2 85 45.8%
Onafhanklike konserwatief 3 1.0%
Arbeid 1 0.9%
Onafhanklik 0 0.8%
Sosialisties 0 0.4%
Nasionalistiese konserwatief 0 0.3%
Nasionalis 0 0.3%
Onbekend 3 0 2.0%
Totaal 221 100.0%
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Leier van die opposisie toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Eerste minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing die leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Die verkiesingsopgawes in 1911 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.

Federale verkiesing, 1917 Wysig

Die verkiesing van 1917 was Laurier se laaste verkiesing. Die verkiesing is volledig uitgevoer oor die kwessie van diensplig en die rol van Kanada in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Die verkiesing het die land erg verdeel tussen Engels-Kanadese, wat geneig was om diensplig te ondersteun, en Frans-Kanadese, wat dit gekant het. Laurier en die Laurier -liberale het die verkiesing verloor, met Borden wat die amp as die leier van 'n Unionistiese (koalisie) regering gewen het. Laurier het as leier van die opposisie gebly, maar is in 1919 oorlede en eindig een van die langste loopbane in die parlement van Kanada, byna 45 jaar sedert hy die eerste keer in 1874 verkies is.

Kanadese federale verkiesing, 1917 - Partye, leiers, setels gewen en gewilde stemme
Partytjie Leiers Sitplekke gewen Gewilde stem
Regering (vakbond) Robert Laird Borden 1 153 56.9%
Opposisie (Laurier Liberals) Wilfrid Laurier 2 82 38.8%
Arbeid 0 1.8%
Opposisie - Arbeid 0 1.0%
Onafhanklik 0 0.6%
Onafhanklike Liberaal 0 0.4%
Nie -partydige liga 0 0.2%
Onbekend 3 0 0.2%
Totaal 235 99.9% 4
Bron: Biblioteek van die parlement - Geskiedenis van federale uitbetalings sedert 1867

1 Leier van die opposisie toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing eerste minister genoem is.
2 Eerste minister toe die verkiesing na die verkiesing die leier van die opposisie genoem is.
3 Die verkiesingsopgawes in 1911 het nie van kandidate vereis om partye te verklaar nie. Sommige kandidate het nie 'n partyverband genoem nie.
4 Afrondingsfout.

Laurier was 20 keer verkiesbaar tot die Laerhuis, in 1874, 1877 (twee keer), 1878, 1878, 1882, 1887, 1891 (twee keer), 1896 (drie keer), 1900, 1904 (twee keer), 1908 (twee keer) , 1911 (twee keer) en 1917 (twee keer), hoewel sommige daarvan dieselfde verkiesing in dieselfde algemene verkiesing was, soos destyds toegelaat. Hy het sewentien verkiesings gewen en is drie keer verslaan.

1874 Federale verkiesing: Drummond — Arthabaska Edit

1877 Federale ministeriële tussenverkiesing: Drummond — Arthabaska Edit

Op die oomblik moes nuut aangestelde kabinetsministers herkiesbaar wees.


Laurier House National Historic Site

Sir Wilfrid Laurier het meer as veertig jaar as parlementslid gedien. Hy was die leier van die liberale party van 1887 tot 1919, en die premier van Kanada van 1896 tot 1911. Sy prestasies was op so 'n skaal dat hy vandag onthou word as een van Kanada se grootste politieke leiers.

Toe Laurier premier word, het hy 'n land oorgeneem wat polities op dreef was sedert die dood van sir John A. Macdonald in 1891. Vier premier het Macdonald vinnig agtereenvolg. Hulle het oor die algemeen nie die politieke vaardighede van die "Old Chieftain" nie, en was nie in staat om die kwessies van die dag aan te gaan nie en om die leiding te verskaf wat nodig was om voort te bou op sy prestasies. Laurier se aankoms in die premier se kantoor was soos 'n vars asem. Die eerste premier van Kanada van Franse Kanadese afkoms, Laurier, het 'n visie van Kanada se potensiaal gehad wat hom gelei het gedurende die vyftien jaar wat hy die lot van die land gelei het.

Laurier en National Unity

Een van die belangrikste kenmerke van sy visie was 'n sterk gevoel van nasionale eenheid. As jongman het hy beweer dat "Die eenheid van die mense die geheim van die toekoms is", ["L'union entre les peuples, le secret de l'avenir"] waarmee hy bedoel dat die welstand van Kanada afhang van die bereidwilligheid van Kanadese, hetsy Franssprekend of Engels, hetsy protestant of Rooms-Katoliek, om saam te werk ten bate van almal. Gedurende sy lewe het Laurier probeer om hierdie doel te bereik en dit het sy besluite oor moeilike politieke probleme beïnvloed. Sommige kwessies was te verdelend om erkenning te gee van kompromie ondanks sy beste pogings. Toe hy aan die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog leier van die opposisie was, ondersteun hy die stuur van Kanadese troepe oorsee, maar weier om diensplig te aanvaar - en verloor sodoende die steun van die Engelse wat verpligte militêre diens vereis, en van die Franse wat voel dat 'n Europese oorlog was vir Kanada nie kommerwekkend nie. Dikwels was hy suksesvol in wat hy 'die oorsaak van versoening, harmonie en ooreenstemming' genoem het, en die gevoel van Kanadese identiteit wat hy bevorder het, het hom in staat gestel om 'n ander kenmerk van sy visie deur te gee: Kanada se outonomie uit Groot -Brittanje.

Laurier en die Britse Ryk

Konfederasie in 1867 het gelei tot die skepping van die Dominion of Canada, 'n selfregerende land binne die Britse Ryk. Maar daar was destyds geen duidelike idee van die mate waarin die nuwe heerskappy nog steeds gekoppel was aan die gesag van die Britse regering nie. Daar is erken dat Brittanje die betrekkinge van Kanada met ander lande beheer, en dat dit minder seker was in watter mate die ekonomie van Kanada aan Brittanje gebind moet word en of Kanada Brittanje outomaties sal ondersteun wanneer die moederland in 'n oorlog betrokke raak.

Laurier was 'n vaste voorstander van Kanada se verbintenis met Brittanje en die Britse Ryk. Dit sou nooit by hom opgekom het om hierdie bande te verswak nie. Hy was ook 'n sterk nasionalis wat geglo het in Kanada se lot as 'n outonome land binne die Britse Ryk. Die gevolg, gedurende sy jare as premier, was sy suksesvolle weerstand teen Britse druk om nouer imperiale bande te vorm, beide ekonomies en polities, want hy kon Kanada geen voordeel daaraan sien nie.

Deur Kanada se belange voor die van Groot -Brittanje te plaas, het Laurier by die Kanadese 'n groter gevoel van hul eie nasie geskep.

Laurier en die groei van Kanada

Vir Laurier was eenheid en outonomie nie doel op sigself nie. Dit was eerder 'n manier om Kanadese aan te moedig om saam te werk om hul land te versterk en voorspoedig te maak. Laurier het optimisties voorspel dat die twintigste eeu 'n tyd van groot prestasie vir Kanada sal wees en sy regering het hom daarop toegespits om die nywerheid in die oostelike deel van die land aan te moedig en die ryk landbougrond van die weivelde te vestig. Op baie maniere was Laurier se benadering 'n voortsetting van die nasionale beleid van sir John A. Macdonald, maar met nog meer sukses. Onder Laurier se leiding het Kanada ongekende groei beleef en reuse -vordering gemaak om sy visie op die land se toekoms te bereik.


Kultuuroorloë

Die eerste Laurier -regering het onmiddellik verskeie probleme ondervind. Die belangrikste hiervan was die Skolewet van Manitoba, 1870. Aparte, in die openbaar befondsde skole vir Katolieke was 'n probleem in alle provinsies. Voor die Konfederasie was daar konsensus in die Britse Noord-Amerika dat godsdiens en opvoeding nie net in die skole kon bestaan ​​nie, maar dat dit beide 'n noodsaaklike deel van die morele en intellektuele ontwikkeling van kinders was. Waar 'n kerk en gemeenskap 'n skool gestig het, het openbare befondsing oor die algemeen gevolg. Die Konfederasie het aan die provinsies uitsluitlike gesag oor onderwys gegee, sodat 'n meerderheid parlementslede in Ottawa nie hul kerklike vooroordele op die skole van die land kon afdwing nie. Eenvoudig gelees, dit was bedoel om te keer dat Orangemen (uit Engels Kanada) Katolieke skole in Quebec aanval. Alhoewel die verwagting was dat Katolieke en Franse taalonderrig elders behoue ​​sou bly en ook gekoester sou word. Die BNA Wet, 1867, het ook die voortgesette befondsing van bestaande konfessionele skole in elk van die provinsies gewaarborg.

Dit was hierdie tweede beskerming wat eers verweer het. Reeds in 1871 wou wetgewers in New Brunswick oorskakel van denominasionele na sekulêre onderwys met 'n enkele, eenvormige kurrikulum en met provinsiale regering (eerder as kerklike) toesig. Verheug deur die Protestantse denominasies, is hierdie stap deur die Katolieke (meestal Akadiese) gemeenskappe sterk weerstaan. Die amptelike Katolieke standpunt was dat opvoeding 'n saak van die geestelikes was, en dat die staat nie kon inmeng nie. Fredericton se reaksie was in ooreenstemming met die antiklericalisme wat die Victoriaanse liberalisme en modernisme gekenmerk het: die skeiding van kerk en staat in die burgerlike lewe was noodsaaklik vir die welsyn van 'n suksesvolle demokratiese samelewing. Die Common Schools Act, 1871 het 'n vlampunt geword toe Protestantse wetgewers aangevoer het dat daar geen formele ooreenkoms voor 1867 met die kerklike skole was nie dus het die Katolieke geen regte om te verloor nie. Die Katolieke kerk, insluitend die biskop van Quebec, Ignace Bourget (wat later 'n aartsvyand van Laurier sou wees), het hul aanhangers aangemoedig om skoolbelasting te weerhou en het ten minste twee Katolieke lede van die New Brunswick -regering oorreed om te bedank. Geestelikes is in hegtenis geneem en beslag is gelê op eiendom in plaas van belasting. Hierdie toenemend hardnekkige meningsverskil het uitgeloop op 'n tragedie in die Acadiese gemeenskap van Caraquet in 1875, 'n konfrontasie tussen 'n vrywillige protestantse konstabulêr en Katolieke teenstanders van die Wet op Algemene Skole by die houe kom, word daar gewerp, en aan beide kante is een dood.

Die saak in New Brunswick het onder die toesig van Macdonald begin en onder Mackenzie geëindig. Nie een van die federale administrasies was geneig om in te meng nie, en elke opeenvolgende administrasie was bang vir 'n herhaling in 'n ander provinsie. New Brunswickers het 'n kompromie gevind, maar hulle het 'n vreeslike prys betaal om daar te kom. Dit was nie 'n patroon wat iemand wou reproduseer nie, alhoewel die teenstrydige druk 'n modernistiese behoefte aan sekulêre en konsekwente opvoeding teenoor 'n konserwatiewe geestelike begeerte om kurrikulum oor geloof en taal te beheer was nie besig om te verdwyn nie.

In die vroeë 1890's het hierdie kwessie in Manitoba ter sprake gekom, en dit het die mees prominente aangeleentheid geword tydens die federale verkiesing van 1896. Een van die beloftes wat gemaak is in onderhandelinge met die Red River Métis (in 1870) het betrekking op die verskaffing van afsonderlik gefinansierde skole waarin die Katolieke geloof en die Franse taal deel van die leerplan kon uitmaak. Afnemende getalle Métis in Manitoba (en 'n toename in die anti-Métis-gevoel na die Noordwes-rebellie in 1885) het 'n argument gemaak om afsonderlike skole te vermy. Premier Thomas Greenway (1838-1908), 'n noemenswaardige voorstander van provinsiale regte so vroeg as 1883 en 'n liberaal uit noodsaaklikheid net soos deur neiging, het in opvoedkundige hervorming 'n kans gesien om 'n gemeenskaplike, pragmatiese front onder Liberale en Konserwatiewes in Manitoba te bewerkstellig. Sy regering het 'n einde gemaak aan die tweetalige vervaardiging van wetgewing en regeringsrekords ('n stap wat byna 'n eeu later deur die howe omgekeer is), het Frans effektief as amptelike taal in die provinsie beëindig en openbare befondsing van konfessionele skole verwyder. Ouers wat hul kinders na 'n Katolieke skool wou stuur, kon dit nog steeds doen, maar hulle sou die volle koste direk moes betaal, en daarbenewens moes hulle ook belasting betaal om die sekulêre, provinsiaal bestuurde stelsel te ondersteun. Daar was wydverspreide hoop onder federale politici dat hierdie netelige kwessie deur die howe opgelos kon word, maar die regterlike komitee van die Privy Council het geantwoord dat dit aan Ottawa behoort. Die konserwatiewes in Ottawa het gedreig om die wetgewing te verbied, maar het dit nie gedoen voordat hulle die verkiesing van 1896 verloor het nie deels taamlik vreemd, want Laurier het die verloop van hul wanbetalingsrekening geblokkeer. Laurier se besluit oor die vraag oor Manitoba Schools is nou opgelos.

Die reaksie van die nuwe premier was 'n kenmerk van sy strategie om kompromie te soek, een wat hy 'n generasie lank sou volg. Laurier deur sy afgevaardigde, Oliver Mowat het Greenway oortuig om 'n baie klein mate van finansiering en ondersteuning te bied vir onderrig in Frans en Katolieke skole, hoewel die amptelike taalkwessie van die tafel af gebly het. Die kompromie was gebaseer op getalle: 10 Frans-selfoon-leerlinge in landelike gebiede of 25 in stedelike gebiede kan onderrig gee na die klas. Die ooreenkoms het die enorme politieke voordeel gehad om die kwessie van die federale agenda te verwyder, wat 'n groot verligting vir Laurier was. Geskiedkundiges het op die uitkoms verwys as die onvermydelike gevolg van 'n veranderende demografie, en in hierdie konteks kan Laurier redelike as klein toegewings verseker. Ander het aangevoer dat dit 'n kritieke oomblik in die Kanadese geskiedenis was toe Laurier die beginsel van minderheidsregte prysgegee het en die grondwetlike verpligting van die federale regering om hulle te beskerm om Anglo-Protestantisme as die norm in die Weste te vestig. Die konsensus is dat hierdie voorbeeld van kompromie vrede gebring het en dat dit kundig opgevoer is, maar dat die toegewings wat Manitoba gemaak het jammerlik klein en ongenereus was.

Die kwessie van onderwys het daarna heeltemal na die provinsiale vlak beweeg. Toe Laurier se bondgenoot, premier Félix Marchand (1832-1900), in 1890 probeer het om die onderwysstelsel in Quebec te hervorm met die oog daarop om dit van die geestelikes en in die hande van die staat te neem, is hy verslaan deur 'n alliansie van Anglikaanse en Katolieke elemente in die Wetgewende Raad van die provinsie. [2] Laurier tree nie in nie.


Wilfrid Laurier Universiteit

Die Wilfrid Laurier -universiteit in Waterloo, Ontario, bestaan ​​onder sy huidige naam sedert 1973, toe dit deel geword het van die provinsiaal gesteunde universiteitstelsel. Die geskiedenis van die universiteit dateer uit die vroeë 1900's. In 1910 het die Lutherse Kerk 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan om 'n Lutherse kweekskool in die provinsie te stig. Die meerderheid Lutherane in Ontario het in die omgewing van Waterloo en Kitchener (destyds Berlyn) gewoon, en Waterloo is gekies toe sy burgers 'n stuk grond op die grens van die stad aangebied het. Die Evangelical Lutheran Seminary van Kanada het sy deure in 1911 geopen. Fasiliteite vir pre-teologiese onderwys is in 1914 gevestig met kursusse wat tot senior matriek gelei het, wat in die Waterloo College School aangebied is.

Die Waterloo College of Arts is in 1924 gestig en bied post-sekondêre kursusse aan in 'n vierjaarprogram. 'N Jaar later het die Fakulteit Lettere en Wysbegeerte, onder die naam Waterloo College, verbonde aan die Universiteit van Waterloo en spoedig begin om honneursgraadprogramme in die kunste aan te bied. In 1959 het die Associate Faculties of Engineering and Science van Waterloo College geskei om die Universiteit van Waterloo te vorm, ongeveer twee kilometer verder. Die aansluiting by die Universiteit van Wes -Ontario het die volgende jaar geëindig, toe die kweekskool 'n hersiene handves verkry het, wat die naam van die instelling verander het in Waterloo Lutherse Universiteit. Op 1 November 1973 word Waterloo Lutherse Wilfrid Laurier Universiteit, vernoem na sir Wilfrid Laurier, Kanada se sewende premier.

Waterloo Lutheran Seminary bly 'n aangeslote lid van die nie -konfessionele universiteit en bied verskeie programme op meestersvlak en 'n doktor in die bediening in pastorale berading en huwelike en gesinsterapie aan. In 1986 het die kweekskool die Instituut vir Christelike Etiek gestig.

In die vroeë negentigerjare het die WLU se administrasie besluit dat die bestaande Waterloo -kampus te klein is om die toename in studentebevolking te akkommodeer en dat dit 'n satellietkampus moet skep om aan die behoeftes van studente uit die graafskap Brant en omliggende gebiede te voldoen. As gevolg hiervan is Laurier Brantford, in die stad Brantford, in September 1999 gestig.

Wilfrid Laurier Universiteit bied voorgraadse grade in kuns en wetenskap, musiek- en musiekterapie, sake- en ekonomie meestersgrade in kunste, besigheid, ekonomie en maatskaplike werk en doktorsgrade in maatskaplike werk, aardrykskunde en geskiedenis aan. WLU het ongeveer 8000 voltydse en 2000 deeltydse voor- en nagraadse studente. WLU Press, gestig in 1974, publiseer jaarliks ​​12-16 wetenskaplike boeke, 13 tydskrifte in die geesteswetenskappe en sosiale wetenskappe, handboeke en werke van meer algemene belang.


Sir Wilfrid Laurier

Op 13 Mei 1868 sou Laurier met Zoe Lafontaine trou. Laurier het weens sy gesondheid besluit om nie haar hand in die huwelik te vra nie, maar toe hy uitvind dat sy op die punt was om 'n voorstel van 'n ander man te ontvang, het hy besluit om voor te stel. Die egpaar sou geen kinders hê nie, maar Zoe sou deur haar lewe sterk betrokke wees by verskeie organisasies, waaronder die National Council of Women en as die ere -vise -president van die Victoriaanse Orde van Verpleegsters. Volgens die meeste bronne was Laurier spyt dat sy nooit kinders met Zoe gehad het nie. Alhoewel die paartjie 'n gelukkige huwelik sou hê, het Laurier dit nie verhinder om elders kameraadskap te soek nie, soos ek sal doen.

Met sy praktyk in Arthabaska, wat 30 jaar lank deur vier verskillende regsvennote sou werk, het Laurier gewoonlik op algemene reg gefokus en het hy geen beroemde sake behandel nie. Sy prokureurspraktyk het hom nie ryk gemaak nie, en geld was dikwels knap totdat hy sy weg na die politiek gevind het, iets waaroor hy gereeld gekla het. Trouens, finansiële sekuriteit kom eers werklik na sy kant toe hy in 1896 as eerste minister verkies is, maar ons loop onsself vooruit.

In 1867 begin die Liberale Party in Quebec Laurier agtervolg. Hy sou sy vrou op 1 Augustus 1867 vertel deur aan te haal:

'Ek is aktief betrokke by verkiesingswerk. Nou wil hulle hê ek moet 'n kandidaat wees, en ek sal nie weier nie. Ek kan net sowel vir myself werk as vir ander. ”

Uiteindelik het Laurier verkies om nie aan die verkiesing in September deel te neem nie.

Laurier sou in 1871 vir die eerste keer in die Quebec-wetgewer aankom en dien vir Drummond-Arthabaska. In die eerste verkiesing het hy met 750 stemme gewen. Voorheen was hy bekend vir sy radikale liberalisme en sy bande met die Parti Rouge, maar teen die tyd dat hy die wetgewer bereik het, was hy meer gematig. Teen hierdie tyd, vyf jaar na die Konfederasie, het hy dit begin aanvaar en besluit om binne die stelsel te werk. Hy het baie veldtogte in die verkiesing gebruik deur sy vurige gees en netwerk van vriende te gebruik. Gedurende die volgende drie jaar het Laurier vir homself in die Wetgewer gehou en sy tyd bestee aan luister, leer en aanpas by die parlementêre lewe. Dit was nie bekend dat hy sy stem gereeld in die Wetgewer verhef het nie. Een voorbeeld hiervan was op 22 November 1871 toe hy hom uitgespreek het teen die praktyk van politici wat tegelykertyd in die wetgewer en in die Laerhuis dien. Hy sou sê, haal aan:

Gedurende sy eerste termyn in die parlement het hy dieselfde benadering as in die wetgewer geneem, gekies om te leer wat hy kon en slegs af en toe te praat. Een saak was sy toespraak ter verdediging van Louis Riel, en teen sy skorsing uit die Laerhuis. Hy het destyds nie simpatie met Riel gevoel nie, soos hy later sou sê, maar hy wou die kwessie gebruik om die konserwatiewes verder te verswak. Hy sou verklaar dat die Rooi Rivier opstandig is:

"Wou soos Britse onderdane behandel word en nie soos gewone beeste verruil word nie."

Sy toespraak is geprys deur die Engelse Kanadese pers wat dit as kalm en logies beskou het.

In Oktober 1877, nadat hy 'n toespraak in Quebec City gehou het ter verdediging van politieke liberalisme, is hy aangestel as minister van binnelandse inkomste. Dit het Laurier tot die prominentste liberaal in Quebec gemaak, en die toekoms het helder gelyk en baie het hom as 'n moontlike toekomstige leier van die Liberale Party beskou.

In die verkiesing van 1877 sou Laurier sy bod vir herverkiesing in werklikheid verloor, sodat hy in Quebec-Oos gehardloop het en herkies is danksy 'n beter georganiseerde liberale groep om hom, en hy het sy ministerrol vervul. Ongelukkig het sir John A. Macdonald sou terugbrul op die toneel te midde van sy tweede tydperk as premier. Nou, op 36 -jarige ouderdom, was hy 'n gewone LP in die Laerhuis, uit 'n provinsie wat meestal Konserwatief gestem het.

Die jare van 1878 tot 1884 sou polities moeilik wees en Laurier sou belangstelling in die politiek begin verloor. Een rede hiervoor was sy ondergeskikte rol aan die liberale leier Edward Blake. John Dafoe, 'n joernalis, sou oor hierdie rol skryf en 'n aanhaling noem:

'Die politieke aktiwiteite van Laurier was hoofsaaklik om 'n soort waarnemende sekretaris van die liberale leier te wees. Hy hou sy verwysings in orde, gee vir hom Hansards en blou boeke om die beurt, roep die bladsye om die impedimenta skoon te maak en die glas water by te hou. Daar was herinneringe in die huis van Laurier se welsprekendheid, maar slegs herinneringe. ”

Dit sou alles verander in 1885 na die Noordwes -rebellie. Laurier sou om genade pleit en 'n aangrypende pleidooi daarvoor in die Laerhuis maak. Laurier, hoewel hy nie die optrede van Riel goedgekeur het nie, het die regering daarvan beskuldig dat hy die rebellie in die algemeen verkeerd hanteer het. Laurier se pleidooi om genade het egter op dowe ore geval, maar na die hang van Louis Riel het Laurier opgestaan ​​om die saak van die Metis -leier te verdedig, wat baie in Quebec gevoel het net probeer om sy Francofoon -kultuur te bewaar, terwyl hy ook die noodsaak gevra het om Frans en Engels in Kanada te verenig. Dit het Laurier ook gehelp om te verskyn as 'n man van beginsel en hoë ideale.

Op 22 November 1885, ses dae na die hang van Riel, sou Laurier met 'n skare van 50 000 praat en sê:

'As ek op die oewer van die Saskatchewan was toe die rebellie uitbreek, sou ek self die wapen teen die regering aangeneem het. Riel se teregstelling was geregtelike moord. Hoe kon M. Chapleau 'n party wees by hierdie koelbloedige moord op 'n landgenoot? "

In 1886 sou hy weer die kwessie van Riel ter sprake bring met die aanhaling:

'Rebellie is altyd 'n euwel. Dit is altyd 'n oortreding van die wet van 'n nasie. Dit is nie altyd 'n morele misdaad nie. What is hateful is not the rebellion, but the deposition which induces the rebellion. What is hateful are not the rebels but the men who having the enjoyment of power do not discharge the duties of power.”

In the 1887 election, Laurier was now a prominent member within the Liberal Party and he directed the campaign in Quebec.

On June 2, 1887, Blake, after losing yet another election, chose to have Laurier succeed him as the Leader of the Liberal Party. Many eminent Liberals were against this as they felt that Laurier was too physically weak to be an effective leader due to chronic bronchitis. They also feared that having Laurier as leader would result in many in Ontario not voting for the Liberals because of his support of Riel. Even the Catholic clergy in Quebec saw Laurier as a radical.

Laurier would actually refuse to become leader, writing his friend and saying quote:

“I do not want to be leader. That is not my aspiration but there remain two objections. I am not a wealthy man and my health is poor. My friends are imposing too heavy a burden on me.”

Blake did not give up, seeing Laurier as the only person who could lead the party. Finally, on June 18, 1887, he accepted the promotion to leader of the party but stated he would only do so until Blake was healthier. In the end, Laurier would remain leader longer than anyone else in Canadian history, until his death in 1919.

As leader, he would devote himself to building up the Liberal Party again. He did this in two phases. The first was from 1887 to 1891 where he advocated a policy of positive actions with the United States but this was seen as anti-British and it would cost Liberals votes outside of Quebec. From 1891 to 1896, he began the second phase of building a national Liberal Party, while the Conservatives were falling apart following the death of Sir John A. Macdonald. This included participating in 200 to 300 meetings between 1895 and 1896 alone, and reaching out personally to 200,000 voters.

In a book published in the late-1880s, the following is said of Laurier, quote:

“He was a silver-tongued orator and a man of solid political and diplomatic reputation…He was the most picturesque figure in all Canadian political history.”

In 1896, as a new election was approaching, the Manitoba Schools Question was becoming a serious issue in Parliament and had caused the cabinet revolt against Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell. With Charles Tupper now prime minister, an election was called and Laurier made sure to avoid a definite stand on the issue of Manitoba Schools.

Laurier would say regarding religious freedom during 1896, quote:

“So long as I have a seat in this House, so long as I occupy the position I do now, whenever it shall become my duty to take a stand upon any question whatever, that stand I will take, not from the point of view of Roman Catholicism, not from the point of view of Protestantism, but from a point of view which can appeal to the consciences of all men, irrespective of their particular faith, upon grounds which can be occupied by all men who love justice, freedom and toleration.”

In the election, despite a strong campaign by Tupper, Laurier had the support of powerful premiers in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, as well as in Quebec. He would begin attacking the Conservatives on all fronts, without giving a position on the Manitoba Schools Question. He would also begin using the expression “sunny ways”, as a way to speak about his desire for compromise. He took this from the fable The Wind and the Sun, serving as a metaphor for the issue in Ottawa. In the fable, the wind and sun argue about who could take off a traveler’s coat and it is the warm rays of the sun that succeeds, not the force of the wind.

Thanks to this stance and the collapse of the Conservative Party, Laurier and the Liberals achieved an election victory and on June 23, 1896, Laurier became the seventh prime minister of Canada, and the first Francophone prime minister in Canadian history.

As the new prime minister, Laurier began to focus on the development of Canada and the implementation of policies that would help heal the wounds of the country to push for unity. In 1896, he signed an agreement regarding the Manitoba Schools Question. The new agreement meant that Manitoba would not have separate schools like it did in 1890, but religious instruction during the last half hour of the day was allowed, with instruction in a language other than English. In addition, one Roman Catholic teacher had to be hired if the parents of 40 children in urban areas or 25 in rural areas demanded it. In schools where there were 10 children who spoke a language other than English would receive instruction in English and their Mother Tongue. It was not an ideal solution, but it put an end to the Manitoba Schools Question. Many did see it as the optimal solution because it left both French and English mostly satisfied. The Catholic Church in Quebec was very unhappy about it but the issue of schools in Manitoba would never return to Parliament.

Laurier would become known for finding compromise in issues, something he did when dealing with the United Kingdom. As prime minister, he would implement an immigration system with Clifford Sifton that put preference on the immigration of people from the British Isles to Canada. Due to the immigration policies put forward by the Laurier government, one million people moved into Manitoba and the western territories during his 15 years as prime minister. With Sifton, immigration would be completely reorganized and the department would be centralized in Ottawa. The population of Canada increased 40 per cent during the time Laurier was prime minister.

In 1897, he would travel to London to be knighted and to participate in his first colonial conference. Laurier did not actually want to be knighted, in the tradition of Alexander Mackenzie, but as he was travelling to England for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and preparations had already been made for his knighthood, he felt it would be rude if he did not accept.

Laurier had a strong desire for Canada to be independent from England, he would resist the British Empire in their efforts towards the federation of the empire in political, economic and military terms. Again, he would find compromises. He would state in 1897, while in England, quote:

“If a day were ever to come when England was in danger, let the bugle sound and though we might not be able to do much, whatever we can do shall be done by the colonies to help her.”

With the Klondike Gold Rush bringing in huge amounts of American prospectors in 1897, there was a need to ensure Canadian control over the Yukon region. The Laurier Government would enact the Yukon Territory Act, separating the Yukon from the Northwest Territories in 1898.

In 1899, he agreed to defray the costs of transportation of Canadians who wished to fight for England in the South African War, also known as the Boer War. On the two sides of the issue were those who wanted to be loyal to the British Empire and those who saw that Canada was not being threatened in the war. He made this decision to arm and send 1,000 volunteers to South Africa without convening parliament. In the agreement to send troops, he told England that the troops were their responsibility when they arrived and in no way was it to be seen as a precedent for the future. Despite this compromise, many in French Canada were unhappy about any participation and one of his MPs, Henri Bourassa, would resign his seat. Even with that opposition, Laurier would win in the 1900 election and took Quebec with 57 of the 65 seats. Regardless of his policies and compromises, Laurier was immensely popular in Quebec.

With this second victory, Laurier would take a more forceful approach in governing the country and he would direct the policies of the country, pushing aside anyone who went against him.

In 1902, he was at the colonial conference in London and again opposed all proposals to unify the Empire. On Aug. 9, 1902, he was at the coronation of King George VII.

“The British empire is composed of a galaxy of free nations all owing the same allegiance to the same sovereign, but all owing paramount allegiance to their respective peoples.”

Around the same time, he travelled to France and negotiated a trade agreement with the French government. It was not that Laurier was against the British at all. In fact, he was a staunch supporter of Canada’s association with the British Empire, but he was also a nationalist who believed that Canada’s destiny was as an autonomous country within the British Empire. As he would state in his very famous quote, “The 20 th century belongs to Canada.” Although that quote is a bit misleading, his exact quote, which he said on Jan. 18, 1904 was:

“Canada has been modest in its history, although its history, in my estimation, is only commencing. It is commencing in this century. The 19 th century was the century of the United States. I think we can claim that Canada will fill the 20 th century.”

When he returned from Europe, Laurier was exhausted and his health was poor enough he began to worry he had cancer and even considered resigning. He would take a trip to Florida and his health slowly returned.

Also in 1902, Laurier would have an eye to the future when he signed an agreement with Marconi, the inventor of the wireless communication system that used Morse code, to construct a transatlantic communications facility and the tools for communication for lighthouses and sailing stations to communicate. Two years later, he would sign a contract with the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of Canada to operate a network of radiotelegraphy stations, known today as marine band radios, creating the first network of wireless radio transmission systems in the world. In 1904, there were six stations and by 1915 there were 21.

In 1903, the Alaska Boundary discussions with the United States would begin. Canada wanted an all-Canadian route from the Klondike gold fields to the pacific, currently blocked by US territory on the Alaska panhandle that the United States claimed as its own. A six person tribunal was created with Canada getting two votes, the United States getting three and Britain getting one. In the end, Britain rules in favour of the United States hoping to avert military conflict. This incident greatly irritates Laurier who sees Canada lacking the power to make its own international decisions.

Laurier would now turn his attention towards a new project, constructing a second transcontinental railway. This new railway would build a section from Winnipeg westward, along with another line running from Moncton and Quebec City to Winnipeg. As part of this, he allowed the Canadian Northern Railway to build a third transcontinental railway. All of these new railways would come at a public expense and it put a heavy financial burden on Canadians, but Laurier was sure of his ambition as prime minister. That year, when the election came along again, Laurier once again received a huge majority.

In 1905, Laurier would see two new provinces arrive in Canada with the creation of Alberta and Saskatchewan. With the creation of these provinces, Laurier again had to deal with the issue of the educational rights of the Catholic minority. He would again go with one uniform school system, rather than separate schools for minorities. While English Canada was happy with this, French Canada was unhappy over it and the prestige of Laurier began to fade in Quebec. While it would take almost a decade, it was at this moment that Laurier and the Liberals would see a slow fall in Quebec.

In 1905, Laurier would say about how he lived his political and personal life, quote:

“The guiding thought of my life has been harmony between the diverse elements of our country. I cannot be certain that I have succeeded as much as I would have hoped but the thought is true and one day it will prevail.”

By the latter-part of the 1910s, Laurier had built the Liberal Party a strong base in Quebec but he saw significant opposition from the strong Roman Catholic Church in the province. A common slogan repeated to parishioners by Catholic priests was heaven is blue/Conservative, hell is red/Liberal.

In 1908, his election majority was reduced but he once again had a majority. At this point, Laurier would focus on two tasks as prime minister. The first task was the Naval Service Act, passed in 1910 that established the Canadian Navy, consisting of five cruisers and six destroyers, which would allow the country to fight with England anywhere in the world. This decision, amazingly, made no one happy. In English Canada, it was felt that this navy was insufficient, and in French Canada it was seen as too excessive. In Quebec, this new navy would cost him considerable support.

In 1908, the Laurier government would also enact the Continuous Passage Act, which required all immigrants coming to Canada to do so from their point of origin without any stops. While this may seem like a minor issue coming from Europe, it created a huge barrier for those immigrants coming from Asia. In India, where the citizens were British subjects, it made it nearly impossible to immigrate to Canada.

After that 1908 election campaign, Laurier was exhausted and ill and again thought of resigning but was persuaded to stay in power. On Dec. 25, 1909 he would confide to a friend’s wife, quote:

“I carry my advancing years lightly but I no longer have the same zest for battle. I undertake today from a sense of duty because I must, what used to be the joy of strife.”

He would go back to work and in 1909 he helped with the creation of the Conservation Commission. On June 2, 1909, he would appoint a new minister of labour named William Lyon Mackenzie King, helping to raise the profile of a future prime minister.

One story from this time that may or may not be true relates to when Laurier went to Saskatoon on July 29, 1910 to attend the opening of the University of Saskatchewan. It was there he apparently bought a newspaper from a young John Diefenbaker. Later in life, Diefenbaker would say that he shared his ideas for the country with Laurier, and that Laurier told him he would be a great man someday. This part, if the meeting happened, is likely embellished.

In 1910, during his tour of the prairies that included going to Saskatoon, Laurier met with numerous rural delegations who were sponsored in an organized farmer movement. They were looking for lower tariffs and free trade with the United States. With the volume of people he spoke to, he decided to make that a platform of the Liberal Party, which brought us to his next task as leader.

The second task he had was establishing free trade with the United States in 1911. This policy would focus on natural products, and some manufactured products. Many Canadian industrialists were against this, and the Conservative Party of Robert Borden latched onto this by claiming the Liberals were disloyal to England and of leading the country to a fractured relationship with the British. His push for free trade with the United States would be the undoing of his time as prime minister as it would turn out.

In August of 1911, Laurier approved an order-in-council that was recommended by Frank Oliver, the Minister of the Interior. It was approved by the cabinet on Aug. 12, 1911. The order had the expressed purpose of keeping Black Americans who were escaping segregation in the American south. In the order, it states, quote:

“The Negro race is deemed unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada.”

The order was never called upon though, as immigration officials had already reduced the number of Black Americans coming into Canada. It was cancelled on Oct. 5, 1911.

In order to deal with this, Laurier would call an election for 1911 but this would lead to his defeat, rather than victory.

As the Leader of the Opposition, he was still an energetic leader of the Liberal Party. He would push against the Conservatives over issues related to cost of living among Canadians, and he would rebuild the Liberal Party somewhat. He would lead a filibuster against the Conservatives’ own Naval Bill that would have sent contributions directly to the British Navy. This bill was later blocked in the Senate. He would fight against the $35 million offered to England to help strengthen its navy, and against the financial assistance given to the Canadian Northern Railway. In 1916, he would defend the rights of Francophones in Ontario for bilingual instruction in school, once again raising his popularity among French Canada.

When the First World War erupted in 1914, Laurier supported Canada’s participation and he proposed a political truce with the Conservatives, as well as voluntary enrolment in the army. He would support Prime Minister Borden in the House of Commons and even participated in recruiting meetings to help the war effort.

In 1917, with the issue of military conscription severely dividing Canada between French and English lines, Laurier turned to compromise once again. Instead of supporting conscription, he proposed a referendum and the continued use of voluntary enlistment. This compromise would fail due to the bitter resentment over it among English Canadians.

“All my life I have fought coercion. All my life I have promoted union and the inspiration that led me to that course shall be my guide at all times. So long as there is breath left in my body.”

In the 1917 election, Laurier would see the Liberals crushed, having only 82 seats to Borden’s 153. In Quebec, due to the conscription issue, his party only took 20 seats and 34 per cent of the vote.

As an idol of the French Canadian population, and a villain in English Canada over his efforts for compromise, he became a symbol of the division between the two groups in Canada. At the same time, the government under a Union Party and several Liberals left the party to join this new party that was created between Conservatives and other parties.

On Nov. 11, 1918, the First World War ended and Laurier began an effort to restructure the Liberal Party and rebuild unity within Canada. Sadly, he would never get to finish his efforts as he passed away on Feb. 17, 1919. He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and paralysis the day before, saying to his wife, “this is the end.”

Upon his death, 50,000 people jammed the streets of Ottawa as his funeral procession marched to his final resting place at the Notre Dame Cemetery. His tomb features a stone sarcophagus, adorned by the sculptures of nine mourning female figures that represented the provinces in Canada at the time. His wife Zoe would pass away in 1921 and was placed in the same tomb. The funeral procession of Laurier was one of the first public events in Canadian history to be captured on film.

While he had passed away, his work to strengthen the Liberal Party would see it become the dominate force of the 20 th century in federal politics, with only brief exceptions from 1958 to 1962 and from 1984 to 1992.

During his time in the House of Commons, Laurier set many records. Not only the first Francophone prime minister, he is tied with Sir John A Macdonald for most consecutive federal elections won with four. His 15-year tenure also remains the longest unbroken term of office among prime ministers. His 45 years within the House of Commons remains a record and at 31 years and eight months, he is the longest serving leader of a major political party in Canada. With William Lyon Mackenzie King, he holds the distinction of serving during the reigns of three Canadian Monarchs. Overall, he is the fourth longest serving Prime Minister of Canada behind only King, Macdonald and Pierre Trudeau.

Through his electoral history, from 1874 to 1917, Laurier rarely received less than 50 per cent of the vote in an election for a riding, often either being acclaimed or taking upwards of 70-80 per cent of the vote, showing his popularity. In his last election, he received 92 per cent of the vote in his riding.

As Henry Bourassa, a long-time rival, would say, quote:

“The private virtues of the eminent statesman, his admirable qualities of the heart, that tireless, modest charity, the great dignity of his life, are reasons for trust and consolation of those who loved him.”

Laurier is honoured heavily throughout Canada. The Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site honours his birthplace, while Laurier House National Historic Site honours his residence in Ottawa. The Wilfried Laurier House National Historic Site honours where he worked as a lawyer while serving in Parliament. In addition, Laurier was depicted on the $1,000 bill in 1935 and 1937, and the $5 bill. Three postage stamps were also created to honour him. The highest peak in the Premier Range of mountains in British Columbia is named Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Several schools, roads, parks and buildings are also named for him, as is an electoral district in Quebec. On Nov. 1, 1973, Waterloo Lutheran University was renamed Wilfrid Laurier University.

In Quebec, his surname has become a first name and he holds a place as a charismatic hero whose term in office was considered a prosperous time for Canada and Quebec.

In 1999, when Maclean’s Magazine began to rank the first 20 prime ministers in Canadian history, Laurier finished third. In 2011, when a new historic ranking was completed, he finished first.

When it came time for the creators of the video game Civilization to create a playable Canadian civilization, the person they chose to be the leader of that playable civilization was Sir Wilfrid Laurier.

Information comes from Canadian Encyclopedia, Britannica, Wikipedia, the Parliament of Canada, Saskatchewan A History, The Charm of Ottawa, Historica Canada, National Film Board, WilfridLaurier175.ca


Spokesman of Liberalism

In 1877 Laurier delivered a speech on political liberalism that clearly defined the difference between Catholic liberalism, anathema to Quebec clerics, and the liberalism of his party. This speech was instrumental in gaining respectability for the Liberals in Quebec. In 1885 he delivered a brilliant and passionate speech attacking the government for the execution of the rebel Louis Riel, and in 1887 Laurier seemed as good a choice as any other Liberal to succeed Edward Blake as party leader.

In 1891 Laurier campaigned on the issue of unrestricted reciprocity with the United States, but his party again was defeated by Sir John A. Macdonald. However, after Macdonald's death the Conservatives began to fall apart and split on the Manitoba schools question, when they were forced to take a position because they were in power. Relieved of responsibility, Laurier could talk of using "sunny ways" to resolve the crisis and sit firmly on the fence. The result was victory in the election of 1896.


So, Who Was Martin Luther, Anyway?

Martin Luther was a Roman Catholic monk who kicked off the German Reformation in 1517 when, according to tradition (which scholars continue to debate), he nailed 95 theses to a church door in Wittenburg, Germany. The theses were Luther's suggestion for reforming church doctrine.

Luther's reforms not only changed the church, they rippled throughout western civilization and continue to benefit us here and now. For example, his reforms fostered individual rights and promoted widespread public education.


Wilfrid Laurier

Holding office for 15 straight years and winning four back-to-back elections, Sir Wilfrid Laurier served a longer unbroken tenure than any other prime minister in Canadian history and is often considered the country’s second-most iconic historic leader after John A. Macdonald (1815-1891). Remembered primarily as the man who presided over Canada’s early 20th century economic boom, his administration ushered in an era of prosperity, peace, and stability that ended the political turmoil that followed Prime Minister Macdonald’s 1891 death.

A ninth-generation Quebecer, Laurier served briefly in the cabinet of Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie (1822-1892) before succeeding him as Liberal leader in 1887. From there, he would go on to unseat Conservative Charles Tupper (1821-1915) as prime minister in the country’s 1896 general election.

As PM, Laurier continued Macdonald’s nation-building agenda and actively promoted mass immigration from Europe to encourage settlement of Canada’s vast western territories. In 1905 two new provinces, Alberta en Saskatchewan, were created under his watch while a laissez-faire approach to managing the economy during the latter years of the Industriële rewolusie helped herald the growth of factories and business (libertarians in Canada continue to idolize the Laurier era as a golden era of capitalism). His proposal for free trade with the United States was a step too far, however, and cost him his bid for a fifth term in the bitterly anti-American election of 1911.

As the first French-Canadian to lead Canada, Laurier often struggled to overcome French accusations that he was disloyal to the English, and English accusations that he was a sell-out to the French. Though his calm, compromise solutions to the divisive problems of his time, such as whether Catholicism should be taught in the schools of the new provinces, or whether Canadian troops should fight in British colonial wars, angered hardliners on both sides, Laurier’s belief that there existed a moderate common ground between French and English interests helped make him a lasting role model of Canadian tolerance.


Kyk die video: 2019 Laurier Mens Basketball France Trip Documentary


Kommentaar:

  1. Shaundre

    an Interesting moment

  2. Mazubar

    wonderlike nuttige inligting

  3. Nancie

    Groot, dit is 'n baie waardevolle mening.

  4. Utbah

    Jy is soortgelyk aan die kenner)))

  5. Jaydon

    Wat 'n mooi gedagte

  6. Sanersone

    Bravo, jou gedagte is baie goed



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