Pierre Laval

Pierre Laval


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Pierre Laval is gebore in Auvergnac, Frankryk, op 28 Junie 1883. Nadat hy 'n graad in regte en natuurwetenskappe behaal het, het hy besigheid begin doen.

Laval, lid van die Sosialistiese Party, is in 1903 tot die parlement verkies. By die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Laval by die Franse leër aangesluit.

Na die oorlog het die politieke standpunte van Laval dramaties verander en het hy weer as 'n regse konserwatief in die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes toegetree. Een teenstander het daarop gewys dat dit nie verbasend was nie, aangesien Laval dieselfde van links of regs lees.

Gedurende die volgende paar jaar beklee hy verskeie kabinetsposte, waaronder minister van buitelandse sake, en was premier in 1931-32 en 1935-36. Gedurende sy ampstermyne werk hy nou saam met Aristide Briand om goeie betrekkinge met Duitsland en die Sowjetunie te vestig.

In Oktober 1935 werk Laval saam met H, die Britse minister van buitelandse sake, in 'n poging om die krisis wat die Italiaanse inval in Ethiopië veroorsaak het, op te los. Die geheime ooreenkoms, bekend as die Hoare-Laval-verdrag, het voorgestel dat Italië twee derdes van die gebied wat dit verower het, sou ontvang, asook toestemming om bestaande kolonies in Oos-Afrika te vergroot. In ruil daarvoor sou Ethiopië 'n smal stuk grondgebied en toegang tot die see ontvang. Besonderhede van die Hoare-Laval-verdrag is op 10 Desember 1935 aan die pers uitgelek. Die skema is wyd veroordeel as 'n versagting van Italiaanse aggressie en Laval en Hoare moes albei bedank.

Laval keer terug na sy sakeloopbaan en bou 'n kommersiële ryk op wat gebaseer is op koerante, drukwerk en radio. Toe die Duitse leër Frankryk in 1940 beset, gebruik Laval sy media-ryk om Henri-Philippe Petain en die Vichy-regering te ondersteun. Hy het ook sy invloed in die Nasionale Vergadering gebruik om Petain diktatoriale magte te gee. Twee dae later, op 12 Julie 1940, is Laval aangewys as hoof van die regering en Petain se regsopvolger.

Laval ontwikkel 'n noue verhouding met Otto Abetz, die Duitse ambassadeur in Frankryk, en op 22 Oktober 1940 ontmoet hy Adolf Hitler en stel voor dat die twee lande nou saam moet werk. Op 'n ander ontmoeting met Hermann Goering later die maand het Laval 'n militêre alliansie met Nazi -Duitsland voorgestel.

Sommige lede van die regering het besorg geraak oor hierdie verwikkelinge en op 13 Desember 1940 het Henri-Philippe Petain beveel dat Laval ontslaan moet word. Hy is ook vlugtig gearresteer, maar Otto Abetz het troepe gestuur om hom vry te laat, en hy is na Parys geneem waar hy onder die beskerming van die Duitse weermag gewoon het. Op 27 Augustus 1941 het 'n jong student, Paul Collette, dit reggekry om vier skote in Laval af te vuur terwyl hy Franse vrywillige troepe afgesien het om aan Operasie Barbarossa deel te neem.

Laval het herstel en teen die lente van 1942 was hy gereed om terug te keer na die politieke lewe. Na toenemende druk van Otto Abetz, die Duitse ambassadeur, het Henri-Philippe Petain op 18 April 1942 ingestem om Laval as hoof van die Franse regering terug te roep.

Laval het nou die Franse polisie beveel om Jode in Frankryk te begin oproep. Hy neem ook die omstrede besluit in Junie 1942 om geskoolde arbeiders na Duitsland te stuur in ruil vir Franse krygsgevangenes. In September het hy toestemming gegee dat die Gestapo op die Franse verset in onbewoonde Frankryk jag.

In Januarie 1943 stig Laval Milice, 'n politieke polisiemag onder leiding van Joseph Darnard. Binne ses maande was hulle meer as 35 000 man in die mag en het hulle die leidende rol gespeel om Jode en linkse aktiviste vas te vang en na Nazi-Duitsland te laat deporteer.

Na die D-Day Landings het Laval sy regering na Belfort verskuif. Terwyl die geallieerde magte goeie vordering gemaak het, trek Laval terug na Sigmaringen en in Mei 1945 vlug hy na Spanje. Hy is in Barcelona opgesluit en is op 30 Julie aan die nuwe Franse regering oorhandig onder leiding van generaal Charles De Gaulle.

Pierre Laval word daarvan aangekla dat hy die vyand gehelp het en die staatsveiligheid geskend het. Hy is skuldig bevind en is op 15 Oktober 1945 deur 'n vuurpeloton in die Fresnes -gevangenis in Parys geskiet.

Ek wil u vertel dat ek dink dat hierdie oorlog 'n groot fout is. As ons met Mussolini ooreengekom het, soos ek wou, sou ons moontlik Duitsland gehou het. Dit is nie meer moontlik nie. Ons het die grootste deel van Europa aan Hitler gegee. Laat ons probeer om vas te hou wat ons oor het. Ek is 'n boer uit die Auvergne. Ek wil my plaas behou, en ek wil Frankryk behou. Niks anders maak nou saak nie.

Die Fuhrer beskou die optrede van die Franse regering teenoor Laval as 'n persoonlike belediging. Terwyl Duitsland die Franse regering se vryheid van optrede op geen enkele manier wou benadeel in geval van 'n Franse weiering (om hom weer in te stel), sou sy nie voortgaan met die samewerkingsbeleid wat op Montoire moontlik was nie.

Daar is baie slegte nuus in die feit dat Laval teruggekeer het na die Franse kabinet. Laval is 'n Franse miljoenêr wat al jare bekend is as 'n direkte agent van die Nazi -regering. Hy het 'n leidende rol gespeel in die intriges wat gelei het tot die ondergang van Frankryk en sedert die wapenstilstand geleidelik gewerk het vir wat genoem word

'samewerking' tussen Frankryk en Duitsland, wat beteken dat Frankryk sy lot met die as moet ingooi, 'n leër moet stuur om aan die oorlog teen Rusland deel te neem en die Franse vloot teen Brittanje te gebruik. Danksy Amerikaanse druk is hy meer as 'n jaar lank uit sy amp gehou, en sy terugkeer beteken waarskynlik dat diplomatieke betrekkinge tussen Frankryk en die VSA nou tot 'n einde sal kom. Die Amerikaanse regering herinner reeds sy ambassadeur en het sy onderdane aangeraai om Frankryk te verlaat. Dit is miskien op sigself geen slegte saak nie, want daar is min twyfel dat Duitse duikbote wat in die Atlantiese Oseaan werk, gereeld gebruik gemaak het van Franse hawens, sowel in Afrika as in Wes -Indië, en dat Frankryk en Amerika teoreties vriendelik was terme het hierdie maneuvers moeiliker gemaak om te hanteer. As verhoudings verbreek word, sal die Amerikaners in elk geval nie voel dat hul hande vasgebind is deur die sogenaamde neutraliteit van Frankryk nie. Tog is daar 'n baie groot gevaar dat Laval op 'n kritieke oomblik daarin sal slaag om die Franse vloot in die stryd te werp teen die Britse vloot, wat reeds sukkel teen die gekombineerde vloot van drie nasies.

In die geval van 'n oorwinning oor Duitsland deur Sowjet -Rusland en Engeland, sou die bolsjewisme in Europa noodwendig volg. Onder hierdie omstandighede sou ek verkies dat Duitsland die oorlog wen. Ek voel dat daar 'n verstandhouding (met Duitsland) bereik kon word wat 'n blywende vrede met Europa tot gevolg sou hê en ek glo dat 'n Duitse oorwinning verkiesliker is as 'n Britse en Sowjet -oorwinning.

Vir Frankryk in haar huidige posisie bestaan ​​intelligensie duidelik uit die beoefening van 'n entente -beleid met Duitsland om te oorleef. Maar dieselfde intelligensie dwing Duitsland om dieselfde beleid te volg. Ek daag niemand uit - en ek het dit aan die Duitsers gesê - om 'n soliede, geartikuleerde en lewensvatbare Europa te bou sonder die toestemming van Frankryk. Frankryk kan nie vernietig word nie. Sy is 'n ou land wat, ondanks haar ongelukke, 'n geweldige aansien in die wêreld het, en altyd sal hê, ongeag die lot wat haar toegedien word.

As die Duitsers geslaan word, sal generaal de Gaulle terugkeer. Hy sal ondersteun word deur 80 of 90 persent van die Franse mense en ek word opgehang.

Werkers van Frankryk, dit is vir die vryheid van die gevangenes dat u in Duitsland gaan werk! Dit is vir ons land dat u in groot getalle gaan! U sal op my appèl reageer sodat Frankryk haar plek in die nuwe Europa kan vind.

Die figuur van Pierre Laval hang soos 'n bose skaduwee oor Vichy toe die jaar begin. Die voormalige premier was 'n skrander en bekwame politikus wat sy eie toekoms en dié van Frankryk op 'n asoorwinning ingedruk het. Hy is bevoordeel deur die Duitse besettingsowerhede. 'N Kragtoets tussen Duitsland en die Verenigde State in Vichy was besig om te begin toe 1942 geopen is. Dit sou in April 'n tydelike gevolg hê

oorwinning vir Laval toe die Duitsers die maarskalk dwing om hom terug te neem in die regering, wat 'n gebeurtenis my na Washington moes terugroep.

Hy was 'n klein man, donkerbruin, sorgeloos in sy persoonlike voorkoms, maar met 'n aangename manier van spraak. In 'n baie eerlike bespreking van sy beleid wek Laval die indruk dat hy fanaties toegewyd is aan sy land, met die oortuiging dat die belange van Frankryk onherroeplik met dié van Duitsland verbind is. 'N Mens se indruk is noodwendig gekwalifiseer deur aanhoudende berigte dat hy sy politieke gebruik het

kantore om sy private persoonlike fortuin te bevorder. Dit was waar dat hy, van niks af, van 'n arm afleweringsseun in 'n provinsiale stad se kruideniersware gevorder het om 'n baie ryk man en 'n mag in sy land te word.

Hy het my oortuig dat sy regering ten volle toegewyd was en dat hy sou kon verwag om so ver as moontlik te werk om met Duitsland saam te werk en te help met die nederlaag van wat hy die Sowjet-Britse bolsjewisme noem. Pierre Laval was beslis nie aan ons kant in hierdie oorlog nie.

Laval het nooit die onmenslike stelsel en die gruweldade waaraan die mense wat in hegtenis geneem en na die ooste gedeporteer is, vermoed nie. As hy dit geweet het, sou geen van die oorwegings wat hom gedwing het om aan die regering van die land te bly, hoe ernstig dit ook al was, hul geldigheid behou het nie. Hy sou die feit voor die beskaafde wêreld aan die kaak gestel het en sou geen kontak geweier het met die verteenwoordigers van 'n regering wat hulle aan sulke dade van barbaarsheid toegegee het nie.

Dit is nie die staatsman of die vriend wat u hulp en hulp vra nie, maar bloot die man. Ek vra u in my eie naam sowel as in die van my vrou en my getroue vriend, Maurice Gabolde, om toestemming om Spanje binne te gaan en te wag vir beter dae. Vandag is dit 'n moeë en verslete ou wat aan u skryf, en ter herinnering aan ons lang vriendskap, bedank ek u by voorbaat.


LAVAL, PIERRE (1883–1945)

Hoof van die Vichy -regering in Frankryk tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat deur baie beskou word as die bose meesterbrein van samewerking.

Pierre Laval is gebore in Châteldon, in die Auvergne, uit 'n gesin van winkeliers. Hy het goed gevaar op skool en op twaalf jaar sy sertifikaat vir primêre studies verwerf. Ten spyte van sy pa se aandrang dat hy in die familieonderneming werk, het Laval in 1902 sy baccalaureus behaal. Na 'n jaar diensplig in die infanterie in 1903, is Laval ontslaan as gevolg van spatare.


Pierre Laval: Die man in die wit das

Richard Wilkinson onthul vooroordeel en mites in die beoordeling van die loopbaan van 'n sleutelfiguur in die moderne Franse geskiedenis.

Churchill se sirene-pak, Chamberlain se sambreel, Harold Wilson se gannex, Baldwin se pyp, mevrou Thatcher se handsak-alles is gepas. Maar die wit bande van Pierre Laval, van sy veldtog om 'n parlementêre sitplek in 1914 tot sy teregstelling in Oktober 1945, lyk bisar. Tydgenote en historici verenig hom om sy reputasie as wielhandel te beklemtoon, vandaar sy bynaam 'die perdehandelaar'. Sy skynbare gebrek aan beginsel het Vincent Auriol aangespoor om te beweer dat 'alles oor hom swart is, sy klere, sy gesig, sy siel. Of jy nou sy naam agteruit of vorentoe spel, hy sal altyd Laval wees. Die Britse historikus David Thomson het beklemtoon dat 'dit sy polisse was wat swak was, nie sy klere nie', terwyl Alfred Cobban hom 'een van die natuur se beste' tussen die natuur 'noem. Marshal Pétain, wat van 1940 tot 1945 aan die hoof was van die Vichy-administrasie in Frankryk, was nog erger oor sy regterhand: 'Ce Laval - 'n vinniger gasheer! '(' Wat 'n perd! ')

Om voort te gaan met die lees van hierdie artikel, moet u toegang tot die aanlyn -argief verkry.

As u reeds toegang gekoop het, of as u 'n druk- en argief -intekenaar is, moet u dit verseker aangemeld.


Inhoud

Vroeë vrywilligers van Milice was lede van Frankryk se voor-oorlogse verregse partye (soos die Action Française) en werkersklasmanne wat oortuig was van die voordele van die Vichy-regering se politiek. Benewens ideologie, het aansporings om by die Milice aan te sluit ingesluit werk, gereelde salarisse en rantsoene. (Laasgenoemde het veral belangrik geword namate die oorlog voortgesit het, en burgerlike rantsoene het tot byna hongersnood afgeneem.) Sommige het aangesluit omdat lede van hul gesinne in geallieerde bomaanvalle gedood of beseer is of deur Franse weerstandsgroepe bedreig, afpers of aangeval is. . Nog ander het aangesluit om meer alledaagse redes: klein misdadigers is gewerf deur te sê dat hulle vonnisse sal verminder as hulle by die organisasie aansluit, en Milice -vrywilligers word vrygestel van vervoer na Duitsland as dwangarbeid. [3] Na raming word deur verskeie historici (insluitend Julian T. Jackson) beraam dat die lidmaatskap van Milice teen 1944 25 000–30 000 bereik het, hoewel dit moeilik is om amptelike syfers te kry. Die meerderheid lede was nie voltydse militante nie, maar het slegs 'n paar uur per week gewy aan hul Milice-aktiwiteite. [4] Die Milice het 'n afdeling vir voltydse lede, die Franc-Garde, gehad wat permanent gemobiliseer en in 'n kaserne gewoon het. [4]

Die Milice het ook jeugafdelings vir seuns en dogters gehad, genaamd die Avant-Garde. [4]

Embleem wysig

Die gekose embleem vir die Milice dra die Griekse letter γ (gamma), die simbool van die Ram -astrologiese teken in die Zodiac, wat oënskynlik verjonging en aanvulling van energie verteenwoordig. Die gekose kleurskema was silwer op blou agtergrond in 'n rooi sirkel vir gewone miliciens, wit in swart agtergrond vir die armdraende militante, en wit in rooi agtergrond vir die aktiewe vegters.

Maart Redigeer

Hulle optog was Le Chant des Cohortes . [5]

Eenvormige wysiging

Militêre troepe (bekend as miliciens) het 'n blou uniform baadjie en broek, 'n bruin hemp en 'n wye blou baret gedra. (Tydens aktiewe operasies in paramilitêre styl is 'n Adrian-helm gebruik, waarop die embleem gereeld verskyn, óf geverf óf as 'n kenteken). Bestry (nie te verwar met die underground Resistance -koerant nie, Bestry). Die weermag van die Milice was amptelik bekend as die Franc-Garde. Hedendaagse foto's toon die Milice gewapen met 'n verskeidenheid wapens wat deur die geallieerde magte gevang is.

Rang [6] Wysig

Begin Redigeer

Die Weerstand was gerig op individu miliciens vir moord, dikwels in openbare gebiede soos kafees en strate. Op 24 April 1943 het hulle Paul de Gassovski, a tekortkoming in Marseille. Einde November, Bestry berig dat 25 miliciens is dood en 27 gewond in weerstandsaanvalle.

Vergelding wysig

Die prominentste persoon wat deur die verset vermoor is, was Philippe Henriot, die minister van inligting en propaganda van die Vichy -regime, wat bekend was as "die Franse Goebbels". Hy is in die vroeë oggendure van 28 Junie 1944 in sy woonstel in die Ministerie van Inligting op die straat Solferino vermoor deur weerstandbiedendes aangetrek as miliciens. Sy vrou, wat in dieselfde kamer was, is gespaar. Die Milice het hiervoor teruggekap deur verskeie bekende anti-Nazi-politici en intellektuele (soos Victor Basch) en die konserwatiewe leier Georges Mandel voor die oorlog te vermoor.

Die Milice werk aanvanklik in eersgenoemde Zone libre van Frankryk onder die beheer van die Vichy -bewind. In Januarie 1944 verhuis die geradikaliseerde Milice na die wat was sone beset van Frankryk (Parys ingesluit). Hulle vestig hul hoofkwartier in die ou hoofkwartier van die Kommunistiese Party in Le Peletier 44 en in Monceau 61. (Die huis was voorheen die eiendom van die Menier-familie, vervaardigers van die bekendste sjokolade in Frankryk.) Die Lycée Louis-Le-Grand is as 'n kaserne beset, en 'n amptelike kandidaatskool is in die Auteuil-sinagoge gestig.

Opmerklike aksies Wysig

Miskien was die grootste en bekendste operasie wat die Milice onderneem het, die Slag van Glières, sy poging in Maart 1944 om die verset in die departement van Haute-Savoie (in die suidooste van Frankryk, naby die Switserse grens). [9] Die Milice kon die verset nie oorkom nie, en moes Duitse troepe inroep om die operasie te voltooi. Op Bastilliedag, 14 Julie 1944, onderdruk die Franc-Garde 'n opstand wat gevangenes in die gevangenis in La Santé in Parys begin het, gevolglik is 34 gevangenes dood. [10]

Die wettige status van die Milice is nooit verduidelik deur die Vichy -regering nie, dit werk parallel met (maar los van) die Groupe mobile de réserve en ander Franse Vichy -polisiemagte. Die Milice werk buite die burgerlike reg, en sy optrede was nie onderhewig aan geregtelike hersiening of beheer nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Einde van die oorlog Wysig

In Augustus 1944, terwyl die vloed van die oorlog besig was om te verander en uit vrees dat hy aanspreeklik gehou sou word vir die bedrywighede van die Milice, het marskalk Philippe Pétain probeer om homself van die organisasie te distansieer deur 'n harde brief te skryf wat Darnand bestraf oor die "oordrewe" van die organisasie. [ aanhaling nodig ] Darnand se reaksie dui daarop dat Pétain sy besware vroeër moes uitgespreek het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Geskiedkundiges [ watter? ] het oor die sterkte van die organisasie gedebatteer, maar dit was waarskynlik tussen 25 000 en 35 000 (insluitend deeltydse lede en nie-vegters) teen die tyd van die Geallieerde inval in Normandië in Junie 1944. [ aanhaling nodig ] Die lidmaatskap het daarna vinnig begin wegsmelt. [ wanneer? ] Na die bevryding van Frankryk het lede wat nie na Duitsland gevlug het nie (waar hulle beïndruk was [ aanhaling nodig ] in die Karel die Grote-afdeling van die Waffen-SS) of elders, in die algemeen in die gesig gestaar word weens verraad, teregstelling na krygshowe of moord deur wraakgierigheid weerstandbiedendes en burgerlikes. Gedurende 'n tydperk van nie -amptelike vergelding onmiddellik na die Duitse terugtog, het 'n groot aantal miliciens individueel of in groepe uitgevoer is. [ aanhaling nodig ] Milice -kantore in Frankryk is deurtrek met agente wat dikwels wreed geslaan en dan uit kantoorvensters of in riviere gegooi is voordat hulle in die tronk geneem is. [ aanhaling nodig ] Op Le Grand-Bornand is 76 gevange lede van die Milice tereggestel deur die Franse magte van die binneland op 24 Augustus 1944. [11]

Na -bewerking

'N Onbekende aantal van miliciens daarin geslaag om uit die gevangenis of teregstelling te ontsnap, hetsy deur ondergronds te gaan of na die buiteland te vlug. 'N Paar is later vervolg. Die opvallendste hiervan was Paul Touvier, die voormalige bevelvoerder van die Milice in Lyon. In 1994 is hy skuldig bevind aan die bevel van die teregstelling van sewe Jode in Rillieux-la-Pape. Hy sterf twee jaar later in die tronk.


'N Skuldvraag: Pierre Laval en die Vichy -regime

Sondebok of buitengewoon lewendige? Douglas Johnson ondersoek die motiewe en optrede van die hoofminister van Vichy om sy fatale gebreke insulariteit en spel te vind.

Dit is moeilik vir 'n historikus om te weet watter nut, indien enige, hy moet maak van meningspeilings wat gerig is op gebeure en persoonlikhede uit die verlede. Dit is nie net omdat die meeste vraelyste wat die kennis van die ondervraagdes wil toets, altyd 'n aansienlike onkunde toon nie, maar ook omdat meningspeilings oor die verlede veral manipuleerbaar is. Daar is egter 'n sekere betekenis in die ondersoek wat Figaro Magazine in Mei 1980 gedoen het, wat beweer dat 66 persent van die Franse mense geweier het om maarskalk Petain te veroordeel vir die rol wat hy gedurende die jare 1940 tot 1944 gespeel het, terwyl 'n ander peiling wat deur Nouvelles litteraires in dieselfde jaar uitgevoer is met betrekking tot Pierre Laval, toon dat 33 persent sy teregstelling goedgekeur het (en sou gestem het as die verhoor weer plaasvind), sou 19 persent hom gestuur het lewenslange tronkstraf en slegs 2 persent sou hom vrygespreek het (die res is onbeslis).

Om voort te gaan met die lees van hierdie artikel, moet u toegang tot die aanlyn -argief verkry.

As u reeds toegang gekoop het, of as u 'n druk- en argief -intekenaar is, moet u dit verseker aangemeld.


Tweede Wêreldoorlog databasis


ww2dbase Pierre Laval is gebore in Châteldon in die departement Puy-de-Dôme van die Auvergne-streek in Frankryk. Hy is verkies tot die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes in 1903, hoof van Aubervilliers in 1924 en senator in 1927. Hy het in die dertigerjare drie termyne as premier van Frankryk gedien. Sy loopbaan van die dertigerjare is gekenmerk deur sy versoeningsbeleid ten opsigte van Italiaanse aggressie, wat uiteindelik tot sy bedanking op 22 Januarie 1936 gelei het na die Hoare-Laval-pakt-skandaal. Toe Frankryk deur die Duitse magte beset word, ondersteun hy die medewerker Philippe Pétain en word hy op 12 Julie 1940 as vise -premier aangewys, daarna as premier op 18 April 1942 (met addisionele rolle as minister van inligtings, minister van binnelandse sake en minister van buitelandse sake). As die tweede-in-bevel van die Vichy-regering was hy vriendelik teenoor Berlyn en het hy saamgewerk met Duitse eise ten opsigte van beleid, insluitend antisemitiese beleid en die uitvoer van gedwonge Franse arbeid na Duitse ammunisie-fabrieke. Toe die geallieerde magte Frankryk binnedring, vlug die Vichy -regering na Duitsland, waar dit uitmekaar val terwyl die geallieerde magte voortgaan. In Mei 1945 vlug Laval na Spanje, maar word na Oostenryk gedeporteer waar hy aan die Franse oorgegee word. Hy is skuldig bevind aan verraad teen Frankryk en is deur die vuurpeloton tot die dood veroordeel. Hy het die dag van sy teregstelling in die Fresnes -gevangenis selfmoord probeer pleeg, maar dit het misluk omdat sy sianiedkapsel sy sterkte verloor het. Sy vonnis is uitgevoer, terwyl hy nog siek was en van die sianied opgegooi het.

ww2dbase Bron: Wikipedia.

Laaste groot hersiening: Junie 2006

Pierre Laval tydlyn

28 Junie 1883 Pierre Laval is gebore.
27 Januarie 1931 Pierre Laval het die 101ste premier van Frankryk geword.
20 Februarie 1932 Pierre Laval tree uit as die premier van Frankryk.
7 Junie 1935 Pierre Laval het die 112ste premier van Frankryk geword.
24 Januarie 1936 Pierre Laval tree uit as die premier van Frankryk.
11 Julie 1940 Pierre Laval het die 120ste premier van Frankryk geword met die titel van die vise -president van die Raad.
28 Oktober 1940 Pierre Laval het die minister van buitelandse sake van Vichy Frankryk geword.
13 Desember 1940 Pierre Laval is afgedank as die vise -president van die Raad, wat in werklikheid die premier van Frankryk was. Hy is kort daarna in hegtenis geneem.
15 Desember 1940 Pierre Laval is bevry van gevangenisstraf.
8 Februarie 1941 Philippe Pétain het Pierre Laval 'n kabinetsitplek in die Vichy -regering aangebied, maar die aanbod is van die hand gewys.
25 Mei 1941 Pierre Laval het die Franse regering van Vichy gekritiseer tydens 'n onderhoud met die Amerikaanse joernalis Ralph Heinzen in Parys, Frankryk.
25 Augustus 1941 Pierre Laval is vier keer deur die student Paul Collete geskiet toe hy Franse vrywilligers sien weggaan om met die Duitsers in Rusland te veg. Laval het die sluipmoordpoging oorleef, maar is ernstig gewond, veral deur 'n koeël wat sy liggaam ongeveer 'n sentimeter van sy hart binnegedring het.
26 Augustus 1941 Paul Collete is in hegtenis geneem nadat Pierre Laval Laval geskiet en gewond is, sou aanbeveel dat Collete 'n ligte vonnis gegee word, met verwysing na die feit dat die jong man waarskynlik slegs 'n pion was wat deur meer senior plottenaars agter die skerms gebruik is.
30 September 1941 Pierre Laval is uit die hospitaal ontslaan nadat hy herstel het van die wonde wat hy opgedoen het tydens die onsuksesvolle sluipmoordpoging op 25 Augustus 1941.
26 Maart 1942 Die Franse politikus Pierre Laval het staatshoof Philippe Pétain gewaarsku dat dit belangrik is om met die Duitsers saam te werk om te voorkom dat Berlyn 'n Nazi -party Gauleiter vir Vichy Frankryk aanstel.
14 April 1942 Pierre Laval is aangewys as regeringshoof met spesiale magte in Vichy, Frankryk.
18 April 1942 Pierre Laval word die 123ste premier van Frankryk.
18 November 1942 Marshal Philippe Pétain het 'n grondwetlike dokument onderteken waarmee premier Pierre Laval wette kon maak en slegs besluite kon uitreik oor sy eie handtekening.
20 Augustus 1944 Pierre Laval tree uit as die premier van Frankryk.
31 Julie 1945 Pierre Laval het in Oostenryk oorgegee.
15 Oktober 1945 Pierre Laval is tereggestel weens verraad.

Het u hierdie artikel geniet of vind u hierdie artikel nuttig? As dit die geval is, oorweeg dit om ons op Patreon te ondersteun. Selfs $ 1 per maand sal baie help! Dankie.

Deel hierdie artikel met jou vriende:

Besoekers ingedien kommentaar

1. Anoniem sê:
3 Junie 2014 08:44:35

Daar word geen melding gemaak van die Franse kragruil vir Franse werkers wat na Duitsland gestuur is nie

Alle kommentaar wat besoekers ingedien het, is 'n mening van diegene wat die voorleggings lewer en weerspieël nie die sienings van WW2DB nie.


Pierre Laval

Pierre Laval was 'n Franse politikus. Gedurende die tyd van die Derde Republiek het hy van 27 Januarie 1931 tot 20 Februarie 1932 as premier van Frankryk gedien en was hy ook van 7 Junie 1935 tot 24 Januarie 1936 aan die hoof van 'n ander regering.

Laval het sy loopbaan as sosialis begin, maar het mettertyd ver na regs gedryf. Na Frankryk se oorgawe en wapenstilstand met Duitsland in 1940, dien hy in die Vichy -regime. Hy het 'n prominente rol beklee onder Philippe P étain, eers as die vise-president van Vichy se Ministerraad van 11 Julie 1940 tot 13 Desember 1940, en later as regeringshoof van 18 April 1942 tot 20 Augustus 1944.

Na die bevryding van Frankryk in 1944, is Laval deur die Franse regering onder generaal Charles de Gaulle gearresteer. In wat sommige historici as 'n gebrekkige verhoor beskou, is Laval skuldig bevind aan hoogverraad, en na 'n selfmoordpoging wat in die wiele gery is, is hy deur 'n vuurpeloton tereggestel. Sy veelvuldige politieke aktiwiteite het 'n ingewikkelde en omstrede erfenis gelaat, en daar is meer as 'n dosyn biografieë van hom.

Laval is gebore op 28 Junie 1883 in Ch âteldon, Puy-de-D ôme, in die noordelike deel van Auvergne. Sy pa het in die dorp gewerk as 'n kafee, slagter en posman, en hy het ook 'n wingerd en perde besit. Laval is opgevoed aan die dorpskool in Ch âteldon. Op 15 -jarige ouderdom is hy na 'n Paris Lyc ພ gestuur om vir sy baccalaur te studeer. Toe hy terugkeer suidwaarts na Lyon, lees hy die volgende jaar vir 'n graad in dierkunde.

Laval het hom in 1903 by die Sosialiste aangesluit toe hy in Saint-Étienne, 62 km suidwes van Lyon, gewoon het.

Laval keer in 1907 terug na Parys op 24 -jarige ouderdom. Hy is opgeroep vir militêre diens en nadat hy in die geledere gedien het, is hy ontslaan weens spatare. In April 1913 het hy gesê: & quotBarrak-leërs is nie in staat om die geringste moeite te doen nie, omdat hulle swak opgeleide en bo alles sleg beveel is.

Huwelik en gesin Kort nadat hy lid van die Paris -kroeg geword het, trou hy met die dogter van 'n dr Joseph Claussat en stig hy 'n huis in Parys saam met sy nuwe vrou. Hul enigste kind, 'n dogter genaamd Jos ພ Laval, is gebore in 1911. Jos ພ is getroud met Ren é de Chambrun, wie se oom, Nicholas Longworth III, getroud is met Alice Roosevelt, dogter van die Amerikaanse president Theodore Roosevelt. Alhoewel Laval se vrou uit 'n politieke familie kom, het sy nooit aan die politiek deelgeneem nie.

Voor die oorlog Die jare voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is gekenmerk deur arbeidsonrus, en Laval verdedig stakers, vakbondlede en linkse opstokers teen pogings van die regering om hulle te vervolg. In April 1914 het die sosialiste en radikale hul verkiesingsveldtog ter verdediging van vrede in die rigting van vrees vir oorlog die nasie oorval. Hulle leiers was Jean Jaur ès en Joseph Caillaux. Die Bloc des Gauches (Linksblok) het die wet wat in Julie 1913 aangeneem is, verwerp en verpligte militêre diens van twee tot drie jaar verleng. Die vakbond Conf ຝ ération g én érale du travail het Laval as sosialistiese kandidaat vir die Seine, die distrik wat uit Parys en sy voorstede bestaan, gesoek. Hy het gewen. Die Radikale het, met die steun van sosialiste, die meerderheid in die Franse Kamer van Afgevaardigdes gehad. Saam het hulle gehoop om oorlog te voorkom. Die moord op aartshertog Franz Ferdinand van Oostenryk op 28 Junie 1914 en op Jaurus op 31 Julie 1914 het hierdie hoop laat spat. Laval se broer, Jean, is in die eerste maande van die oorlog dood.

Met die hulpbronne van Frankryk vir oorlog, was goedere skaars of te duur. Op 30 Januarie 1917 het Laval in die Nasionale Vergadering 'n beroep op die Minister van Voorsiening ಝouard Herriot gedoen om die onvoldoende steenkoolvoorraad in Parys te hanteer. Toe Herriot sê: "As ek kon, sou ek self die vaartuie aflaai," antwoord Laval. "Moenie belaglikheid by onbevoegdheid toevoeg nie."

Laval het die verloop van die oorlog en die swak aanbod van troepe in die veld verag. Toe muiterye ontstaan ​​ná generaal Robert Nivelle se offensief van April 1917 by Chemin des Dames, het hy ter verdediging van die muiters gepraat. Toe Marcel Cachin en Marius Moutet in Junie 1917 uit St. Petersburg terugkeer met die uitnodiging na 'n sosialistiese byeenkoms in Stockholm, sien Laval 'n kans op vrede. In 'n toespraak aan die Vergadering het hy die kamer aangemoedig om 'n afvaardiging toe te laat om te gaan: & quot; Ja, Stockholm, in reaksie op die oproep van die Russiese Revolusie. Ja, Stockholm, vir vrede. Ja, Stockholm die poolster. & Quot Die versoek is geweier.

Van sosialisties tot onafhanklik In 1919 het 'n konserwatiewe golf die Blok Nasionaal in beheer geneem. Laval is nie herkies nie. Die sosialiste se pasifisme -rekord, hul teenkanting teen Clemenceau en angs as gevolg van die oormaat van die Bolsjewistiese rewolusie in Rusland het bygedra tot hul nederlaag.

Burgemeester van Aubervilliers In 1923 het Aubervilliers in die noorde van Parys 'n burgemeester nodig gehad. As voormalige adjunk van die kiesafdeling was Laval 'n voor die hand liggende kandidaat. Om verkiesbaar te wees, het Laval landbougrond, Les Bergeries, gekoop. Min mense was bewus van sy afvalligheid by die sosialiste. Laval is ook deur die plaaslike SFIO en die Kommunistiese Party gevra om aan die hoof van hul lyste te staan. Laval het verkies om onder sy eie lys te staan, van voormalige sosialiste wat hy oortuig het om die party te verlaat en vir hom te werk. Dit was 'n onafhanklike Sosialistiese Party wat slegs in Aubervilliers bestaan ​​het. In 'n vierrigtingwedren het Laval in die tweede ronde gewen. Hy het tot net voor sy dood as burgemeester van Aubervilliers gedien.

Die beloning van minister en senator Laval vir die ondersteuning van die kartel was die aanstelling as minister van openbare werke in die regering van Paul Painlev é in April 1925. Ses maande later het die regering in duie gestort. Laval behoort van toe af aan die klub van voormalige ministers waaruit nuwe predikante verkry is. Tussen 1925 en 1926 neem Laval nog drie keer deel aan regerings van Aristide Briand, een keer as onder-sekretaris van die premier en twee keer as minister van justisie (garde des sceaux). Toe hy die eerste keer minister van justisie word, het Laval sy regspraktyk laat vaar om belangebotsing te vermy.

Op 2 Maart 1930 keer Laval terug as minister van arbeid in die tweede Andr é Tardieu -regering. Tardieu en Laval ken mekaar uit die dae van Clemenceau, wat ontwikkel het tot wedersydse waardering. Tardieu het mans nodig wat hy kon vertrou: sy vorige regering het 'n bietjie meer as 'n week vroeër in duie gestort weens die afloop van die minister van arbeid, Louis Loucheur. Maar toe die Radikale Sosialistiese Camille Chautemps nie daarin slaag om 'n lewensvatbare regering te vorm nie, is Tardieu teruggeroep.

Sosiale versekering was al tien jaar op die agenda. Dit het die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes, maar nie die Senaat nie, in 1928 verbygesteek. Tardieu het Laval tot 1 Mei gegee om die projek deur te voer. Die datum is gekies om die opwinding van Arbeidsdag te versmoor. Laval se eerste poging was om die deurmekaar versameling tekste duidelik te maak. Hy het toe werkgewer en arbeidsorganisasies geraadpleeg. Laval moes die uiteenlopende sienings van die kamer en die senaat versoen. "Was dit nie vir Laval se ongemaklike geduld nie", skryf Laval se medewerker Tissier, "sou 'n ooreenkoms nooit bereik kon word nie" [12] In twee maande het Laval 'n teks aan die Vergadering voorgelê wat die oorspronklike mislukking oorkom het. Dit voldoen aan die finansiële beperkings, verminder die beheer van die regering en behou die keuse van dokters en hul rekeningvryheid.

The Hoover Moratorium of 1931, a proposal made by American President Herbert Hoover to freeze all intergovernmental debt for a one-year period, was, according to author and political advisor McGeorge Bundy, "the most significant action taken by an American president for Europe since Woodrow Wilson's administration."[citation needed] The United States had enormous stakes in Germany: long-term German borrowers owed the United States private sector more than $1.25 billion the short-term debt neared $1 billion. By comparison, the entire United States national income in 1931 was just $54 billion. To put it into perspective, authors Walter Lippmann and William O. Scroggs stated in The United States in World Affairs, an Account of American Foreign Relations, that "the American stake in Germany's government and private obligations was equal to half that of all the rest of the world combined."

At this time, Laval was opposed to Germany, the "hereditary enemy" of France, and he pursued anti-German alliances. He met with Mussolini in Rome, and they signed the Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935 on 4 January. The agreement ceded parts of French Somaliland to Italy and allowed her a free hand in Abyssinia, in exchange for support against any German aggression. Laval denied that he gave Mussolini a free hand in Abyssinia he even wrote to Il Duce on the subject. In April 1935, Laval persuaded Italy and Great Britain to join France in the Stresa Front against German ambitions in Austria. On 2 May 1935, he likewise signed the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance.

On 9 June 1940, the Germans were advancing on a front of more than 250 kilometres (160 mi) in length across the entire width of France. As far as General Maxime Weygand was concerned, "if the Germans crossed the Seine and the Marne, it was the end." Simultaneously, Marshal Philippe Pétain was increasing the pressure upon Prime Minister Paul Reynaud to call for an armistice. During this time Laval was in Châteldon. On 10 June, in view of the German advance, the government left Paris for Tours. Weygand had informed Reynaud: "the final rupture of our lines may take place at any time." If that happened "our forces would continue to fight until their strength and resources were extinguished. But their disintegration would be no more than a matter of time."[27] Weygand had avoided using the word armistice, but it was on the minds of all those involved. Only Reynaud was in opposition.

As the Germans occupied Paris, Pétain was asked to form a new government. To everyone's surprise, he produced a list of his ministers, convincing proof that he had been expecting the president's summons and he had prepared for it. Laval's name was on the list as Minister of Justice. When informed of his proposed appointment, Laval's temper and ambitions became apparent as he ferociously demanded of Pétain, despite the objections of more experienced men of government, that he be made Minister of Foreign Affairs. Laval realised that only through this position could he effect a reversal of alliances and bring himself to favour with Nazi Germany, the military power he viewed as the inevitable victor. In the face of Laval's wrath, dissenting voices acquiesced and Laval became Minister of Foreign Affairs. One result of these events was that Laval was later able to claim that he was not part of the government that requested the armistice. His name did not appear in the chronicles of events until June when he began to assume a more active role in criticising the government's decision to leave France for North Africa.

Laval in the Vichy government, 1940�[edit] By this time, Laval now openly sympathized with fascism. He was convinced that Germany would win the war, and felt France needed to emulate its totalitarian regime as much as possible. To that end, when he was included in the cabinet as minister of state, Laval set about with the work for which he would be remembered: dismantling the Third Republic and its democracy and taking up the fascist cause.

In October 1940, Laval understood collaboration more or less in the same sense as Pétain. For both, to collaborate meant to give up the least possible to get the most. Laval, in his role of go-between, was forced to be in constant touch with the German authorities, to shift ground, to be wily, to plan ahead. All this, under the circumstances, drew more attention to him than to the Marshal and made him appear to many Frenchmen as "the agent of collaboration" to others, he was "the Germans' man". The meetings between Pétain and Adolf Hitler, and between Laval and Hitler, are often used to show that collaboration with the Nazis. In fact Montoire (24� October 1940) was a disappointment to both sides. Hitler wanted France to declare war on Britain, and the French wanted improved relations with her conqueror. Neither happened. Virtually the only concession the French obtained was the 'Berlin protocol' of 16 November 1940, which provided release of certain categories of French prisoners of war.

Laval's actions were a factor in his dismissal on 13 December 1940. Pétain asked all the ministers to sign a collective letter of resignation during a full cabinet meeting. Laval did so thinking it was a device to get rid of M. Belin, the Minister of Labor. He was therefore stunned when the Marshal announced, "the resignations of MM. Laval and Ripert are accepted." That evening, Laval was arrested and driven by the police to his home in Châteldon. The following day, Pétain announced his decision to remove Laval from the government. The reason for Laval's dismissal lies in a fundamental incompatibility with Pétain. Laval's methods of working appeared slovenly to Petain's precise military mind, and he showed a marked lack of deference, instanced by a habit of blowing cigarette smoke in Pétain's face. By doing so he aroused Pétain's irritation and the anger of the entire cabinet.

Laval returned to power in April 1942. Laval had been in power for a mere two months when he was faced with the decision of providing forced workers to Germany. The Reich was short of skilled labour due to its need for troop replacements on the Russian front. Unlike other occupied countries, France was technically protected by the armistice, and its workers could not be simply rounded up for transportation. In the occupied zone, the Germans used intimidation and control of raw materials to create unemployment and thus reasons for French labourers to volunteer to work in Germany. Nazi officials demanded Laval send more than 300,000 skilled workers immediately to factories in Germany. Laval delayed making a counter-offer of one worker in return for one French POW. The proposal was sent to Hitler, and a compromise was reached: one prisoner of war to be repatriated for every three workers arriving in Germany.

Laval's precise role in the deportation of Jews has been hotly debated by both his accusers and defenders. When ordered to have all Jews in France rounded up to be transported to German-occupied Poland, Laval negotiated a compromise. He allowed only those Jews who were not French citizens to be forfeited to German control. It was estimated that by the end of the war, the Germans had killed 90 percent of the Jewish population in other occupied countries, but in France fifty per cent of the pre-war French and foreign Jewish population, with perhaps ninety per cent of the purely French Jewish population still remaining alive. Laval went beyond the orders given to him by the Germans, as he included Jewish children under 16 in the deportations. The Germans had given him permission to spare children under 16. In his book Churches and the Holocaust, Mordecai Paldiel claims that when Protestant leader Marc Boegner visited Laval to remonstrate. Laval claimed that he had ordered children to be deported along with their parents because families should not be separated and "children should remain with their parents".[39] According to Paldiel, when Boegner argued that the children would almost certainly die, Laval replied "not one [Jewish child] must remain in France". Yet, Sarah Fishman (in a reliably sourced book, but lacking citations) claims that Laval also attempted to prevent Jewish children gaining visas to America, arranged by the American Friends Service Committee. Fishman asserts Laval was not so much committed to expelling Jewish children from France, as making sure they reached Nazi camps.

When Operation Torch, the landings of Allied forces in North Africa began, Germany occupied all of France. Hitler continued to ask whether the French government was prepared to fight at his side, requiring Vichy to declare war against Britain. Laval and Pétain agreed to maintain a firm refusal. During this time and the Normandy landings in 1944, Laval was in a struggle against ultra-collaborationist ministers.

A few months later, he was arrested by the Germans and transported to Belfort. In view of the speed of the Allied advance, on 7 September 1944 what was left of the Vichy government was moved from Belfort to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany. Pétain took residence at the Hohenzollern castle in Sigmaringen. At first Laval also resided in this castle. In January 1945 Laval was assigned to the Stauffenberg castle of Ernst Juenger/Wilflingen 12 km outside the Sigmaringen enclave. By April 1945 US General George S. Patton's army approached Sigmaringen, so the Vichy ministers were forced to seek their own refuge. Laval received permission to enter Spain and was flown to Barcelona by a Luftwaffe plane. However, 90 days later, De Gaulle pressured Spain to expel Laval. The same Luftwaffe plane that flew him to Spain flew him to the American-occupied zone of Austria. The American authorities immediately arrested Laval and his wife and turned them over to the Free French. They were flown to Paris to be imprisoned at Fresnes Prison. Madame Laval was later released Pierre Laval remained in prison to be tried as a traitor.

Trial and execution Two trials were to be held. Although it had its faults, the Pétain trial permitted the presentation and examination of a vast amount of pertinent material. Scholars including Robert Paxton and Geoffrey Warner believe that Laval's trial demonstrated the inadequacies of the judicial system and the poisonous political atmosphere of that purge-trial era. During his imprisonment pending the verdict of his treason trial, Laval wrote his only book, his posthumously published Diary (1948). His daughter, Josພ de Chambrun, smuggled it out of the prison page by page. Laval's trial began at 1:30 pm on Thursday, 4 October 1945. He was charged with plotting against the security of the State and intelligence (collaboration) with the enemy. He had three defence lawyers (Jaques Baraduc, Albert Naud, and Yves-Frຝéric Jaffré). None of his lawyers had ever met him before. He saw most of Jaffré, who sat with him, talked, listened and took down notes that he wanted to dictate. Baraduc, who quickly became convinced of Laval's innocence, kept contact with the Chambruns and at first shared their conviction that Laval would be acquitted or at most receive a sentence of temporary exile. Naud, who had been a member of the Resistance, believed Laval to be guilty and urged him to plead that he had made grave errors but had acted under constraint. Laval would not listen to him he was convinced that he was innocent and could prove it. "He acted", said Naud, "as if his career, not his life, was at stake."[52]

All three of his lawyers declined to be in court to hear the reading of the formal charges, saying "We fear that the haste which has been employed to open the hearings is inspired, not by judicial preoccupations, but motivated by political considerations." In lieu of attending the hearing, they sent letters stating the shortcomings and asked to be discharged as counsel.[53] The court carried on without them. The president of the court, Pierre Mongibeaux, announced the trial had to be completed before the general election scheduled for 21 October.[54] Mongibeaux and Mornet, the public prosecutor, were unable to control constant hostile outbursts from the jury. These occurred as increasingly heated exchanges between Mongibeaux and Laval became louder and louder. On the third day, Laval's three lawyers were with him as the President of the Bar Association had advised them to resume their duties.[55]

After the adjournment, Mongibeaux announced that the part of the interrogation dealing with the charge of plotting against the security of the state was concluded. To the charge of collaboration Laval replied, "Monsieur le Président, the insulting way in which you questioned me earlier and the demonstrations in which some members of the jury indulged show me that I may be the victim of a judicial crime. I do not want to be an accomplice I prefer to remain silent." Mongibeaux called the first of the prosecution witnesses, but they had not expected to give evidence so soon and none were present. Mongibeaux adjourned the hearing for the second time so that they could be located. When the court reassembled half an hour later, Laval was no longer in his place.[56]

Although Pierre-Henri Teitgen, the Minister of Justice in Charles de Gaulle's cabinet, personally appealed to Laval's lawyers to have him attend the hearings, he declined to do so. Teitgen freely confirmed the conduct of Mongibeaux and Mornet, professing he was unable to do anything to curb them. A sentence of death was handed down in Laval's absence. His lawyers were refused a re-trial. The execution was fixed for the morning of 15 October at Fresnes Prison. Laval attempted to cheat the firing squad by taking poison from a phial stitched inside the lining of his jacket. He did not intend, he explained in a suicide note, that French soldiers should become accomplices in a "judicial crime". The poison, however, was so old that it was ineffective, and repeated stomach-pumpings revived Laval.[58] Laval requested that his lawyers witness his execution. He was shot shouting "Vive la France!" Shouts of "Murderers!" and "Long live Laval!" were apparently heard from the prison.[59] Laval's widow declared: "It is not the French way to try a man without letting him speak", she told an English newspaper, "That's the way he always fought against – the German way." His corpse was initially buried in an unmarked grave in the Thiais cemetery, until it was buried in the Chambrun family mausoleum at the Montparnasse Cemetery in November. His daughter, Josພ Laval, wrote a letter to Churchill in 1948, suggesting the firing squad who killed her father "wore British uniforms". The letter was published in the June 1949 issue of Human Events, an American conservative newspaper. The High Court, which functioned until 1949, judged 108 cases it pronounced eight death penalties, including one for an elderly Pétain, whose appeal failed. Only three of the death penalties were carried out: Pierre Laval Fernand de Brinon, Vichy's Ambassador in Paris to the German authorities and Joseph Darnand, head of the Milice.[65]


Pierre Laval

(1883–1945). A politician who was twice elected premier of France, Pierre Laval led the government established at Vichy to collaborate with Germany during World War II. He was ultimately executed as a traitor to his country.

Pierre Laval was born on June 28, 1883, in Châteldon, France. He joined the Socialist party at the age of 20, became a lawyer in Paris in 1909, and began defending trade unionists and others on the political left. He held various public offices, beginning in 1914, and first became premier in 1931. Defeated a year later, Laval was reelected in 1935, but his cabinet fell in 1936. In 1940 he became vice-premier under Marshal Henri Pétain.

After Paris was occupied by German forces, Pétain had formed a fascist state at Vichy. Laval helped persuade Pétain that the Third Republic should be dissolved, but Pétain eventually opposed the close Franco-German collaboration advocated by Laval. Pétain dismissed him in December 1940.

Under pressure from Germany, Pétain restored Laval’s power, and he became head of the Vichy government in April 1942. Laval agreed to provide French laborers for German industries and, in a notorious speech asking for volunteers in June 1942, he announced that he desired a German victory. His control of France deteriorated with the growth of the resistance movement against the German occupation. After the Vichy government collapsed in August 1944, Laval fled to Spain. He returned to France in July 1945 and was put on trial for treason. He was executed, after attempting to poison himself, on Oct. 15, 1945, in Paris.


Pierre Laval

Prime Minister of France 1931–2, 1935–6 French dictator 1940, 1942–5 A student of law, he became an advocate of the working classes and joined the Socialist Party in 1903. He became a parliamentary Deputy in 1914, but was increasingly at odds with his party owing to his opposition to the war. He was defeated at the polls in 1919, left the Socialists in 1920, but returned to the Chamber of Deputies as an independent in 1924, again representing the Parisian working-class district of Aubervilliers. After entering the Senate in 1927 he continued gradually to shift to the right, so that in his first period as Prime Minister he tried unsuccessfully to cope with an economic crisis through a rigid policy of deflation. In his second period in office, the Saarland voted to return to Germany. He responded to national security concerns by concluding the French–Soviet Pact of 1935. Laval had to resign over his apparent condonation of Mussolini's conquests in the Abyssinian War.

Following the German invasion of France in 1940, Laval was instrumental in convincing the National Assembly to give Marshal Pétain full powers to revise the constitution of the Third Republic. He fully supported Pétain's desire to collaborate with Germany, and on 22 June 1942 announced his hope that Germany would win the war. He hoped to turn France into Germany's ‘favourite province’, and thus to avoid direct German rule as had happened in Poland, though this hope was betrayed in late 1942 when Vichy France was occupied by German troops. Laval had been dismissed as Pétain's Chief Minister in December 1940 owing to personality clashes with the marshal, but he had to be reinstated at German insistence in 1942. In 1945 he fled to Spain, but was handed over to Austria. The American occupying forces turned him over to France, where he was executed after a short trial.


History of Alfa Laval

Alfa Laval was founded in 1883. With the help of some of the most important milestones, you can follow Alfa Laval’s growth towards the large international group it has become today.

Alfa Laval&rsquos founder, Gustaf de Laval, is born in the province of Dalarna in Sweden.

After reading an article in the German periodical, Milchzeitung, Gustaf de Laval starts to work on the development of a centrifugal separator.

The first continuous separator is demonstrated in Stockholm. This separator has a capacity of 130 litres per hour.

Gustaf de Laval and his partner, Oscar Lamm, establish the company AB Separator. The De Laval Cream Separator Co. is formed in the U.S. which is the start of a continuously growing international establishment.

The first pumps are sold. They are used to pump skimmed milk from the centrifugal separator.

The German inventor, Clemens von Bechtolsheim&rsquos patent for conical metal discs is acquired. By using these so called Alfa-discs, the separator&rsquos capacity is increased many times over.

Alfa Laval introduces the world&rsquos first continuous separator using the Alfa disc stack technology. The first continuous milk pasteurizer is introduced.

The first yeast separator is installed in a customer&rsquos production line.

Gustaf de Laval begins to work on the design of a milking machine.

Gustaf de Laval dies at the age of 67. During his lifetime, he acquires 92 Swedish patents and establishes 37 companies. His memorial is engraved with the inscription: &ldquoThe Man of High Speed&rdquo.

Alfa Laval sells the first separator for oil purification.

1919 &ndash 1936

Subsidiaries are formed in Denmark, South Africa, Finland, Australia, New Zealand, Poland, Yugoslavia and Ireland.

Die world&rsquos first hermetic separator is introduced by Alfa Laval at an exhibition in Berlin.

Alfa-Laval introduces its first heat exchanger. Pontus Hytte, son of the famous Swedish painter Carl Larsson, moves the development and production of heat exchangers to Lund.

Sales of the &ldquoself-cleaning&rdquo centrifugal separator and decanter centrifuges begins.

The first automatic CIP (Cleaning-In-Place) system is installed in a Swedish dairy.

The first sterilization processing system is installed in Italy. This marks a major breakthrough in the dairy and liquid food-processing sector.

AB Rosenblad&rsquos patents are acquired, bringing the spiral heat exchanger as well as a series of industrial plate designs into the possession of AB Separator.

The company changes its name from AB Separator to Alfa-Laval AB. The name &ldquoAlfa&rdquo derives from the alpha discs and &ldquoLaval&rdquo from the founder of the company.

The first large computerized control system is delivered to a dairy in Switzerland. This system makes it possible to supervise and control the entire plant.

Alfa-Laval acquires a majority interest in the Danish company Lavrids Knudsens Maskinfabrik (LKM), marking Alfa-Laval&rsquos establishment in the fluid handling business.

This is a year of substantial investments. In Sweden, construction begins on a new manufacturing plant for marine separators in Tumba outside Stockholm. The Thermal Business Area in Lund starts construction of new offices and an international production centre for plate heat exchangers. In Spain, Alfa Laval expands its plants, offices and warehouses.

Alfa Laval strengthens its foothold in Japan by increasing its holdings in the Japanese firm Nagase-Alfa to 70 per cent and by establishing Alfa Laval Service K.K. as a wholly-owned company.

Tetra Pak, which provides packaging solutions to the food industry worldwide, and the Rausing family acquire Alfa Laval.

Alfa Laval becomes an independent industrial group within the Tetra Laval Group. Liquid food processing activities are integrated with Tetra Pak&rsquos business. Farm equipment and systems are reorganized into a new industrial group, Alfa Laval Agri.

A new factory for heat exchangers, fluid handling equipment and modules for the food and beverage industry was opened in Kaliningrad outside of Moskou. The factory is one of the most modern in Russia.

Alfa Laval launches an innovative oil treatment system for ships as well as the most advanced automated control of valves in the industry.

The investment company Industri Kapital buys the Alfa Laval Group. Industri Kapital&rsquos intention is to further develop Alfa Laval&rsquos global leadership within its key technologies Separation, Heat Transfer and Fluid Handling, with the intention of listing the shares publicly within a five-year period.

Majoor restructuring of Alfa Laval into market-oriented divisions and segments with distinct customer focus.

Alfa Laval returns to the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The main strategy is to create profitable growth, both organically and through acquisitions, which in 2002 include two Danish companies Danish Separation Systems A/S (DSS), a specialists in membrane filtration for the pharmaceutical and food industries, and the Toftejorg Group, the world&rsquos leading supplier of advanced tank cleaning systems.

AlfaNova, a major breakthrough in heat transfer, is launched. AlfaNova is a totally new type of plate heat exchanger, based on Alfa Laval&rsquos patented method of brazing the plates, called AlfaFusion. AlfaNova&rsquos extraordinary strengths in regard to temperatures, pressures and fatigue resistance open new and interesting possibilities in existing and future applications.

Lars Renström is appointed new CEO and President of the Alfa Laval Group. He has a solid and successful record within Swedish industrial companies. Alfa Laval and Haldex, a multinational supplier of vehicle technology, form a jointly owned company, Alfdex AB, to supply jointly developed solutions for cleaning crankcase gases from diesel engines to meet increasingly stricter emission regulations.

Packinox S.A. in France, a world leader in large, welded plate heat exchangers for oil and gas and refinery applications, is acquired. The company&rsquos recognized competence will result in strengthening Alfa Laval within these fields.

A very high demand in most of Alfa Laval&rsquos end markets &ndash primarily the energy and energy-related sectors &ndash contributes to the increase in order intake by 30 per cent from 2005. Tetra Pak&rsquos fruit concentrate unit is acquired, which means that Alfa Laval will penetrate this market through its own sales companies.

Alfa Laval takes important steps towards becoming a world-leading provider of air heat exchangers by acquiring Netherlands-based Helpman en Finnish Fincoil, both leading European suppliers of air heat exchangers. Helpman's products are used for commerical refrigeration, for example in the sensitive logistic chain for food. Fincoil is particularly strong within industrial power cooling.

Alfa Laval is an official partner to the Swedish pavillion at the World Expo in Shanghai: "Better City, Better Life".

Alfa Laval acquires Aalborg Industries and two years later the Norwegian company Frank Mohn which further strengthens Alfa Laval&rsquos presence within the marine and offshore markets.

Alfa Laval opens its Test and Training centre in Aalborg, Denmark, for marine products and applications.


Kyk die video: Nazi Collaborators Pierre Laval


Kommentaar:

  1. Fer

    Ek bevestig. It was with me too. Let's discuss this issue.

  2. Curt

    It agree, this remarkable message

  3. Taulmaran

    Ek bevestig. En ek het hiermee teëgekom. Ons kan oor hierdie tema kommunikeer.

  4. Franta

    Na my mening is jy verkeerd. Kom ons bespreek dit. E -pos my by PM.

  5. Beadurof

    Yeah, now it's clear ... Otherwise I didn't immediately understand where the connection with the name is ...



Skryf 'n boodskap