Cameron Buchanan

Cameron Buchanan


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Cameron Buchanan is gebore in Holytown op 31 Julie 1928. 'n Binnekant-voorspeler het by Wolverhampton Wanderers aangesluit en die klubbestuurder, Major Frank Buckley, het hom gekies om in September 1942 vir die eerste span te speel. Op die ouderdom van veertien jaar en sewe en vyftig dae hy was waarskynlik die jongste tiener wat vir 'n Football League -klub gespeel het. Buchanan het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in 12 wedstryde gespeel.

Buchanan kon nie in die eerste span terugkom nie en het in 1949 by Bournemouth aangesluit. Gedurende die volgende vyf seisoene het 18 doele in 83 wedstryde aangeteken. Hy het ook kort vir Norwich City gespeel voordat hy na Kanada verhuis het.


Die geskiedenis van Lewisburg -hotel

Hierdie hotel, wat oorspronklik in 1834 gestig is, pryk in die hoofstraat van die sentrum van Lewisburg. Met maklike toegang tot die Pennsylvania-kanaal, die Old East-West Turnpike en twee groot spoorweë, bied die hotel akkommodasie vir geslagte reisigers. Daar word gesê dat elke goewerneur van die Statebond van Pennsylvania vanaf 1831 en#8211 1901 'n gas was, sowel as nasionaal bekende bekendes van die Victoriaanse Universiteit van Lewisburg in 1846 (later hernoem tot Bucknell University).

Die hotel was die tuiste van die eerste president van die universiteit en die eerste gradeplegtigheidsoefeninge is in 1851 op die perseel gehou. Lede van die teenwoordige kuratorium was die Amerikaanse senator Simon Cameron en James Buchanan. Buchanan het die vyftiende president van die Verenigde State geword binne vyf jaar na sy besoek. Na die aankoop deur William Cameron in 1874, was die hotel al meer as sestig jaar bekend as Cameron House. Na hierdie eienaarskap is die deure vir 'n opknapping van twee jaar vir die publiek gesluit, waarin die welvaart van die noorde na die burgeroorlog vandag nog bewys is.

Die gaste -register, na die begin van die eeu, bevat sportfigure Jim Thorpe, John McGraw en Christy Mathewson, en uit die uitvoerende kunste, opvallende digters soos Walt Whitman en sanger Marian Anderson, asook die meeste van die “Big Bands & #8221 van die 1930 ’s, 40 ’s en 50 ’s. Na 150 jaar diens aan die gemeenskap, het die hotel in 1993 weer sy deure gesluit.

In Oktober 1995 is die Lewisburg -hotel deur Norm en Nancy Buck gekoop. Na uitgebreide opknappings is die hotel in November 1997 heropen. Die hotel is die enigste in Lewisburg wat die verwoesting van tyd en vooruitgang weerstaan ​​het. Die sagte vloerbedekking, gepoleerde koper en kenmerkende hout weerspieël die tydperk waarin 'n onstuimige rivierdorp in Victoriaanse elegansie omskep is.

Die huidige fasiliteit kombineer nou 'n fassinerende geskiedenis met die huidige geriewe en diens.

Onlangse noemenswaardige besoekers aan die hotel sluit in Ralph Nader, Kevin Bacon, Kevin Costner, Janet Leigh, senator Santorum, goewerneur Rendell, Tony Hawk, Ed Ott en Steve Kline.

Met ons ervare, toegewyde personeel en ons kulinêre uitdrukkings van die sjef, vind u dat u eetervaring hier in die Lewisburg -hotel onvergeetlik sal wees.


HistoryLink.org

Die Tulalip Tribes is 'n federale erkende Indiese stam wat aan die Tulalip -reservaat noord van Everett en wes van Marysville geleë is. Reservasiegrense wat deur die Point Elliott-verdrag van 1855 gestel is, het 'n permanente tuiste gebied vir die Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Skykomish, Stillaguamish en verwante stamme "Dxwlilep", die Coast Salish-woord, beteken baai met klein bekke. In 1857 het die Rooms-Katolieke sendeling Eugene Casimir Chirouse (1821-1892) die St. Anne's Mission en seunsskool op Tulalip gestig, en die Sisters of Providence het in 1868 'n meisieskool bygevoeg. 'N Indiese koshuis wat deur die regering bestuur word, het vanaf 1900 tot sy sluiting in 1932. Sedert 1936 het die Tulalip -stamme sy eie stamraad gehad en is tans selfregerend. Die Tulalips het die afgelope paar jaar die meeste baat gevind by hul sukses in vaste eiendom en die casino -onderneming, wat hoofsaaklik werk vir stamlede bied. Vandag het die Tulalip -reservaat 'n bevolking van 9 000 (3600 stamlede) en 'n grondbasis van 22,086 hektaar.

Vroeë dorpswebwerwe

Vroeë ontdekkingsreisigers en stamouderlinge het verslag gedoen van Indiese dorpe in die Puget Sound -streek. Dit was langs die riviere en baaie geleë, die verbindingsweë vir voedsel, kultuur en handel. Die Snohomish en verwante stamme het hoofsaaklik grond bewoon naby die Tulalip -reservaat. In die middel van die 1800's-voor die Point Elliott-verdrag-was die grootste en belangrikste Snohomish-dorpie Hibulb of Hebolb (hee-BOH-luhb) aan die noordwestelike punt van die huidige Everett, aan Port Gardnerbaai naby die mond van die Snohomishrivier. Hier was 'n beskermende palissade omring vier lang sederhoutplanke, elk 100 voet x 40 voet groot, en 'n groot potlatch-huis.

Ander Snohomish -dorpe was so ver noord as wat nou Warm Beach is, wes tot by Camano -eiland, Hat -eiland en Whidbey -eiland, en die binneland in langs rivierroetes. Dorpe bevat 'n naamlose terrein suid van die monding van die Stillagumishrivier by Warm Beach twTOE-kookplaat naby Warm Beach k'WHABS aan die kuslyn noordwes van Tulalipbaai by SPEE-bee-dah WHESH-ud op Camano Head TSEHT-skluhs by Sandy Point , Whidbey Island naby die huidige Langley D'GWAD'wk, oostekant van Cultusbaai op Whidbey Island tsuht-TSAHL-ee aan die noordwestelike einde van Hat Island tw'LAY-lup by Tulalip Bay ts'LAHKS by Priest Point kwul- KWUL-oo tussen Priest Point en Quilceda Creek, en kwil-SEE-duh by die monding van Quilceda Creek.

Rivierlokasies was by sbah-DAHLH, waar Snohomish vandag 'n naamlose plek noord van sbah-DAHL tb'TSAH by Machias is, 'n naamlose plek by die huidige Cathcart TAH'kw-tuh-tsid, suidwes van Monroe en suh-TUH-kahd, stroomaf van TAH'kw-tuh-tsid.

Daar word gesê dat 'n dorp op Camano -eiland bestaan ​​het voor die groot glybaan van 1825, toe 'n groot stuk van die suidpunt van Camano in Possession Sound gly. 'N Gevolglike vloedgolf van die glybaan het baie op die nabygeleë Hat Island verdrink. Daarna het Indiërs die webwerf slegs gebruik vir seisoenale klampe.

Na berig word, was D'GWAD'wk 'n groot dorp in die vroeë 1800's. Hierdie perseel van Whidbey Island in Cultusbaai het 'n potlatch -huis en vyf langhuise. Baie van die huidige Tulalip -stamlede het gesinne gehad wat eens op Whidbey Island gewoon het.

Verdraagsbeloftes vertraag

Alhoewel die Point Elliott -verdrag van 1855 die Tulalip Agency en sy voorbehoude by Tulalip, Lummi, Swinomish en Port Madison gevestig het, was daar nog jare beloftes van die regering. Die onderhoof van Snohomish, Bonaparte, het frustrasie uitgespreek oor die traagheid van staatshulp. Op 22,000 hektaar was Tulalip die grootste reservaat en het dit gedien as die plaaslike sentrum van die Indiese Agentskap met 'n beloofde landbou- en industriële Indiese skool.

Terwyl die regering vertraag het, verhuis die meeste Snohomish -inboorlinge na Tulalip, waar 'n paar inboorlinge reeds gewoon het. Die verdrag is uiteindelik in 1859 bekragtig, maar die stamme moes nog twee jaar wag vir enige steun van die regering weens verwarring oor beleid en korrupsie binne die Buro vir Indiese Sake (BIA).

Die nedersetting van die Tulalipbaai

Vroeë intrekkers John Gould (1823-1900), Jehial Hall, Charles C. Phillips (1824-1867), Hudson's Bay trapper Peter Goutre (1804-1875) en pionier in Seattle, dr. Wesley Cherry (? -1854) het 'n klein water gebou -aangedrewe saagmeule by Tulalipbaai in 1853. Twee jaar later het Tulalip Reservation grense hierdie meulperseel ingesluit en die federale regering het huurders gevra om te verhuis. Tulalip Tribes het die saagmeule begin bedryf.

Die eerste sendelinge wat hulle in die Snohomishriviergebied gevestig het, was vader Eugene Casimir Chirouse (1821-1892), Oblates of Mary Immaculate, (OMI), bygestaan ​​deur vader Darieu (OMI). Chirouse is eers in die Cayuse -gebied aangestel, maar is na 'n Indiese opstand na Olympia oorgeplaas. Chirouse is daarna gestuur om 'n sending by Tulalip te stig.

Hy en vader Darieu het in 1857 aangekom en 'n sending- en seunskool by Quil Ceda, by die monding van Ebey Slough, geopen. St. Anne's Mission en skool is verskuif na Priest Point (vernoem na Chirouse) en daarna na die laaste plek in Tulalipbaai, waar gemeentelede 'n houthuis en skool gebou het. Tydens die pokke -epidemie van 1862 het Chirouse berig dat hy 400 Indiërs by Tulalip ingeënt het. Slegs drie sterf, 'n klein aantal in vergelyking met die talle sterftes in die nabygeleë Indiese dorpe.

In 1868 het Sisters of Providence by Chirouse by St. Anne's aangesluit en 'n skool vir meisies geopen, Providence of Our Lady of Seven Dolors. 'N Jaar later het die regering geld bewillig om die skool te ondersteun, wat St.Anne's Mission die eerste Indiese skool van die Verenigde State gemaak het. In 1902 het die Sending tot op die grond afgebrand. Twee jaar later het 'n nuwe St.Anne's Mission -kerk (tans op die National Register of Historic Places) op dieselfde plek, op 23 Januarie 1905, sy plek ingeneem.

Stamlede herinner vader Chirouse as 'n sagte en bestendige teenwoordigheid. Hy het die Lushootseed -dialek wat by Tulalip gepraat is, geleer en het dikwels as arbiter en vertaler gedien.

Indiese koshuis

Teen die vroeë 1900's het die Buro vir Indiese Sake probeer om kerkverband met skole op Indiese voorbehoude te skei. In 1901 begin die regering die skool in Tulalip, met die bou van 'n nuwe struktuur wat ook dien as die hoofkwartier van die Indiese Agentskap. Die skool was bedoel om duisend studente te huisves, wat alle Indiërs wes van die Cascades bedien. In werklikheid kon dit slegs 75 huisves. Daar was afsonderlike slaapsale vir seuns en meisies. Terwyl meisies kook, naaldwerk en huishouding geleer het, het seuns 'n beroep gekry. Sommige klasse is volgens die Montessori -metode aangebied.

In 'n poging om die inheemse kultuur te onderdruk, het die regering die skool in militêre styl bedryf en die ervaring vir Tulalips was wreed. Studente is daagliks onder optogte onderwerp en is gestraf omdat hulle hul moedertaal gepraat en inheemse gebruike beoefen het. Vandag bied die Tulalip Tribes groepsessies aan oudstudente wat as seniors steeds die letsels wat hulle tydens hul koshuise ontvang het, die hoof bied.

Die skool het amptelik in 1932 gesluit, sy hoofgeboue is geskeur, en studente het opgeneem in die Marysville -skoolstelsel. Tulalip Elementary, geleë op die Tulalip -reservaat, is deel van Marysville -skole en studente hou 'n webwerf oor Tulalip -Indiese tradisies, taal en verhale.

Tulalip's Shaker Church

Tulalips het ook 'n Indian Shaker -kerk gehad. Ongeag die meer bekende Protestantse sekte met dieselfde naam, was dit 'n messiaanse, genesende godsdiens wat in 1881 in die Stille Oseaan gestig is. Die volgelinge, wat 'n mengsel van katolisisme, protestantisme en inheemse rituele was, het jare van vervolging beleef voordat hulle hul oortuigings openlik kon uitoefen. Tulalip's Shaker Church is in 1924 gebou en deur die jare het lede die armes gevoed en geklee en die dienste vir almal oop gehou. Die oorspronklike kerkstruktuur, wat in die sewentigerjare op die nasionale register geplaas is, het tot 2008 bestaan ​​toe lidmate besluit het dat dit te verswak is om te gebruik.

Die Tulalip -stamme beskou hierdie kerk as deel van hul erfenis en het in daardie gees geld gegee om 'n nuwe kerk en banketsaal te bou wat in die oorspronklike styl ontwerp is. Kerklede het die ou gebou tydens 'n seremonie verbrand en die as daarvan gered. Vierhonderd mense - baie van hulle was Indiërs van die hele streek - het die kerkopening op 'n reëndag op 7 November 2008 bygewoon.

Seder en salm

Die woude wat wit setlaars na die Stille Oseaan -noordwes gelok het weens hul ekonomiese potensiaal, het 'n groot kulturele betekenis vir plaaslike inheemse stamme. Thuja plicata, die Western Red Cedar, was van groot belang, spaarsamig gebruik vir huise, kano's, klere en kuns. En duisende jare lank het hierdie inboorlinge 'n hoogs ontwikkelde visvangkultuur gehad. Hulle kuns en verhale fokus rondom bos en water en die wesens wat die plekke bewoon het.

Riviere en baaie het volop voedsel gegee en dit verbind met handelsgeleenthede so ver noord as die Fraserrivier. Vis het vyf soorte salm (lente, boggelrug, silwer, hond en sockeye) sowel as staalkop, flunder, forel, rots en kabeljou ingesluit. Die kuslyn bied mossels, oesters en krappe aan. Binnelandse Indiërs het op hert en elande gejag en baie bessies, varings en wortels versamel. Cattails was veral belangrik vir die weef van matte wat die somerhuise bedek het.

Terwyl 'n groot deel van die spraakgebruik verlore geraak het in die vertaling op verdragsdag 1855, was die Indiër een ding dat hulle kon hengel, jag en handel dryf op hul tradisionele plekke. Tog sou hierdie verdragsbeloftes dekades lank betwis word. In 1915 is 'n Tulalip -Indiër tronk toe gestuur vir jag op twyfelagtige reservaatgrond. Die Indiese agent van Tulalip, Charles Buchanan, het aan die Washington State -wetgewer geskryf en hulle daaraan herinner aan stamregte.

Visvang en visvangregte

Die toenemende ontwikkeling met houtkap, bagger, damme, rioolstelsels en nywerheids- en residensiële geboue het die vis en die natuurlewe vernietig. Inkomende koloniste in kommersiële visvang sou ook geld verdien, en sowel Skandinawiese as Kroaties immigrante na Puget Sound het goeie geleenthede gevind deur hul eie visvangtradisies te gebruik. In 1930 is visladers op staatsdamme geïnstalleer om vis in die damme te laat vaar.

Verskeie toetssake het die staat se Indiese visregte behandel, spesifiek 'n uitspraak van die Hooggeregshof van 1968, Puyallup Tribes v. Washington Department of Game, wat die staat in staat stel om Indiese visvang vir bewaringsdoeleindes te reguleer, 'n uitspraak van die Amerikaanse Hooggeregshof van 1973 wat Indiërs die reg gee om staalkop te hengel, en die beroemde 1974 VS teen die staat Washington uitspraak-die Boldt-besluit-wat die Washington Indian Tribal-regte bekragtig het om mede-bestuur van visbronne en 50 % van die geoesde vis aan stamlede toewys.

Visvang bied goeie seisoenale geld vir die Tulalips tot in die middel van die sewentigerjare toe die vispopulasies ernstig afneem en die stamme meeding met groot kommersiële visvangbedrywighede. Bernie Kai-Kai Gobin, 'n stamlid van Tulalip, het op die reservaat 'n klein visbroeiery in die agterplaas opgerig, wat die Tulalips een van die eerste Indiese stamme was wat 'n broeiery besit en bedryf het. Die Bernie Kai-Kai Gobin-visbroeiery is nou 'n groot en beduidende onderneming wat deur die stam bestuur word en stel drie spesies salm vry in die visserye in die terminale gebied op en naby die Tulalip-reservaat, asook aan ander kommersiële en sportvisserye in Washington en British Columbia.

Vandag strek die aangewese "gewone en gewoond" vissersgebied van die Tulalip -stamme van die Kanadese grens 120 myl suid tot by die noordelike punt van Vashon -eiland. Die departement van natuurlike hulpbronne van Tulalips hou toesig oor 'n aggressiewe visvangbestuursprogram. Sy visie op lang termyn is om die produksie van wilde salm te herstel tot vlakke wat seremoniële, bestaans- en kommersiële visvang sal ondersteun sonder om wilde salm te oes. Die Tulalip -stamme werk om die hulpbronne waarop hul mense al duisende jare lank staatmaak, te beskerm en te bestendig.

Tulalip Taal en kultuur

Die skade wat deur die siekte en ontwikkeling aan die inheemse kultuur van die streek aangerig word, kan nie oorbeklemtoon word nie. Miskien het die stamme waaruit Tulalip -stamme bestaan, eens 'n hoë dekoratiewe kuns gehad, maar as hulle dit wel gedoen het, het hierdie werk nie oorleef nie. Wat oorleef het, is voorbeelde van hul toegepaste kunste, soos gereedskap, mandjies, klere en kano's, en mondelinge tradisie.

Tulalip -stamme werk daaraan om stamverhale en gebruike te versamel en te bewaar. 'N Groot kultuurdraer was William Shelton (1868-1938). Gedeeltelik Snohomish en gedeeltelik Skay-whah-mish, Puyallup en Wenatchee, is Shelton grootgemaak in die Tulalip-reservaat deur ouers wat hom stamverhale en taal geleer het. Hy het homself op die ouderdom van 17 by die Indian Boarding School ingeskryf om 'wit mense se opvoeding' te leer (Everett Daily Herald, 2 Januarie 1914). Hy het daar aangegaan tot die ouderdom van 21 jaar en het die respek gekry van regeringsagente by Tulalip, wat hom 'n saaier in die Tulalip Mill gemaak het. Daar het hy timmer en vaardighede aangeleer.

William Shelton het 'n onderhoud met stamouderlinge gevoer en hul verhale versamel. Hy het 'n storiepaal gesny, elke figuur verteenwoordig 'n verhaal wat deur informante vertel is. Shelton het verskeie pale gebou, een in die 1920's in Everett. Hy het sy lewe lank probeer om die twee kulture wat hy liefgehad het, te oorbrug, en hy was 'n belangrike figuur in die behoud van die Tulalip -stamkultuur. Shelton se dogter Harriette Shelton Dover Williams (? -1991) het haar pa se werk voortgesit en was belangrik in die herlewing van die stamme se eerste salmseremonie in 1979, wat weereens 'n jaarlikse viering is. Geleerde Lawrence Rygg het 'n onderhoud met Harriette in die sewentigerjare gevoer en sy manuskrip dra haar verhaal. Maar Harriette het haar eie weergawe geskryf wat die University of Washington Press tans (2008) oorweeg vir publikasie.

Deur die jare is onderhoude gevoer met lede van die Tulalip -stamme deur navorsers en geleerdes wie se werk kulturele bewaring bevorder het. Maar die voortgesette daaglikse bydraes kom van stamlede soos Lita Sheldon, direkteur van kommunikasie en Sien-Yaht-Sub koerantredakteur en historikus Sherrill Williams Guydelkon (1946-2008) wat die lewensverhale van baie stamouderlinge versamel en gedeel het. Toby Langdon en die departement kultuurhulpbronne van Tulalip Tribes (Hank Gobin, direkteur) het aansienlik bygedra tot die behoud van die Lushootseed -dialek wat nou in die klasse en op YouTube.

Storievertellers Vi Hilbert en Johnny Moses het familiewortels by stamme by Tulalip en deel hul kulturele verhale. Die Tulalip -stamme het saam met ander Indiërs in die streek saam met hulle die Washington State Centennial in 1989 saam gevier Paddle na Seattle, die eerste gedeelde kanovaart. Dit is nou 'n jaarlikse geleentheid vir Tulalip se kanofamilie wat die kano's bou en herstel, en dan die reis oplei en voltooi. Die viering eindig met 'n groot potlatch.

Die rykdom van Tulalip Casino het 'n museum moontlik gemaak. Tans bou die stamme 'n Hibulb Cultural Center van $ 19 miljoen, wat na verwagting in April 2009 geopen sal word. Met 'n opvangfasiliteit van 10.000 vierkante meter, sal die museum die tuiste wees van familie erfstukke, insluitend mandjies, tekstiele en foto's. Die sentrum is geleë op 'n terrein van 52 hektaar, wat ook 'n natuurgeskiedenis is wat bewaring bied vir riviermondings met sederhout en ander bosbome, sowel as 'n boord en 'n salmdraende stroom.

In 2007 het die departement van kultuur en natuurlike hulpbronne van die stamme aangekondig dat hulle poog om kopieregstatus vir sy stamverhale te verkry.

Stam onafhanklikheid

Die Point Elliott -verdrag het die Tulalip -reservaat tot stand gebring as 'n konfederasie van verwante stamme. Deur dit te doen, is die Tulalip -stamme erken as die soewereine entiteit, nie die individuele stamme wat dit saamstel nie. Die stamme was in die beginjare gestruktureer en het min beheer oor hul lewens gehad.

Die Tulalip -reservaat het gedien as die plaaslike regeringsagentskap onder verskillende Indiese agente. Dr. Charles Milton Buchanan (? -1920) was van 1900 tot sy dood in 1920 as superintendent en gevolg deur August F. Duclos, Walter F. Dickens, Fred A. Gross, Oscar C. Upchurch en Raymond T. Bitney.

Die Indian Reorganization Act van 1934 het stamme toegelaat om hul eie beheerrade op die been te bring. Tulalip Tribes het 'n grondwet en statute geskryf, 2 Januarie 1936 goedgekeur en op 3 Oktober bekragtig. Die Tulalip Raad van Direkteure bestaan ​​uit sewe lede.

Vroeg in Oktober 1950 is die kantoor van die Tulalip Indian Agency na Everett verskuif, eers in 3rd Street en Rockefellerlaan opgerig en later na die Federal Building in Colby Avenue. Die Tulalip -stamraad werk tans op die bespreking.

Eiendom en Boom City

Privaat grondbesit - 'n konsep wat eens vreemd was aan die Indiese denke - het deur die stamme begin omhels as 'n manier om hul eie lot te beheer. Die Tulalips Tribes het die eiendom sowel as die verkoop van vuurwerke aangedurf. Stamlede het die dollarpotensiaal in albei aktiwiteite gesien, aangesien eiendom aan die water skaars was en groot vuurwerke in die staat Washington verbied is, behalwe op Indiese voorbehoude.

Inboorlinge het die gevolge van die Dawes Severalty Act van 1887 gely, 'n vroeë poging van die regering om Indiërs tot boere te maak. Ingevolge die Dawes -wet kon stamlede grondtoewysings ontvang - 160 hektaar vir boerdery, 80 om beeste groot te maak en 40 vir normale lewende gebruik. Tulalip het al hul reservaatgrond toegeken, maar deur die jare is baie hektaar aan nie-stamlede verkoop.

Reeds in 1929 het die Tulalips belang gestel in die oordbedryf en in die beveiliging van tydelike eiendom. Die Indian Reorganization Act van 1934 het stamme in staat gestel om koöperasies te vorm en Tulalips het in 1939 begin om grond op Tulalipbaai te huur.

'N Nuwe rigting kom in 1954 onder stamleier Sebastian Williams, wat 'n Tulalip -sakekonsortium, Tulalip Tribes, Inc., 'n aparte afdeling in die Tulalip Tribes, saamgestel het wat lotte vir somerhuise begin huur het. Die departement het die Mission Beach Resort verkry met sy vissersbote, kafee en winkel wat in 1929 deur Joseph Coy en Hubert Coy begin is, destyds die enigste oord aan die Stille Oseaan wat besit en bedryf is deur reserwe -Indiane.

Somerkothuise en permanente huise het in die komende dekades vermeerder met die bespreking. Nie-stamme kon hul eie huise besit, maar het grond gehuur by die Tulalip-stamme of by individuele stamgesinne wat toewysings geneem het. Huurgeld is gebruik vir die verbetering van besprekingseiendom, programme vir welsynshulp, beurse, begrafnisbeurse en lenings aan stamlede. Alhoewel huurkontrak die Tulalips die nodige inkomste gegee het, het 'n swak saketransaksie vanuit die perspektief van die stamme in 1982 gekom toe hulle huurkontrakte van 30 jaar teen 1980-pryse uitgereik het, met 'n vervaldatum van 2012.

Tulalip's Boom City bevoordeel regstreeks individue en gesinne. Die onderneming het meer as 30 jaar gelede begin met slegs 12 hutte, en het gegroei tot meer as 150 hutte. Boom City bied aansienlike inkomste vir stamlede. Hierdie kontant was veral belangrik in die tagtigerjare toe die stammers se winterwerkloosheidsyfer in die visvangseisoen 50 persent en 25 persent bereik het. Boom City, wat oorspronklik naby Tulalipbaai geleë was, vestig hom nou agter Quil Ceda Village. Weg van huise en nader aan Interstate 5, verminder hierdie ligging elke Julie verkeersopeenhopings en word dit as veiliger beskou vir inwoners van besprekings.

'N Winkelsentrum, 'n hotel en casino's

Tulalips het beskeie die spelbedryf gewaag toe hulle op 13 Junie 1983 'n Bingo -salon oopgemaak het, maar hul ekonomiese lot het verander toe 'n federale wet in 1988 aangeneem is wat dieselfde tipe dobbel op besprekings moontlik maak as wat elders in die staat toegelaat is. Tulalip -leiers het dadelik begin met die planne vir 'n casino om werk te skep teen 'n goeie loon vir stamlede.

Tulalip se eerste casino het op 20 Julie 1992 geopen, met 23 dobbelstasies vir blackjack, craps, roulette en poker. Die Tulalips was die tweede stam in die staat Washington wat 'n casino geopen het. Die Lummis het hulle s'n slegs 'n paar maande tevore oopgemaak.

Dit lyk asof tulpe vinnig 'n welvarende stam geword het, maar planne is lankal aan die word. 'N Goeie sakebasis is in die veertiger- en vyftigerjare gevestig met die stigting van Tulalip Tribes, Inc., die stamafdeling wat uitsluitlik toegewy is aan sake -ontwikkeling. Selfs toe is die eiendom van die stamme op die noordoostelike hoek van die reservaat, grens aan die snelweg 5, gekies as 'n ideale plek vir ontwikkeling.

Vandag bedryf die stamme twee casino's, 'n bingo-salon en 'n hotel met 12 verdiepings, Tulalip Resort Casino, op hierdie webwerf. Die voorportaal en mure van die nuwe hotel is versier met Tulalip Tribal -kuns, insluitend huispale deur kunstenaars James Madison en Joe Gobin. Quil Ceda Village, 'n opelug winkelsentrum wat in 2001 begin is met meer as 500 000 vierkante meter kleinhandelruimte, huisves 'n groot Wal-Mart-winkel, 'n Home Depot, Seattle Premium Outlets en vele ander besighede. Daar is ruimte om uit te brei, aangesien Quil Ceda Village tans slegs 500 van sy potensiaal van 2 000 hektaar gebruik.

Die Washington State -verteenwoordiger John McCoy (geb. 1943) keer terug na sy geboorteland, Tulalip, nadat hy in Washington DC gewerk het en het saam met Tulalip Tribes, Inc., begin om Quil Ceda Village te skep. Die Tulalip -stamme is in 2003 vereer deur die Harvard -projek oor Amerikaanse Indiese ekonomiese ontwikkeling, deel van die John F. Kennedy School of Government, vir hul sakemodel. Tulalip Tribes, Inc. het ook status ontvang vir Quil Ceda Village as 'n stamstad, 'n nasionale eerste.

Met die oog op die toekoms, kan Tulalip Tribes nog 'n prestasie by hul lys voeg. Die stambesigheidskompleks was 'n ekonomiese meevaller vir die naburige stad Marysville, oos van die reservaat, aan die oostekant van Interstate 5. Marysville en Tulalip het die Greater Marysville Tulalip Chamber of Commerce geskep, tans die enigste kamer in die Verenigde State gestig as 'n gesamentlike onderneming tussen 'n stad en 'n soewereine nasie.

Die inkomste van Tulalip Tribal is geraam op meer as $ 200 miljoen in 2005. Die stamme het hul nuwe rykdom gebruik om hul sakeondernemings uit te brei, opvoedkundige programme te ontwikkel en om beter mediese en tandheelkundige dienste en 'n kultuursentrum te bied. Hulle koop ook 4000 hektaar reservaatgrond terug wat die afgelope jaar verkoop is. Die Tulalip-stamme besit tans meer as die helfte van hul reservaat van 22 086 hektaar.

Boonop het hulle 'n liefdadigheidsprogram opgestel, wat help om nie-winsgewende organisasies in die provinsie te ondersteun.

Die staat Washington
Washington Departement van Argeologie en Historiese Bewaring

Kaarwol, Tulalip -reservaat, 1898

Foto deur Edward Curtis, met vergunning van UW Special Collections (NA1539)

Vader Chirouse poseer saam met studente aan die Tulalip Indian School, Tulalip, 1865

Foto deur W. F. Robertson, met vergunning van UW Special Collections (Neg No. NA1498)

Sus-chol-cho-lit-so (Magdeline) Whea-kadim (gebore te Hibulb), moeder van hoofman William Shelton, 1906

Foto deur Norman Edson, met vergunning van UW Special Collections (NA632)

Indiane met kano, Tulalip, 1907

Foto deur Norman Edson, met vergunning van UW Special Collections (neg. #NA729)

Indian School and bandstand, Tulalip, 1910

Foto deur Ferdinand Brady, Courtesy UW Special Collections, (NA1464)

Tulalip -saagmeule, Tulalip -reservaat, 1912

Foto deur Ferdinand Brady, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Verdragsdag, Tulalip Indian Reservation, 1914

Foto deur J. A. Juleen, Courtesy Everett Public Library (Neg. JTreatyDay-9)

Nuwe Tulalip -langhuis, Tulalip, 22 Januarie 1914

Foto deur J. A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Binne -in die nuwe langhuis, Tulalip, 22 Januarie 1914

Foto deur J. A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Indian Boarding School, Tulalip, ca. 1914

Foto deur John A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Beenwild in sessie, Tulalip, 22 Januarie 1914

Foto deur J. A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

William Shelton (1869-1938), 1913

Foto deur J. A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

William Shelton spookpaal, Tulalip, 1920's

Foto deur John A. Juleen, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Tulalip -hoof William Shelton praat met die skare tydens toewyding van Point Elliott -verdrag, Mukilteo, 2 Mei 1931

Met vergunning van Everett Public Library

Die oorspronklike Tulalip Indian Shaker Church, Tulalip Reservation, 1970's

Foto deur David Dilgard, met vergunning van Everett Public Library

St. Anne's Catholic Mission, Tulalip, 19 Oktober 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Waterval by Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 2 November 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Binne, Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 2 November 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 2 November 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Bernie Kai-Kai Gobin Visbroodjie, Tulalip

Marina, Tulalip -bespreking, 8 Oktober 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Mission Beach Begraafplaas en Tulalipbaai, 8 Oktober 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 8 Oktober 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Huispaal deur James Madison, hotel se voorportaal, Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 8 Oktober 2008

HistoryLink.org Foto deur Margaret Riddle

Huispaal deur Joe Gobin, hotel se voorportaal, Tulalip Resort Casino, Tulalip Reservation, 8 Oktober 2008


Chiefs van Clan Buchanan

Die eerste ses stamhoofde word swak verteenwoordig in historiese rekords en word deur sommige stamhistorici ingesluit en deur ander weggelaat. Buchanan van Auchmar en Guthrie Smith begin hul onderskeie nommering van Chiefs by 'n ander persoon, en beskryf 'n ander volgorde en aantal Chiefs na Sir Walter 11th van Buchanan. Dit is deels te wyte aan die erfgenaam wat nie die hoofskap sou slaag voordat hy sterf nie en dat die hoofskap direk van oupa na kleinkind oorgaan. Die volgende afstammelinge versoen Guthrie Smith en Buchanan van Auchmar en hul onderskeie nommering is tussen hakies.

Die twee belangrikste Clan -historici, Buchanan van Auchmar [23] wat in 1723 geskryf het, gebruik die term 𠆋lad van Buchanan ’, terwyl Guthrie Smith [24] wat in 1896 skryf, die term ‘laird of Buchanan ’ gebruik om die hoofmanne te beskryf tot en met sir Maurice die 10de van Buchanan en dan 𠆋uchanan van daardie Ilk ’ tot en met sir George die 15de van Buchanan en daarna Buchanan van Buchanan. Wikipedia


Geskiedenis van The Cameron Tartan

Daar word gesê dat clan Cameron een van die oudste van die Skotse stamme is en word beskryf as heftiger as heftigheid self. Hulle eis afkoms van die koning van Denemarke Fergus II tydens sy herstel in 778.

Die naam kom van die Gaelic Camshron van cam (wry) en sron (neus). In die vyftiende eeu trou Donald Dubh in die familie van Cambrun van Ballegarno in Fife. Dit het 'n konfederasie van stamme bymekaar gebring wat bekend geword het as Clan Cameron. Dit is verder bevestig deur James V wat die handves van die baronie Lochiel in Lochaber op die kaptein van Clan Cameron vereffen het. Die Achnacarry -kasteel is in die sewentiende eeu (1655) gebou en word die tuiste van die Camerons. In die rebellie van 1745 kry Donald die 19de van Lochiel die naam The Gentle Lochiel terwyl hy groot dapperheid toon. Hy word toegeskryf aan die redding van Glasgow uit die verwoesting van die Jakobitiese leër. Die heropbou van die Achnacarry -kasteel het die landgoedere van Lochiel vertikaal bankrot gespeel, met baie van die huurders en gesinne wat uitgewis is. Clan Cameron is 'n stam, met een hooftak Lochiel, en talle kadettakke soos Erracht, Clunes, Glen Nevis en Fassifern.


Edwin M. Stanton: Vroeë lewe en politieke loopbaan

Edwin McMasters Stanton is gebore in Steubenville, Ohio, op 19 Desember 1814. Nadat sy pa in 1827 oorlede is, het Stanton in 'n boekwinkel gewerk om sy weduwee -moeder te ondersteun. Hy het die Kenyon College in 1831 bygewoon, maar het die volgende jaar vertrek weens die verslegtende finansiële situasie van sy gesin. In 1835 Stanton passed the Ohio state bar and began practicing as a lawyer. A year later he settled in Cadiz, Ohio, and married Mary A. Lamson, with whom he had two children.

Het jy geweet? In 1871, former Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton became only the second non-president after Benjamin Franklin to appear on a U.S. postage stamp.

Over the next 10 years, Stanton built a robust law practice in Ohio. He also became active in politics and regularly served as a delegate to the Ohio Democratic convention. In 1844 Stanton’s first wife died in childbirth. He later remarried Ellen Hutchinson, a young woman from a prominent Pennsylvania family, and had four more children.

Stanton next moved his law practice to Pittsburg before settling in Washington, D.C., in 1856. While in Washington, Stanton was involved in several high-profile legal cases, including the murder trial of future Union General Daniel Sickles, in which he made one of the earliest successful uses of the insanity defense.

In December 1860 Stanton was appointed attorney general in the cabinet of James Buchanan, who was set to leave office in early 1861. During his short tenure Stanton helped convince Buchanan that the secession of the Southern states was unconstitutional, a move that effectively prevented the Confederacy from peaceably separating from the Union.


Cameron Buchanan - History

Clan/Family Histories
- Index Page

Here are histories of a large number of clans and families who have been significant in the making of Scotland. These histories contain links to other sources of useful information including clan/family Web sites.

A number of reference books have been used to provide the factual information including "The Surnames of Scotland" by George F Black, "Scottish Surnames" by David Dorward, "Clans and Tartans" by George Way of Plean, "Scottish Surnames and Families" by Donald Whyte, "Scottish Clans and Tartans" by Neil Grant and "Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia" by George Wray of Plean and Romilly Squire.

Agnew
Andrew Agnew was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Wigtown in 1451 and his descendants hold that office to this day.

Anderson/McAndrew
"Son of Andrew" originally signified a devotee of the patron saint of Scotland.

Armstrong
The head of this powerful Border family was killed by King James V.

Baxter
Baxter was (and is) a common name in Angus as Forfar was at one time a royal residence and the first Baxters there may well have been royal bakers.

Borthwick
The family is thought to be one of the most ancient in Scotland.

Boyd
Sir Robert Boyd's success as a commander at the Battle of Bannockburn led to him being granted lands in Ayrshire.

Boyle
The Earl of Glasgow, head of the family, is said to have bribed poor Jacobites to support the Union of the Scottish and English Parliaments in 1707.

Brodie
The name may be derived from a Pictish royal family named "Brude".

Brown/Broun
Second most common name in Scotland and also found frequently in England and the USA.

Bruce
Robert the Bruce wrote this surname in large letters into the history of Scotland.

Buchanan
Rewarded with land on the east side of Loch Lomond by King Malcolm II, for service in fighting Nordic invaders.

Brandwonde
The family of Scotland's greatest poet.

Cameron
Often described as "fiercer than fierceness itself".

Campbell
Staunch supporters of the government both in the early years and later when they opposed the Jacobite uprisings.

Carruthers
Hereditary stewards of Annandale in Dumfriesshire.

Chisholm
Over the centuries, there were major Chisholm families in the Borders, Inverness-shire and Perthshire.

Clark/Clerk/Clarkson
Clark was never a Highland clan but it is frequently found among the Clan Chattan confederacy and appears to have been a sept of the MacPhersons.

Colquhoun
The surname Colquhoun comes from a location beside Loch Lomond.

Craig/Craigie
Sir Thomas Craig was a renowned writer on feudal law his work "Jus Feudale" published in 1655, is still used by Scottish lawyers.

Crawford
The youngest son of the 4th Earl of Richmond was granted lands in the Barony of Craufurd (from "crow ford") in the 12th century.

Cumming
Once one of the most powerful families in Scotland, Robert the Bruce set about destroying its power.

Cunningham
The 14th Earl was a patron of Robert Burns who named his fourth son James Glencairn Burns.

Davidson
The Davidsons are said to have formed a part of the Clan Chattan force which fought in the famous "Battle of the Clans" at Perth in 1396, staged in front of King Robert III.

Douglas
This powerful family's name came from the Gaelic "dubh glais" meaning "dark water."

Drummond
One of the most powerful families in Scotland. James Drummond, the 3rd Duke of Perth, commanded the Jacobite left flank at Culloden.

Duff/MacDuff
The Gaelic word "dubh" meaning "black" is the origin of the name Duff which thus goes back further than recorded history.

Dunbar
The Dunbars became so powerful that King James I imprisoned the Earl so that could take over the large Dunbar estates.

Duncan
There were two Kings of Scotland with that name in the 11th century.

Dundas
The driving force behind the repeal of the Proscription Act which banned the wearing of tartan and the carrying of weapons following the 1745 Uprising in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie.

Elliot/Eliott/Ellot
Strongly associated with the Scottish Borders and the reivers (raiders on horseback) of the area.

Farquharson
The clan settled in the Braes of Mar in the 16th century. The famous Braemar Gathering is held on the clan chief's estate.

Fergusson/Ferguson
"Son of Fergus," but there were clearly a number of different people with the name "Fergus".

Forbes
Feuds with the powerful Gordon clan and the Leslies, culminated in two battles and several massacres.

Forsyth
A family with a long and distinguished history that gave its name to the Forsythia plant.

Fraser
The name Fraser originated in Normandy, France.

Gordon
The family from North-East Scotland who became "Cock o' the North".

Graham/Graeme
Two of Scotland's great military commanders were Grahams.

Grant
The name of this Strathspey clan derives from a Norman Frenchman "Le Grand".

Gunn
The Gunns are descended from Vikings who came to Caithness in the 12th century.

Hamilton
The 14th Duke of Hamilton was the pilot of the first plane to fly over Mount Everest.

Hay
Sir Gilbert Hay was appointed Lord High Constable of Scotland by Robert the Bruce. The family still hold that title, giving them precedence in Scotland immediately after the royal family.

Henderson
"Son of Henry" is a name which is found in various forms all over Europe. In Scotland, it was originally "Henryson".

Hunter
The Laird of Hunterston keeps silver pennies from the reign of Robert II - just in case the monarch drops by looking for the rent!.

Irvine/Irving/Irwin
William de Irwin was a neighbour of the Bruce family in Annandale and became armour-bearer and then secretary to Robert the Bruce.

Jardine established at Applegirth on the River Annan in Dumfriesshire by the 14th century.

Johnston
One of the many families from the Scottish Borders who frequently raided the north of England over the centuries.

Keith
The Keiths were made Hereditary Great Marischal (in charge of the cavalry) by Robert the Bruce, a rank they held until 1715.

Kennedy
The Kennedys are particularly associated with Carrick in Ayrshire.

Kerr/Carr
There is a legend that the Kerrs were frequently left-handed.

Lamont
The name is of great antiquity in southern Argyll where the chiefs were known as "The Great MacLamont of all Cowal"

Leslie
Leslies took up the career of professional soldier, fighting in Germany, France, Sweden and the Baltic and took command of the Army of the Covenant.

Lindsay
The Lindsays spread all across Scotland, and at at the end of the Middle ages there were over 100 Lindsay families holding land in Scotland.

Logan/Logie/Loggie
Two knights named Logan accompanied Sir James Douglas on his journey to take Robert the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. They died with Douglas fighting the Moors in Spain in 1329.

MacAlister
Promoted the colonisation of Scottish territories in Nova Scotia in Canada.

MacArthur
Descent from the legendary King Arhur cannot be proved.

MacBean/MacBain
The name has its origins in the Gaelic word meaning "life".

MacCallum
Followers of Columba were "maol Chaluim" which gradually became the name MacCallum (and Malcolm).

MacDonald
MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, was once a thorn in the side of Scottish kings.

MacDougall
The first Dougall was descended from Somerled, Lord of the Isles, at a time when the Western Isles were part of Norway.

MacDowall
Macdougalls in Galloway changed the spelling to Macdowall to differentiate themselves from the same surname in the Western Isles when signing the "Ragman Rolls" of King Edward I.

MacDuff/Duff
The Gaelic word "dubh" meaning "black" is the origin of the name Duff which thus goes back further than recorded history.

MacFarlane
The 20th clan chief said to General Wade - "Mr MacFarlane may be said with equal propriety to many but I and only I, am MacFarlane".

McGowan
McGowan is the Gaelic-derived equivalent of "Smith".

MacGregor
King James VI and the Privy Council issued an edict in 1603 banning the use of the name MacGregor.

MacIntyre
The clan chief emigrated to America.

Mackay
Initially established in Strathnaver in Caithness.

Mackenzie
"Son of Kenneth" in its Gaelic form of 'Coinneach'.

Mackinnon
The clan claim kinship with both King Kenneth mac Alpin and with St Columba.

Mackintosh/MacIntosh
Derived from the Gaelic "mac an tiosich" or "son of the leader or chief".

Maclachlan
Their name came from the Gaelic "loch-lann" meaning "fjord land" and was used as the Gaelic word for Norway.

MacLean
"Gillean of the Battleaxe" is said to be the founder of the clan.

MacLeod
From Lewis in the Outer Hebrides, Skye, Assynt and Strathpeffer.

McMillan
Descended from the Bishop of Dunkeld. His tonsured hair cut is rendered in Gaelic "Mhaoil-Iain".

MacNab
The progenitor of the clan is traditionally the abbot of Glendochart and Strathearn, a younger son of Kenneth Macalpin.

MacNeil/MacNeill
Said to be descended from "Niall of the Nine Hostages" a king of Tara in Ireland who ruled around 400.

Macpherson
The name Macpherson is from the Gaelic "Mac-a Phearsain" meaning "son of the parson" in the days when celibacy of the priesthood was not enforced.

MacRae
Hereditary constables of Eilean Donan Castle.

McTavish/MacThomas
Son of Thomas.

Malcolm
Followers of Columba were "maol Chaluim" which gradually became the name Malcolm (and MacCallum).

Marshall
Derived from the French word "mar chal" meaning "horse servant" the name was introduced into Britain following the Norman Conquest.

Maxwell
The name is derived from Maccus, son of Undewyn, a Saxon lord who was given a grant of land on the Tweed by King David I before 1150.

Melville
Originated from the barony of Malaville or Malleville in the Pays de Caux in Normandy.

Menzies
The correct pronunciation of this name - "mingis" - appears to be dying out.

Mitchell
Introduced to Scotland through the French "Michel" or Michael.

Moffat
Once a powerful Border family but nearly wiped out in the 16th century by the Johnstones.

Montgomery
Sir John Montgomery was a hero at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 when he captured Sir Henry Percy (also known as Hotspur) after a hand to hand battle.

Moore/Muir
The Scots word "muir" means a moor so the surname is found all over Scotland.

Morrison
There are a number of different origins of this Scottish name.

Munro
The Munros of Foulis have been living on the shores of Cromarty Firth for over 500 years.

Murray
A Fleming was given land by King David I in the area known as "Moray" in the 12th century.

Napier
John Napier (1550-1617) developed the system of logarithms.

Nicol/MacNicol
At least one of the branches of this name originated with the Vikings.

Ogilvy
Ogilvie was a province of the Picts in Angus, ruled by a mormaer, who became the first earls in the area.

Paterson
A name derived from "Son of the devotee of Patrick" ie St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

Ramsay
Major contributors to poetry and painting in th 18th century.

Robertson
There are claims that the Robertsons are the oldest documented clan in Scottish history.

Ross
There was an ancient Celtic earldom of Ross in the 12th century, in what is now the county of Ross and Cromarty.

Russel/Russell
This name is probably derived from "rous" meaning red and early bearers of the name no doubt had red hair.

Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford (later Lord Rutherford) won the Nobel Prize for chemistry and is also known as the "father of atomic power".

Scott
One of the most powerful of the Border families, the name was derived from the Scots who invaded Dalriada (Argyll) from Ireland.

Shaw
The Shaws and their Mackintosh allies supported Robert the Bruce against the Comyns (Cummings) and took part in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

Sinclair
Henry de St Clair was a notable seaman and probably reached North America a 100 years before Columbus.

Smith
Smith is the most common surname in Scotland (and in England and the USA).

Stevenson / Stephenson / Stephen A well known and frequently found surname in Scotland.

Stewart/Stuart
The most famous "occupational" name in Scotland and a line of kings and queens which lasted for nearly 350 years.

Sutherland
Derived from the Viking "Sudrland" or southern land, south of Caithness and north of Inverness.

Taylor
From the French word "tailler" which means "to cut" - a variant of the name is "Cissor" or "Scissor".

Thomson/Thomas
Thomson is the fourth most common surname in Scotland.

Urquhart
Originated from a place name "Airchart" on the northwest shore of Loch Ness (in the area in which Urquhart Castle is now located).

Wallace
William Wallace's "Braveheart" exploits put this clan on the map.

Watt/Watson
James Watt is best known for his development of the steam engine and the unit of power "watt" is named after him.

Wilson
The American President Woodrow Wilson was from Scottish and Irish roots.

Young
James Young extracted paraffin from coal and was nicknamed "Paraffin Young."


Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide : Master wireless testing techniques to survey and attack wireless networks with Kali Linux, including the KRACK attack

Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide, Third Edition presents wireless pentesting from the ground up, and has been updated with the latest methodologies, including full coverage of the KRACK attack.

  • Learn wireless penetration testing with Kali Linux
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Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide, Third Edition is suitable for anyone who wants to learn more about pentesting and how to understand and defend against the latest wireless network attacks.

  • Understand the KRACK attack in full detail
  • Create a wireless lab for your experiments
  • Sniff out wireless packets, hidden networks, and SSIDs
  • Capture and crack WPA-2 keys
  • Sniff probe requests and track users through their SSID history
  • Attack radius authentication systems
  • Sniff wireless traffic and collect interesting data
  • Decrypt encrypted traffic with stolen keys

As wireless networks become ubiquitous in our lives, wireless penetration testing has become a key skill in the repertoire of the professional penetration tester. This has been highlighted again recently with the discovery of the KRACK attack which enables attackers to potentially break into Wi-Fi networks encrypted with WPA2. The Kali Linux security distribution comes with a myriad of tools used for networking attacks and detecting security loopholes.

Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide, Third Edition has been updated to Kali Linux 2017.3 with the latest methodologies, including full coverage of the KRACK attack and how to defend against it. The book presents wireless pentesting from the ground up, introducing all elements of penetration testing with each new technology. You'll learn various wireless testing methodologies by example, from the basics of wireless routing and encryption through to detailed coverage of hacking methods and attacks such as the Hirte and Caffe Latte.

Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide, Third Edition is a practical, hands-on guide to modern wi-fi network hacking. It covers both the theory and practice of wireless pentesting, offering detailed, real-world coverage of the latest vulnerabilities and attacks.


What Killed Off The High Chaparral? As the Western finds new fans, the 50th anniversary reunion brought insight into the series.

Film Editor Henry Parke represented True West at the 50th anniversary celebration of The High Chaparral reeks. Shown here is the family the show revolved around (from left): Mark Slade as Billy Blue Cannon, Leif Erickson as John Cannon, Linda Cristal as Victoria Montoya Cannon, Cameron Mitchell as Buck Cannon and Henry Darrow as Victoria’s brother, Manolito Montoya.
— All The High Chaparral photos Courtesy NBC —

A half century ago, a new Western arrived on NBC, and four seasons later, it was gone, leaving a legacy of just under 100 episodes—less than a fourth of the Bonanzas or a sixth of the Gunsmokes. Yet this show’s popularity grows, here and abroad, with daily airings on INSP.

In September of 2017, the remaining cast and crew—and 150 fans—of The High Chaparral gathered one last time to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the rugged and romantic Western series that Director-Writer Quentin Tarantino credits as an inspiration for 2015’s The Hateful Eight. The hosts for this opulent affair were series Production Manager Kent McCray and his wife, Susan, who helped cast the show.

The late David Dortort was an already incredibly successful creator of Bonanza when he branched off from the almost too-perfect Cartwrights to create what he’d later call a “dysfunctional Western family.”

Kent, who also managed the production of Bonanza, enjoyed the older show, but preferred the newer one, recalling, “In Bonanza, they had money, so people came to them the stories were in and around the Ponderosa. The High Chaparral was a location [Old Tucson in Arizona] and had a lot of action.”

Not only action, but also a palpable sense of danger, and that rarity—unpredictability. It started with the pilot, when John Cannon (Leif Erickson) brings his lovely wife Annalee (Joan Caulfield), rebellious son Billy Blue (Mark Slade) and disreputable brother Buck (Cameron Mitchell) to the Arizona ranchland he’s bought. Incredibly, Annalee is immediately killed by Apaches and, almost as quickly, John Cannon acquires a new Mexican wife!

Memories were shared by Henry Darrow (Manolito, above left) and the children of Cameron Mitchell (Buck, above right).

“We had the Mexican family of high esteem south of the border, and then we had the Tucson family, the (socially lower) Cannons,” recalls Henry Darrow, the ladies’ favorite as lovable wastrel Manolito, of the elegant Montoya clan. “And the man who played my father, Frank Silvera, negotiated a romance between his daughter [Victoria, played by Linda Cristal] and the old man, John Cannon.”

The quick marriage doesn’t sit well with Billy Blue, who has just lost his mother and was attracted to Victoria himself. And that’s just the pilot!

One revolutionary element for the series that aired from 1967-1971 was the number of Hispanic actors who appeared in it. “The people in Latin America, people all over the world, love it. They all can relate to it,” Susan says.

Darrow agrees. “Dortort had such an affinity for Latin actors, and he used us. He hired almost every Latin who I had ever known of, about 100-odd people a year .”

The High Chaparral surely came along at the right time for the late actor Cameron Mitchell, who was represented at the reunion by his children, fellow actors Chip and Camille Mitchell, who said, “I think it saved his life.”

Cameron had acted with the best in the business—John Wayne, Clark Gable, Marilyn Monroe—but the Hollywood studio system collapsed. He was busy making European Westerns and horror films, but Camille remembers, “He was almost 50, and in those days, 50 was old for an actor.”

While flying to Rome to act in a movie, Cameron found himself sitting next to Dortort. Chip remembers, “They’d done The Ox-Bow Incident on TV together [for The 20th Century-Fox Hour], which got David an Emmy nomination.”

Dortort gave Cameron a copy of The High Chaparral script: “‘I thought you might want [to play] John Cannon.’ But Dad read the script and he immediately fell in love with the role of Buck,” Chip says.

“Cameron Mitchell was a character. He’d eat [while] wearing gloves. Show up blond without warning,” Kent remembers.

His costumes were made of black velour. “After a take, he’d jump in a water trough to cool off. With the velour, it didn’t show. But I thought he was the best actor on the show,” Kent says.

Deep-voiced Don Collier, who played foreman Sam Butler, had already performed in three films with John Wayne. His favorite episode on The High Chaparral was “Follow Your Heart,” where Butler finally gets a romance. “Though they killed my wife off,” Collier adds. “My favorite writer wrote that show, Denne Petitclerc.”

Petitclerc, who also wrote the pilot episode, was a protégé of author Ernest Hemingway.

With stories so dependent on action, a strong stunt crew was indispensable. The stunts were overseen by Henry Wills, who had spent two decades performing stunts on Republic serials and B-Westerns before becoming stunt coordinator on 1960’s The Magnificent Seven.

Stuntman Steve DeFrance, who calls Wills “my best mentor,” remembers the job as a 52-episode blur of action: “It was like working in a real ranch every day was a day of work. In one [episode], we were Chaparral guys, running from the Comancheros, shooting back at them. Then we traded hats, rode back shooting this way as Comancheros. But in the afternoon, we changed into cavalry uniforms and came to our rescue.”

What killed the series? Assassinations.

Kent believes the “death of Robert Kennedy changed the attitude of television. They didn’t want to see people get killed, and that hurt us terribly.”

For what had been a life-and-death action series, adopting a “no-kill” policy became a credibility nightmare. Jackie Fuller, Cristal’s stunt double, recalls, “You’d have an Indian attack. A stunt man could act like he was shot, fall off the horse, but then you had to show him getting up and running off-screen.”

Soon, viewers were running away as well. The final episode, “A Man to Match the Land,” aired on March 12, 1971.

Most High Chaparral folks who are still around have retired. But Kent has just written his autobiography, and Susan says the couple is looking for a way to revive the series. That suits Collier fine: “It was fun to do. Sure wish we had time to do it again.”

Henry C. Parke is a screenwriter based in Los Angeles, California, who blogs about Western movies, TV, radio and print news: HenrysWesternRoundup.Blogspot.com.

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Author Updates

As wireless networks become ubiquitous in our lives, wireless penetration testing has become a key skill in the repertoire of the professional penetration tester. The Kali Linux security distribution comes with a myriad of tools used for networking attacks and detecting security loopholes.

Kali Linux Wireless Penetration Testing Beginner's Guide presents wireless pentesting from the ground up, introducing all elements of penetration testing with each new technology. Learn various wireless testing methodologies by example, from the basics of wireless routing and encryption through to detailed coverage of hacking methods and attacks such as the Hirte and Caffe Latte.

What you will learn

  • Create a wireless lab for your experiments
  • Sniff out wireless packets and hidden networks
  • Capture and crack WPA-2 keys
  • Discover hidden SSIDs
  • Explore the ins and outs of wireless technologies
  • Sniff probe requests and track users through SSID history
  • Attack radius authentication systems
  • Sniff wireless traffic and collect interesting data
  • Decrypt encrypted traffic with stolen keys

About the Authors

Vivek Ramachandran has been working in Wireless Security since 2003. He discovered the Caffe Latte attack and also broke WEP Cloaking, a WEP protection schema, publicly in 2007 at DEF CON. In 2011, he was the first to demonstrate how malware could use Wi-Fi to create backdoors, worms, and even botnets. Earlier, he was one of the programmers of the 802.1x protocol and Port Security in Cisco's 6500 Catalyst series of switches and was also one of the winners of the Microsoft Security Shootout contest held in India among a reported 65,000 participants. He is best known in the hacker community as the founder of SecurityTube.net, where he routinely posts videos on Wi-Fi Security and exploitation techniques.

Cameron Buchanan is an experienced penetration tester, having worked in a huge range of industries. He is also the author of Packt's Kali Linux CTF Blueprints.


Clan Buchanan can trace its origin back to Anselan O'Kyan who was a son of the King of Ulster landed in Argyll in 1016. For his services against the Danes he received the lands of Buchanan, which lie to the east of Loch Lomond around the village of Killearn.

They occupied the ground surrounding the shores of Loch Lomond in 1225 as a result of a grant by the Earl of Lennox to Sir Absalon of Buchanan. Towards the middle of the 13th century Gilbert, Seneschal to the Earl of Lennox obtained part of the lands of Buchanan in Stirlingshire and took his surname from them. Sir Alexander Buchanan, Chief of Clan Buchanan led men of the clan in support of the French against the English at the Battle of Bauge in 1421 and killed the Duke of Clarence hence the ducal crown in the badge. They have always been royalist but took very little part in the Jacobite wars although a number fought in the Duke of Perths Regiment at Culloden.

The 'hunting ' version of the tartan cames from the Scott Adie (London) collection, which is a book of manufacturers samples, sold at auction c1960. The book is dated 1850 and the samples are thought to represent the tartans available for purchase between 1840-50


Kyk die video: fam beach trip pt 2


Kommentaar:

  1. Tozragore

    Oneindige onderwerp

  2. Grady

    Wonderlike, baie snaakse gedagte

  3. Lyndon

    Jy is absoluut reg. Hierin is iets 'n uitstekende idee, dit stem saam met jou.

  4. Sutton

    Opmerklik, en die alternatief?

  5. Hananel

    Wat 'n lieflike vraag



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