Vroeë Middeleeuse stedelike ontwikkeling

Vroeë Middeleeuse stedelike ontwikkeling


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Weet iemand van navorsingsartikels of akademiese hulpbronne wat die volle ontwikkeling en groei van middeleeuse stede bestudeer? Ek bedoel, van dorpstadium tot stadstadium. Of miskien het stede nie so ontwikkel nie. Ek probeer om te weet wat gewoonlik gebeur het, op die mees akkurate en omvattende manier, sedert die 'grondslag' van 'n stad tot ongeveer h. 1450 nC. Ek weet natuurlik dat die meeste oorlewende stede c. AD 500 was ou Romeinse forte, ens., Maar was daar stede wat in die Middeleeue in Europa gestig is?

Ek is ook nuuskierig oor die bevolking in stede en dorpe. Ek bedoel, ek weet dat groot middeleeuse stede ongeveer 20 000 mense gehad het, maar waar het hulle gebly? Sover ek weet, was middeleeuse huise nie so groot nie en was daar nie baie in stede en dorpe nie.

Terloops, ek praat hier net oor Europa.

Dankie!


Onmiddellik wil u Pirenne se werk opsoek. Sy studie van stede het gelei tot die magtiges en omstrede Pirenne -proefskrif, maar ek dink dat die lees van sy oorspronklike werk op sigself waardevol sou wees en relevant sou wees vir u vraag.

dit was nie die inval van die Germaanse stamme wat die beskawing van die oudheid vernietig het nie, maar eerder die sluiting van die Mediterreense handel deur Arabiese verowering in die sewende eeu. Die gevolglike onderbreking van langafstandhandel het die agteruitgang van die ou stede van Europa versnel. Princeton University Press

Een punt om op te let oor die vraag: om 'n stad uit die 5-6de eeu as 'ou Romeinse forte' te beskryf, is 'n ernstige oorvereenvoudiging.


As ons na Parys kyk, kan ons 'n voorbeeld sien van 'n stad wat rondom 'n ou Romeinse stad gebou is. Dit is nie heeltemal korrek nie, soos Felix daarop gewys het, dat middeleeuse stede afstammelinge is van 'ou Romeinse forte', aangesien Romeinse stede eintlik in 'n redelik direk gekopieerde formaat gebruik is.

Kortom, tot 'n sekere tyd, is dit redelik waarskynlik dat stede eintlik net Romeinse herbou is. As 'n stad na die Romeinse tyd gebou of uitgebrei is, is dit gebou rondom 'n belangrike vesting of ou Romeinse nedersetting, maar sou dit nie op 'n rooster gebou word nie, maar eerder voordeel trek uit die hoogte van die omliggende terrein (volgens Wikipedia). Rivieroewers sou ook 'n riglyn wees vir hoe dorpe bymekaargekom het.

Dit beteken egter nie uitsluitlik dat middeleeuse dorpe sonder rym of rede gebou is nie; Elberg is byvoorbeeld gebou met reguit strate en 'n simmetriese ontwerp wat herinner aan Romeinse ontwerpe en 'n vooruitskouende Renaissance -gebou.


Die vorm van stede word meer beïnvloed deur die rangskikking van hul strate en pleine as deur enige ander oorweging. Stadsvorm het deur die eeue dramaties verander. 'N Groot verskeidenheid omstandighede word uitgedruk in die uiteindelike gekose vorm, insluitend: waardes, filosofie, bevolkingsgrootte, stelsels, artistieke sensitiwiteit, ontwerpstegnieke, boumetodes, plaveiseltegnieke, vervoertegnologie, riool- en afvalverwydering en energievoorsiening. Hierdie faktore beïnvloed die topologie, meetkunde en breedte van die strate. Ek gebruik 'topologie' in wiskundige sin, en ek het veral te doen met die netwerk van strate-die plekke waar hulle met mekaar verbind word. Met 'meetkunde' bedoel ek die vorm van die strate, soos deur 'n landmeter aangeteken sou word.

Die aantal moontlike oplossings is beperk. Wat nuuskierig is, is dat sekere reëlings deur die geskiedenis gekom en gegaan het. Die twee hooftipes is die rooster en die los radiale rangskikkings wat gesentreer is op die hoofplein of pleine in middeleeuse dorpe, sowel as die stede Athene en Rome in antieke tye. Dit is geensins 'n poging om die geskiedenis van die vorme van stedelike nedersettings van 10 000 jaar te herkapituleer nie. Ek glo wel dat die ontwikkeling van stadsontwerp gedurende die afgelope 500 jaar ons 'n armer, nie ryker omgewing gebring het nie.

In my komende Motorvrye ontwerphandleiding, wat ek eintlik voorstel, is grotendeels 'n terugkeer na die uitleg van stedelike gebiede op die maniere wat 'n millennium gelede gebruik is. Dit is so 'n dramatiese breuk met die hedendaagse praktyk dat ek baie tyd bestee het aan die ondersoek na die historiese evolusie van stadsvorm, aangesien ek gevoel het dat ek die leser 'n diepgaande regverdiging vir hierdie verandering verskuldig is. Uiteindelik het ek besluit dat die lang teks wat ek oor hierdie onderwerp geskryf het, nie nuttig was in die boek nie, wat slegs 'n kort opsomming sal bevat. Vir diegene wat wil weet hoe ek tot my gevolgtrekkings gekom het, bied ek hierdie artikel aan.

Ek stel voor om die gewone geometriese straatpatrone wat sedert die Renaissance wyd gebruik is, te laat vaar en terug te keer na die onreëlmatige rangskikkings van die Middeleeue, soos gekenmerk deur hierdie smal middeleeuse straat in Siena. Ons sal dus die geskiedenis van die stedelike vorm in die konteks van straatplanne van die oudheid tot vandag toe oorweeg.

Gridiron -patrone wissel baie. Soms, soos in Manhattan, is dit streng gereeld (bo 14de straat), met reguit strate en kruisings in presies regte hoeke. In ander gevalle is die straatuitlegte topologies nog steeds roosters, maar die strate kruis nie reghoekig nie en is ook nie heeltemal reguit of parallel nie. Blokke is soms reghoekig, soms vierkantig.

Af en toe is ander meetkundige skemas anders as roosters voorgestel, en 'n aantal daarvan is eintlik tydens die Renaissance gebou. Meetkundige skemas bied in die klassieke sin niks belangriker as eenvoudige volgorde nie. Reguit strate en die rooster gee dikwels uiting aan die mag van 'n heerser en sy wil om sy gekose orde op te lê. Daar is dikwels weinig meer inhoud aan die reëling as dit. Netwerke ontbreek die geleenthede vir kreatiewe uitdrukking en aanpassing by die eise en geleenthede van die webwerf wat moontlik is as 'n minder gereelde skema aanvaar word.

Ek glo dat die informele, onreëlmatige straatreëlings dikwels ontstaan ​​het toe paaie in strate verander het terwyl mense geboue langs hulle begin oprig het. In 'n heuwelagtige land hou paaie wat deur mense en diere geslaan is, gewoonlik die maksimum graad tot by die laagste praktiese waarde. Sodoende volg hulle die kontoere van die webwerf. Op plat terrein beperk dreineringsfunksies en sagte gronde ook die ligging van paadjies en bevoordeel gewoonlik stewiger gronde en droër plekke.

Geslaan paaie neem gewoonlik interessante en aangename vorms aan. Die verloop van 'n gebaande pad is byna nooit reguit nie, maar is geensins toevallig nie. Baie dinge kom ter sprake, en selfs onder mense is die meganismes hoofsaaklik bewusteloos.

Daar word dikwels beweer dat die rooster op een of ander manier demokraties is, dat dit 'n egalitêre vorm is. Gegewe die uitgebreide toepassing van die netvorm deur absolute heersers, vind Spiro Kostof egter weinig verdienste in hierdie argument en noem hy talle voorbeelde van absolute heersers wat dorpe op 'n roosterplan vestig. [Kostof (1991), 99-100] Die werklike motiewe vir netwerkplanne is uiteenlopend, wat wissel van militêre noodsaaklikheid, kapitalistiese nut, godsdienstige simboliek, estetiese voorkeur en eenvoudige haas.

Die vroegste straatnetwerk was in 2670 vC by Kahun, hoewel dit duidelik 'n mate van nut was en die terrein gou verlaat is. [Morris, 13]

Vir sommige skrywers is die rooster sinoniem met stadsbeplanning, en die afwesigheid van 'n rooster word beskou as 'n chaotiese, onbeplande ontwikkeling. A.E.J. Morris sê: ''n Raster-uitleg kan nie net gebeur nie-in direkte kontras met organiese groei moet dit bewustelik bepaal en op die gekose terrein toegepas word.' [Morris, 15] Waarom dit intrinsiek beter is, word nie duidelik gemaak nie, en dit is nie 'n gegewe dat 'n organiese vorm toevallig of bewusteloos is nie. Vanwaar sy voorkeur vir die rooster?

Sommige skrywers glo vas in 'n aangebore menslike begeerte na roosters. Paul Zucker sê:

. . . In Indië, soos in Egipte, Klein -Asië, Hippodamiese Griekeland, en later in Rome en Sentraal -Amerikaanse beskawings, kan die voorkoms van die rooster verklaar word deur die algemene drang van die mens na orde en gereeldheid in teenstelling met die chaotiese groei van die natuur. [Zucker, 20]

As baie steil strate nie vermy kan word nie, kan dit met trappe gebou word, wat die gebruik daarvan deur voertuie uitsluit. Met 'n kronkelende straatopstelling kan voetgangers op 'n matige hoek met trappe gemonteer word wat die lang afdraaipad deur die voetgangers waardeer, soos in die Moorse Alfama -wyk in Lissabon.

Ondanks die assosiasie van roosters met beplanning, is nie alle beplande gebiede rooster nie. Trouens, die huidige Amerikaanse uitbreidingsontwikkeling word selde gegraveer. Die stukke is uitgelê in 'n doodloopstraat, wat die meeste strate deur die verkeer uitskakel. Die strate is gewoonlik geboë en respekteer soms topografie. In alle ander opsigte is dit 'n ramp. Hulle veronderstel dat alle reise per motor is en laat sypaadjies dikwels heeltemal uit, al is daar altyd genoeg ruimte vir hulle. Mense wat loop of fietsry, moet baie ompaaie maak om baie nabygeleë bestemmings te bereik, aangesien die netwerk van verbindings swak is en daar geen wegregte vir 'n verbindingsnetwerk gelaat is nie. (Die gekose topologie is hoogs ondoeltreffend vir nie-gemotoriseerde vervoermetodes.) Kinders sny dan gereeld deur werwe en word deur die eienaars beskuldig van die gruwelike misdaad dat hulle 'privaat eiendom betree'.

Afgesien van hierdie belangrike uitsondering, het die meeste stadsontwerp sedert die Renaissance die rooster aangeneem. Dit bereik 'n hoogtepunt tydens die Amerikaanse uitbreiding na die weste, toe honderde dorpe langs die spoorlyne gelê is. (In baie gevalle is presies dieselfde plan herhaaldelik op die grond gestempel.) Dit was 'n geskikte saak, maar hierdie dorpe het byna almal hul oorspronklike straatnetwerk.

Dit is helaas ongemaklik om op die akkuraatheid van straatplanne staat te maak, soos dit in baie tekste gegee word. Geringe onreëlmatighede in 'n straatlyn kan 'n groot invloed op die voorkoms van die straat hê, en foute wat effens in plan lyk, kan in werklikheid belangrike gevolge hê. Baie stadsplanne beeld die strate reguit en breër uit as wat dit is. Morris gee 'n voorbeeld van die plan van Monpazier "gebaseer op oorgereguleerde weergawes van die werklike uitleg." [Morris, 87] Sy eie plan toon minder gereeldheid as die plan wat hy kritiseer, maar moet 'n plan hoegenaamd gereël word? Ek sou redeneer, beslis nie. Waarom moet 'n ietwat onreëlmatige werklikheid gereël word? Wat is dit oor onvolmaakte roosters wat sommige stedelike historici so ontstel? Gryp hulle eenvoudig na 'beplanning' en sien hulle geen ander vorm van beplanning as roosters nie?

Militêre invloede

Die invloed van militêre kommer op straatuitleg was dikwels groot. Militêre denkers verkies soms die rooster en soms radiale reëlings. Die radiale vorm het gunstig geword by militêre strateë van die Renaissance, en hul kommer het dikwels ander ontwerpkwessies oorweldig. 'N Radiale plan van die laat 15de eeu deur Francesco di Giorgio Martini was die eerste werkbare plan, met 'n groot openbare ruimte in die middel en radiale strate wat afwisselend na bastions en hekke lei. [Kostof (1991), 189-190] 'n Deurlopende spiraalstraat (tot bo-op die sentrale heuwel) voltooi ook die verbindingsbaan tussen die steiler radiale strate.

Dit blyk dat militêre denkers in alle periodes oor die algemeen reguit strate verkies, alhoewel daar gereeld opgemerk word dat onreëlmatige strate makliker is om te verdedig sodra die vyand binnegedring het. In alle gevalle lyk dit asof wye strate die voorkeur geniet vir die handhawing van burgerlike orde. Met betrekking tot die Renaissance -denke, sê Kostof:

Die reguit straat bevorder die openbare orde deur weg te doen met die hoekies van onreëlmatige woonbuurte en die versoeking om verbygaan te belemmer of opstand agter versperrings te beskerm. [Kostof (1991), 230]

Onvolmaakte roosters

Waarom vind ons so gereeld naby aan 'n perfekte netwerk in stede wat meer as ongeveer 500 jaar oud is? Een waarskynlike antwoord is eenvoudig die begeerte om 'n gevoel van omhulsel te skep. Geringe artikulasies van smal strate is voldoende om 'n volledige omhulsel te skep, soos hier op die Via Garibaldi in die middeleeuse wyk Ferrara gesien kan word.

Aangesien dit ten minste sedert die Egiptiese tyd bekend is hoe 'n reguit lyn en 'n presiese regte hoek gekonstrueer word, is enige onvolmaaktheid in 'n rooster 'n rede tot twyfel. Morris gee 'n plan van Pompeii wat hoofsaaklik, maar nie heeltemal nie, 'n rooster is. Die strate is nie presies ewewydig nie. Kruisings word soms gedraf. Twee vurke word in die plan getoon, wat slegs 'n dosyn blokke beslaan. [Morris, 53]

Morris se eie kaart van Aigues-Mortes kan gekontroleer word aan sy vertikale lugfoto van dieselfde stad. [Morris, 84, 85] As sy kaart op die foto aangebring word, ontdek ons ​​groot foute, met sommige strate ver buite posisie. Hierdie stad is gebou op 'n rooster, maar die strate is nie ewewydig nie en selfs nie heeltemal reguit nie. Sommige strate word by kruisings verwoord of verreken. Morris beweer dat roosters in die uitleg gebruik is bastides. (Bastides is versterkte dorpe wat eers in die Middeleeuse Frankryk en later in groot dele van Europa gebou is, begin in die vroeë 13de eeu.) Tog toon sy eie planne van agt bastides nie 'n enkele met 'n volledig gereelde netwerk nie, en in twee gevalle is die afwykings baie groot . [Morris, 86, onder] Sy ​​plan van Carcassonne se ville-basse (gebou in die middel van die 13de eeu) toon perfek reguit strate, maar ander kaarte toon dat baie strate geboë of gebreek is. [Morris, 86, bo]

Soos altyd, gaan die laaste woord na Leonardo da Vinci. Op die hoogtepunt van die Italiaanse Renaissance het hy 'n plan gemaak vir Imola met roosteragtige kenmerke, maar die meeste strate is effens geboë. Hy sou 'n dorp net so ingerig het as hy van mening was dat dit 'n beter vorm as 'n suiwer rooster was.

Verval van roosters

Unwin toon twee kaarte van Aosta, 'n Romeinse koloniale stad wat oorspronklik op 'n stewige rooster gelê is. Teen die Middeleeue het dit sy gereeldheid heeltemal verloor, met behoud van sommige van die oorspronklike topologie. ('N Moderne plan stem nie baie ooreen met die plan van Unwin nie, alhoewel die uiteensetting van die rigiede rooster net so duidelik is.)

Waarom hou mense nie so baie van roosters dat hulle moeite doen om dit te verander nie? Oor die uiteensetting van roosters in eens gereelde dorpe, spesifiek Aosta, sê Kostof:

[W] e kan sommige van die stappe in die proses van deregulering rekonstrueer. Die agtergrond vir die stedelike aflegging en heraanpassing in die post-Romeinse Europa is bekend-ontvolking, verminderde omstandighede en 'n sosiale revolusie wat dorpe vir 'n heidense kultuur van veelvuldige kultusse gebou het aan die monoteïstiese godsdienste van die Christendom en later in sommige streke van die Ryk, van Islam. Daar was geen plek in die nuwe sosiale struktuur vir teaters, amfiteaters, tempels of (in die Christelike geval) baddens nie. Die burgerlike instellings van die klassieke stad was ook opgehou, en as 'n gevolg hiervan was die verdediging van die openbare ruimte swak of nie-bestaande. [Kostof (1991), 48]

Kostof vind uit dat drie prosesse aan die werk was. Eerstens is die 'rooster onbuigsaam in terme van menslike beweging' en mense hou nie van skerp draaie nie, so kortpaaie is deur die gedeeltelik bewoonde rooster gemaak. Tweedens het kulturele veranderinge van die insittendes op verskillende maniere gelei tot die konsolidasie of splitsing van blokke, tesame met die herbesetting van eens openbare ruimtes. "Derdens, die impak van nuwe openbare fokuspunte op die stedelike weefsel. Verkeersvloei sal, soos lopende water, sy eie koers vorm: 'n kasteel, 'n katedraal, 'n biskop se plek ... sal die sirkulasienet na hulself trek. . " [Kostof (1991), 48-51]

Hierdie magte het gelei tot 'n byna volledige uiteensetting van baie Griekse en Romeinse roosters. Net so het die stad Dura Europos, aan die grens van die hedendaagse Sirië, 'n gereelde uitleg in Alexandrine-tye gekry, maar het gou na 'n onreëlmatige plan teruggekeer. [Kostof (1991), 105] Morris, in 'n nota wat by 'n plan van die Middeleeuse Chichester gepaard gegaan het, sê: 'Soos herhaal, het die belangrikste aksiale kruisings van die cardo en decumanus die basis gevorm van die uitleg wat ander klein strate ook gevolg het die oorspronklike rooster in verskillende omvang. " [Morris, 75] Die plan wat getoon word, is egter alles behalwe 'n rooster. Die hoofstrate kan die Romeinse plan benader, maar daar is geen ononderbroke reguit strate nie en baie is eerlik gebuig.

Geboë strate

Vir die doeleindes van hierdie bespreking sal ek die gelede straat met die geboë straat binnegooi, aangesien die effek grotendeels dieselfde is, deurdat beide reëlings die omhulsel voltooi (in die veronderstelling dat die straat smal is in verhouding tot die krommingstempo). Camillo Sitte oorweeg die ontwikkeling van die omhulsel grootliks, 'n oorsaak wat later deur Christopher Alexander opgeneem is en wat weerspieël word in 'n aantal van sy patrone. [Alexander, 'N Patroontaal, veral patroon 106]

Die geboë straat word dikwels as chaoties beskou en is 'n bewys van 'n afwesigheid van beplanning. Cartesiërs was bevoorreg vir reguit strate, maar in 1889 het J.J. Stevenson het die saak bondig opgesom:

. . . Die huidige verliefdheid om strate gelyk te maak, is regtig nuuskierig. Geen moeite of koste word te groot gedink om hierdie voorwerp te bewerkstellig nie. . . . Daar blyk 'n idee te wees dat 'n reguit lyn die volmaaktheid van kuns is. Maar dit is nie 'n mooi ding nie. Die natuur verafsku dit. In die Griekse tempels is daar nie 'n enkele reguit lyn wanneer standbeelde langs hulle geplaas word nie, maar hul voetstukke is dikwels 'n bietjie uit die vierkant.

Dit lyk asof strate dikwels aangelê is met die idee dat ons daarop moet neersien asof ons voëls in die lug of in 'n ballon is. Die siening wat ons van hulle uit hierdie posisie kry, is so skaars dat dit nie in ag geneem moet word nie.

Die ontwerper dink dikwels dat hy 'n kunswerk bereik het as hy 'n reëling getref het wat mooi lyk op sy papierplan. Wat verlang word, is dat die strate goed moet lyk terwyl ons daarlangs loop, en alle ondervinding bewys dat dit die beste bereik kan word deur afwyking van die absolute reguit lyn. Dit is kenmerkend van al die strate wat die meeste gevier word vanweë hul skoonheid. . . . Terwyl sulke strate kronkel, al is dit maar net saggies, word die geboue wat hulle omring, in 'n perspektiefhoek geplaas waarin hulle beter gesien kan word, elke gebou val beter uit in sy eie individualiteit en die verandering van die hoek gee verskillende effekte van lig en skaduwee. . . . [J.J. Stevenson, "Op die uitleg van strate vir gemak van verkeer en argitektoniese effek," Royal Institute of British Architects, Transactions 5, new series (1889): 89-104. ]

Eiendomsbesit en besproeiing

Kostof herinner ons daaraan dat die eienaarskap van die grond gewoonlik 'n groot invloed uitoefen op besluite oor hoe strate ingerig word. Groot barokprojekte het inderdaad op gesentraliseerde gesag staatgemaak om grond weer bymekaar te maak en reguit boulevards deur die bestaande stedelike weefsel te ry. Vereenvoudigde grondverdeling bevoordeel reglynige straatpatrone, maar besproeiing is dikwels net so belangrik (op die plekke waar dit voorkom) en hou gewoonlik verband met grondbesitpatrone en topografie. [Kostof (1991), 57, 59]

Nadat ons 'n paar kwessies oorweeg het wat die stadsontwerp in elke era beïnvloed het, gaan ons nou oor na 'n ondersoek na stadsvorm tydens die belangrikste tydperke van die Westerse geskiedenis. (Die oosterse geskiedenis is ongetwyfeld ewe interessant en insiggewend, maar ek het nie die hulpbronne gehad om hierdie opname uit te brei om dit ook in te sluit nie. Net so word die geskiedenis van die pre-Columbiaanse Latyns-Amerika en Afrika weggelaat.) Ons sal soek na inligting oor die meetkunde van straatuitlegte en die ontwerpmetodes wat deur die eeue toegepas is.


KUNSKUNS & WETENSKAPPE GESKIEDENIS OUD & GEMIDDELDE GESKIEDENIS

HSTAM 112 The Medieval World (5) I & ampS
Politieke, ekonomiese, sosiale en intellektuele geskiedenis van die Middeleeue. Kan nie krediet neem vir 'n geskiedkundige hoofvak as HSTAM 331 of 332 of 333 voorheen geneem is nie.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 112

HSTAM 203 Inleiding tot die Middeleeue: Middeleeuse mense (5) I & ampS
Inleiding tot die Westerse Middeleeue deur 'n studie van sosiale rolle en statusse, gesien in dokumente en verbeeldingryke literatuur. Die groepe wat bestudeer is, is heersers, aristokrasie, boere, stedelinge, geestelikes, uitgeworpenes en buitestaanders.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 203

HSTAM 205 Militêre geskiedenis van die antieke wêreld (5) I & ampS
Militêre geskiedenis vanaf die prehistoriese tyd tot die val van die Romeinse Ryk, met spesiale klem op die Grieks-Romeinse tydperk en die veldtogte van Alexander die Grote, Hannibal, Scipio Africanus en Julius Caesar.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 205

HSTAM 215 Tudor England (5) I & ampS
Dek die politieke, sosiale en kulturele geskiedenis van Engeland vanaf Wars of the Roses tot die bewind van Elizabeth I -temas, insluitend sosiale orde, ekonomie en samelewing van orde na 'n verandering van dinastie politieke propaganda Engelse Reformasie en Renaissance -literatuur en kultuur heksoortuigings en heks verhore en politieke rebellie.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 215

HSTAM 231 Ras, identiteit en die antieke Mediterreense wêreld (5) I & ampS, DIV M. Green, K. Topper
Ontdek die antieke skrywers se persepsies van ander (buitelanders, 'barbare' en 'mense op die rand van hul bekende wêrelde, slawe, ens.), Saam met die huidige geleerdheid oor antieke persepsies van ras en identiteit. Kyk ook na hoe verskillende groepe/nasies in die negentiende/een-en-twintigste eeu hul siening van die Griekse en Romeinse samelewings gebruik het om moderne aansprake te maak oor ras, wit voorregte en mag. Aangebied: gesamentlik met CLAS 231.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 231

HSTAM 235 Mites en geheimenisse van die Middeleeue (5) I & ampS
Dit stel die basiese beginsels van die geskiedkundige se kuns bekend deur te fokus op 'n paar blywende raaisels van die Europese middeljariges, waaronder moerasliggame, druïde, koning Arthur, Robin Hood, die Tempeliers, die Heilige Graal, die Mantel van Turyn en Joan of Arc.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 235

HSTAM 250 The Mongols: Empire and Resistance in Medieval Eurasia (5) I & ampS M. Mosca, J. Walker
Onder leiding van Genghis Khan († 1227) het Mongoolse leërs die grootste landgebaseerde ryk in die wêreldgeskiedenis gevestig. Spoor die geskiedenis van die Mongoolse Ryk op, met aandag aan die geografie en kulture van die streke wat dit verower het. Ondersoek hoe verskillende gemeenskappe regoor Eurasië gereageer het op die opkoms van die Mongoolse mag, en luister aandagtig na die stemme van diegene wat met Mongoolse magte geveg, gevlug of saamgewerk het.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 250

HSTAM 276 Keltiese beskawings van die Europese Middeleeue (5) VLPA/I & ampS R. Stacey
Inleiding tot die geskiedenis en pseudo-geskiedenis van die Middeleeuse Ierland, Wallis, Skotland en Gallië. Onderwerpe sluit in "Keltiese" godsdiens, mitologie, sosiale instellings, nasionalisme en die verhouding tussen geskiedenis en mite. Spesifieke aandag aan hoe historici die geskiedenis doen in die afwesigheid van eenvoudige historiese bronne.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 276

HSTAM 290 Onderwerpe in antieke/Middeleeuse geskiedenis (5, maks. 10) I & ampS
Ondersoek spesiale onderwerpe in die antieke/middeleeuse geskiedenis.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 290

HSTAM 302 Antieke Romeinse geskiedenis (5) I & ampS Mira Green
Politieke, sosiale, ekonomiese en kulturele ontwikkeling van Rome vanaf die begin in die agtste eeu vC tot die begin van die Middeleeue. Aangebied: S.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 302

HSTAM 312 Die Romeinse Republiek (5) I & ampS
Politieke, sosiale, ekonomiese en kulturele geskiedenis, met die klem op die ontwikkeling van die grondwet en territoriale uitbreidings.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 312

HSTAM 313 Die Romeinse Ryk (5) I & ampS
Politieke, sosiale en kulturele geskiedenis, met spesiale klem op die tydperk van Cicero en Caesar.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 313

HSTAM 314 The World of Late Antiquity (5) I & ampS
Bestudeer die transformasie van die antieke wêreld van die derde-eeuse krisis van die Romeinse Ryk na die opkoms van die Islamitiese beskawing. Verken die veelvuldige politieke, kulturele en sosiale veranderinge wat Europa, die Middellandse See en die Nabye Ooste tussen die derde en die agtste eeu nC getransformeer het.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 314

HSTAM 315 Die Bisantynse Ryk (5) I & ampS
Politieke, sosiale, ekonomiese en kulturele geskiedenis van die Oos -Romeinse Ryk van die vierde tot vyftiende eeu.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 315

HSTAM 320 Reageer op die verlede: Godsdiens en politiek in die Europese Middeleeue (5) I & ampS
Klas wat op rol speel, fokus op godsdiens en politiek in die Middeleeue. Studente neem identiteit aan en volg spelgestruktureerde strategieë gebaseer op belangrike historiese oomblikke soos die stryd tussen kerk en staat en die missie en verhoor van Joan of Arc.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 320

HSTAM 325 Empires in Ancient Iran (5) I & ampS
Verken die geskiedenis van antieke en vroeë Middeleeuse Iran, van die leerstellings van die profeet Zoroaster tot die Islamitiese verowering van die Sasaniese Ryk. Fokus op die twee dominante keiserlike fases van die pre-Islamitiese Iraanse geskiedenis: die Achaemenidiese Ryk wat deur Kings Cyrus en Darius geskep is, en die Sasanian Empire.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 325

HSTAM 330 The Age of Augustus (5) VLPA/I & ampS Gee
Gedetailleerde studie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van die regering van Augustus, die eerste Romeinse keiser (31 vC-14 nC). Bevat lesings by Augustaanse outeurs soos Vergil, Ovidius en Horace, asook die studie van Augustaanse kuns en argitektuur. Aangebied: gesamentlik met CLAS 330.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 330

HSTAM 331 Vroeë Middeleeue (5) I & ampS
Die donker eeue, feodalisme, die opkoms van die middeleeuse beskawingsorde en die ontwikkeling van die Romaanse kultuur.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 331

HSTAM 332 Sentraal Middeleeue (5) I & ampS
Europa in die sentrale Middeleeue: kultuur van katedrale en universiteite, vorming van nasionale state, ontwikkeling van die stedelike samelewing.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 332

HSTAM 333 Laat Middeleeue (5) I & ampS
Ontbinding van die Middeleeuse orde onder die impak van die nasionale staat, die sekularisering van die samelewing en die agteruitgang van die kerk. Bewegings van hervorming en revolusie. Die kultuur van laat -gotiese Europa.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 333

HSTAM 335 The Age of Nero (5) VLPA/I & ampS C. Connors, A. Gowing, S. Levin-Richardson, S. Stroup
Gedetailleerde studie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van die regering van die Romeinse keiser Nero (54-68 nC). Dit bevat lesings in die historikus Tacitus se verslag van Nero, sowel as in skrywers soos Petronius, Lucan en Seneca, en die artistieke en argitektoniese prestasies van die periode. Aanbeveel: HSTAM 111, HSTAM 302, HSTAM 312, of HSTAM 313 CLAS 122, CLAS 320, CLAS 329 of CLAS 330 Aangebied: saam met CLAS 335 AWSpS.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 335

HSTAM 340 Middeleeuse vroue (5) I & ampS, DIV
Die ervarings van vroue in die Middeleeuse samelewing: openbare en private mag, veranderende konsepte van familie en huishoudelike sfeer, ideaal en werklikheid in hoflike liefde, vroue in die godsdienstige lewe, vroue in die werkplek, die querelle des femmes en die begin van die quotfeministiese & quot -denke.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 340

HSTAM 360 Middeleeuse Christendom (5) I & ampS
Ontwikkeling van die Christendom in die Middeleeuse weste omstreeks 400 tot 1500. Klem op die vorme van godsdienstige lewe: monastiek, die pousdom, broeders, kluisenaars, mistici en hervormers en op die opkoms van nuwe vorme van vroomheid, sowel leke as predikante.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 360

HSTAM 365 Middeleeuse Engeland, 1042-1485 (5) I & ampS
Oorsig op die hoogste vlak van die Engelse geskiedenis vanaf die Normandiese verowering tot 1485. Klem op politieke, sosiale en ekonomiese geskiedenis, met spesiale aandag aan die eienaardighede van Engelse ontwikkeling, soos dit teen 1485 na vore gekom het.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 365

HSTAM 367 Middeleeuse Joodse geskiedenis (5) I & ampS
Sosiale en intellektuele geskiedenis van die Jode in Wes -Europa tot in die vyftiende eeu. Jode onder Islam en die Christendom die kerk en die Jode die Kruistogte en hul erfenis intellektuele prestasies konflik en samewerking. Aangebied: gesamentlik met JEW ST 367.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 367

HSTAM 370 The Vikings (5) VLPA/I & ampS
Vikings tuis in Skandinawië en in die buiteland, met die nadruk op hul aktiwiteite, soos onthul in argeologiese vondste en in historiese en literêre bronne. Aangebied: saam met SCAND 370.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 370

HSTAM 401 Vroeë Griekeland (5) I & ampS
Bronze and Dark Age Greece: werklikhede van die heroïese tydperk van antieke Griekeland.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 401

HSTAM 402 Klassieke Griekeland (5) I & ampS
Die klassieke beskawing van antieke Griekeland, met spesiale klem op die nalatenskap van Griekeland tot die Westerse beskawing.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 402

HSTAM 403 Alexander die Grote en die Hellenistiese Era (5) I & ampS
Opkoms van Masedonië, verowering van die Nabye Ooste deur Alexander, en verdeling in mindere koninkryke na Alexander se dood. Spesiale klem op samesmelting van kulture en verandering van stadstaat tot wêreldstaat.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 403

HSTAM 420 Freedom in Ancient Rome and the Modern World (3/5) VLPA/I & ampS, DIV A. Gowing
Ondersoek na die konsep van 'vryheid' in Antieke Rome, vanaf die stigting daarvan in die agtste eeu vC tot die vierde eeu nC. Spesiale aandag aan die vergelyking van die Romeinse perspektief met 'n paar moderne sienings van 'vryheid', insluitend (maar nie beperk nie tot) die Verenigde State vanaf die stigting tot vandag. Aanbeveel: HSTAM 111, 302, 312 of 313 CLAS 122, 320 of 329 Aangebied: gesamentlik met CLAS 420 AWSpS.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 420

HSTAM 443 Middeleeuse Rusland: 850-1700 (5) I & ampS
Ontwikkeling van Rusland vanaf die vroegste tye tot die bewind van Petrus die Grote. Aangebied: gesamentlik met JSIS A 443.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 443

HSTAM 490 Onderwerpe in antieke/Middeleeuse geskiedenis (5, maks. 10) I & ampS
Ondersoek spesiale onderwerpe in die antieke/middeleeuse geskiedenis.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 490

HSTAM 501 Griekse geskiedenis veldkursus (3-6, maks. 6)
Ondersoek verskillende onderwerpe en temas in die Griekse geskiedenis. Inhoud wissel.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 501

HSTAM 505 Antieke Griekeland en Rome: Geskrifte en interpretasies (3-6, maks. 6)
Studie van historici, ontwikkeling van historiese studie as 'n duidelike strewe, fokus van aandag in historiese geleerdheid in die antieke wêreld en vergelyking met moderne interpretasie van die oudheid.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 505

HSTAM 506 Middeleeuse Europa: Geskrifte en interpretasies (3-6, maks. 6)
Studie van historici, geskiedenisskole en interpretasies van die Middeleeuse Europese geskiedenis.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 506

HSTAM 511 Roman History Field Course (3-6, maks. 6)
Ondersoek verskillende onderwerpe en temas in die Romeinse geskiedenis. Inhoud wissel.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 511

HSTAM 512 Seminaar in antieke geskiedenis ([3-6]-, maks. 12)
Gedetailleerde studie van spesiale onderwerpe in die antieke geskiedenis.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 512

HSTAM 513 Seminaar in antieke geskiedenis (-[3-6], maks. 12)
Gedetailleerde studie van spesiale onderwerpe in die antieke geskiedenis.
Bekyk kursusbesonderhede in MyPlan: HSTAM 513

HSTAM 518 Onderwerpe in die Laat Oudheid (3-6, maks. 18)
Examines various topics in the transformation of the ancient world from the third-century crisis of the Roman Empire to the rise of Islamic civilization. Serves as the field course for masters and Ph.D. studente.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 518

HSTAM 530 Early Middle Ages (3-6, max. 6)
Field course. Survey of early European history through the times of tribal migrations and invasions from Asia. Problems and methods of research.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 530

HSTAM 531 Medieval European History (3-6, max. 6)
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 531

HSTAM 532 Medieval European Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
Prerequisite: reading knowledge of Latin.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 532

HSTAM 533 Medieval European Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
Prerequisite: reading knowledge of Latin.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 533

HSTAM 534 Medieval European Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
Prerequisite: reading knowledge of Latin.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 534

HSTAM 535 Later Medieval Europe (3-6, max. 6)
Field course. Surveys European history from ca. 1250 to 1500, with particular attention to historiography.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 535

HSTAM 536 Topics in Early Medieval History (3-6, max. 12)
Graduate level study of specific topics in early medieval history. Topics vary from quarter to quarter for information, please see instructor.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 536

HSTAM 590 Topics in Ancient and Medieval History (5, max. 15)
Seminar on selected topics in ancient and medieval history, with special emphasis on preparation for field examinations. Topics vary according to interests of students and instructor.
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 590

HSTAM 591 Advanced Medieval and Renaissance Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 591

HSTAM 592 Advanced Medieval and Renaissance Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 592

HSTAM 593 Advanced Medieval and Renaissance Seminar (3-6, max. 12)
View course details in MyPlan: HSTAM 593


NEW ARRIVALS

At first, the chief enemies of an independent Britain were Irish raiders from the west and Picts from the north. Later, Angles, Saxons and Jutes arrived from across the North Sea. We don’t know exactly how they invaded or settled in England, but by AD 500 Germanic speakers seem to have settled deep into Britain.

The Britons successfully counter-attacked, however, at first under Ambrosius Aurelianus, ‘the last of the Romans’. It’s during this early period that the figure of Arthur – possibly completely legendary – emerges. A record made three centuries later credits him with 12 battles, from Scotland to the south coast. Only the last, in about 500, is confirmed in earlier sources – but it makes no mention of Arthur. This British victory halted the Saxon advance for half a century.

In independent kingdoms across the north and west, the British also resisted the repeated onslaughts of the peoples who were later called ‘English’. But by the 650s, almost all the lowlands were under English control.


Early medieval urban development - History

City Life during the Middle Ages

Medieval roots can be found in all of today's major European cities. When Julius Caesar set to conquer Western Europe, there were few places that could have been called cities. Lutetia, which would become Paris, was probably the largest of the early cities. By the 13th century, however, cities were flourishing from the Mediterranean to northwest Europe.

Viking invasions were a major factor in the development of cities during the early Middle Ages. These invaders often plundered more than they could carry, sold surplus goods to surrounding villages and created base camps to be used for trading. Dublin, Ireland's roots began as a Viking base camp. To protect themselves, villages began erecting walls and fortifying their positions. This lead to the great medieval walled cities that can still be seen in modern Europe.

These walled cities became known as "bourgs," "burghs," and later, bouroughs. Inhabitants were known as bourgeois. By the mid-900s, these fortified towns dotted the European landscape from the Mediterranean as far north as Hamburg, Germany.


Approaches and Teaching Methods in ECE Today

The Montessori Method – Self-Directed Learning

I n a Montessori classroom, the main interaction is between the child and the materials, not between the teacher and the child. Initially, the teacher demonstrates the proper use of each set of materials, after which children may work on them individually or in small groups. The teacher’s role in a Montessori school is to observe in order to connect the child with the suitable materials. Children learn through experience, by observing and doing. They practice life skills like buttoning, zipping, cutting, and gardening, enabling children to care for themselves as well as their environment. Learning in the Montessori classroom is cumulative, constantly building on what was learned prior. Activities are primarily individual, and children move around the classroom freely, choosing their own activities. The emphasis is on self-directed learning children pursue their own interests at the pace that best suits them, rather than moving through teacher-led lessons as a group. Children develop respect for each other and their classroom, placing items back on shelves before reaching for new ones. Their work is taken seriously, and not regarded as play.

The High/Scope Program – Plan-Do-Review Process

H igh/Scope was founded in 1970 and emerged from the work Dave Weikart en Connie Kamii did on the Perry Preschool Project. High/Scope provides broad, realistic educational experiences geared to children’s current stages of development, to promote the constructive processes of learning necessary to broaden emerging intellectual and social skills. In a High/Scope classroom, students are engaged in learning ‘centers’, including building, dramatic play, math, reading, music, writing, art, science, and motor development. A typical day would demonstrate a three-part process: “Plan-Do-Review.” Beginning with planning, the class and teacher discuss and create plans for a certain play period. Children go about their various activities, (Do) while teachers observe and offer support. The “review” process takes place after the play period, where students and teachers gather to discuss what they have found. This helps children understand their own actions, and enables connections between action and language. Children’s work is proudly displayed on the walls of the classroom.

Waldorf Schools – Hands-On Exploration

D eveloped by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) in 1919, Waldorf programs aim to educate the whole child — “head, heart, and hands.” Children in Waldorf schools are allowed to remain ‘childlike’, under the belief that there is a time for every aspect of development, and that children ought not to receive formal education until after the age of 7. Learning is hands-on, achieved through cooking, art projects, storytelling, singing, puppet shows, dress-up, and play. The teacher stays with the same group of children from preschool through eighth grade. The focus in the Waldorf classroom is on sensory exploration and self-discovery rather than formal instruction and merit, helping children develop a sense of compassion and responsibility. The use of electronic media, especially TV, by young children is discouraged in Waldorf schools.

Reggio Emilia Schools – Classroom as the “Third Teacher”

L oris Malaguzzi (1920-1994) founded the Reggio Emilia approach at the Italian city of the same name. The Reggio approach fosters intellectual development through a focus on symbolic representation. The primary curriculum is in-depth project work based on the interests of the children. Children are encouraged to express themselves through ‘natural languages’, including drawing, painting, working in clay, sculpting, constructing, conversing, and dramatic play. In a Reggio Emilia school, educators pay close attention to the look and feel of the classroom, which is often referred to as the “third teacher.” The goal is to create a room that is beautiful, joyful, inviting, and stimulating. Teachers document the children’s discussions, remarks, and activities through notes, videos, and photographs. This makes learning visible and helps parents to understand what their children are learning teachers get to know the children better and children see that their work is valued.

Bank Street Approach – Learning by Doing

J ohn Dewey (1859-1952) and his theory of ‘learning by doing’ influenced this developmental approach. The focus of Bank Street preschools is on a child’s mental, social, emotional, and physical growth. In these programs, the child is an active learner and gains knowledge about the world through experience. Students set the learning pace, and the teacher serves as a guide. Bank Street approach teaches lessons through hands-on activities, such as building blocks, puzzles, clay, and dramatic play.


The History of Medieval Armor

The term "Medieval" Generally signifies the ten century period spanning the 5 th through 16 th centuries. And for the most part this is what this look at medieval armor will focus on. But, in order to understand how armor developed over these centuries I will also give you some background information on armor as it leads up to that period.

Factors of Medieval Armor development

Armor changed, evolved and improved over the medieval period and there are a few factors that had a tremendous impact on this evolution.

• The development of different types, and more effective weapons: Weapons such as swords, spears, daggers and polearms all changed over the centuries, in part to achieve effectiveness against armor. The longbow and crossbow were very effective against varying armor types and new armor had to be developed to counter these weapons. This changing and evolving between weapons and armor were what could be called an arms race - weapons would improve then armor would improve then weapons had to improve and so on.

• Developments in metal working skills - as we moved out of the bronze age and into the iron age the new ways of working with metals made stronger armor and gave armies technologies to make more effective armor.

• Changing philosophies and cultures - these things also had a big impact on how armor changed.

• Gunpowder eventually put an end to armor.

Armor before the Medieval Period

There are two major lines of armor that lead up to the armor in Europe through the Medieval Period. The first line is the classical line that came out of the Mycenaean (Alexander the Great), Greek and Roman traditions. The major materials that armor was made from included Bronze and Iron.

The second line came out of the Celtic and Teutonic people. This is called the Barbarian armor line. The armor made in this line was predominantly leather and mail.

The dominance of Chainmail through most of the medieval period

Out of all the various armor types chain mail (also known as ring mail) was the most successful and it lasted the longest. Earliest versions of this type of armor date back to the first century and this mail was in use in different variations all the way through the medieval period and beyond to the 17 th century. It was called chain mail or ring mail because it was made of a series of small rings that were interlocked together. This means of assembly was very effective against slicing and stabbing weapons and normal arrows. It was also very complex to make and a chainmail chest piece (often called a hauberk) could be composed of thousands of these little rings. (The picture shows a knight in complete chainmail with a surcoat over it)

Chain Mail - It was in use in various forms throughout the whole medieval period in a variety of capacities. For many centuries is was very effective. But the brunt of its effectiveness was against slashing weapons. The rings that composed the mail were effective at defeating slashing weapons but were not effective against the brunt force blow of weapons such as hammers and maces.

Want to watch a video on how to make chainmail? I have one on my youtube channel here. How to Make Chainmail

Over the centuries of the medieval period this deficiency was minimized by added a variety of other materials either under or over the chain mail hauberk. These could be a leather jerkin or padded gambeson under the mail or a coat or plates and a surcoat over the mail. This could get very cumbersome and while adding extra layers of padding and protection could reduce concussive damage it still didn't keep pace with the development of weapons.

In the 13 th century the mail become less and less effective, particularly because of the use of crossbows and better weapons. Armorers moved in the direction of adding various pieces of plate either under the mail or over the mail. These were just parts like chest plates or elbow guards. This was a move toward plate armor.

A development in armor was the coat of plates which lasted roughly through the 14th century.

After 1350 the use of solid breastplates came into more use. They were typically made of a solid plate in the front and a solid plate in the back called a backplate. Iron breastplates appeared as early as 1190.

The Transition to Plate Mail

The most important development after the common use of the breastplate was the addition of more plate armor on various body parts. These included vambraces over the arms, greaves for the lower legs and various other partial plates for shoulders, elbows and knees. (Drawing shows this transition with full mail armor and the addition of some plate armor on arms and legs)

Eventually these all evolved into the complete set of plate armor that we think of when we think of a knight in armor. In this armor every part of a knight's body was covered with plate armor. And these developments of additional protection also had sub developments. A good example of this is the demi-greaves which covered only the front part of the lower leg. These developed into closed greaves which went all the way around the lower leg.

The 15 th Century as the zenith of Platemail suits of Armor

The 15 th century was the pinnacle of medieval armor and it all revolved around the knights complete set of plate armor. In the beginning of the century the art and craft of making complete plate armor sets developed into two different schools: The Italian and the German. Toward the end of the 15 th century and beginning of the 16 th century these two schools diverged into what is considered to be the pinnacle of armor making: The Maximilian.

It is during this century that armor also morphed into three different types of armors - Field armor (for Battle) , Ceremonial armor (for ceremonies and good looks) and jousting armor for the knightly competitions. Each type of armor was specifically designed for its use. Battle armor was designed for maximum mobility with optimal protection, ceremonial armor was made to look great and to impress. It was often detailed with gold and silver. And Jousting armor was designed for the specific requirements of the joust which might include an overly large and strong pauldron to deflect an enemy's lance or special braces to support the weight of one's own lance.

Helmets - Helmets also underwent many changes during the medieval period and a lot of this was influenced by the ability to work with metal and better understanding of what protected better in combat.

Early helmets were typically flat and they developed toward more round and curved in shape because a curved shape would deflect a blow rather than take the full brunt. And in the latest periods the helmets were multiple pieces riveted together and had moving parts like a visor.

Shields - These also changed as other components of armor and weapons changed. In the early centuries of the medieval period they were large and round. As the centuries progressed the got smaller and triangular in shape. I have more information about medieval shields and how they developed and changed here: The Medieval Shield

Metal Working skills throughout the medieval period

The early armor was made with leather, iron, bronze or other hard materials. Steel was developed but only saw limited use because it was difficult to make and tended to be brittle. In the later centuries techniques were developed so plates of armor had carbon added to just the outer surfaces of them. This created a very hard outer surface yet with the softer inner surface of iron there was still some flexibility.

History of Medieval Armor Timeline


Classicism and the Early Middle Ages

In 1942 a farmer plowing a field in the East of England unearthed a substantial hoard of Roman silver dating from the fourth century, C.E. This became known as the “Mildenhall Treasure,” named for the nearby town. Its original owner may have buried his collection of banqueting vessels when the Roman administration left England in 410 C.E., hoping that he could later retrieve it. Among the spoons, bowls, dishes, and ladles is a two-foot wide silver platter weighing almost eighteen pounds, with classical motifs borrowed from antiquity (ancient Greece and Rome). However, though the platter depicts the gods Neptune and Bacchus, the owner was likely a follower of Christianity—a newly-sanctioned religion that was not yet the dominant belief system in Europe. This confluence of classical and Christian concepts is typical of the early middle ages. Because of the political and social upheavals happening in Europe at this time, the art of this period comprises a wide range of styles and themes that often blend classical elements with new and different ones.

A “decline”?

The transition between antiquity and the Middle Ages is often perceived as having been marked by a sharp break in beliefs and artistic style. This change was, in the past, characterized by scholars as a “decline.” According to this narrative, the chaotic and unstable atmosphere of the Roman Empire in the later third century led many of its inhabitants to embrace new, minority religions imported from the empire’s edges. Some of these were messianic religions that promised members an afterlife more pleasant than their current, increasingly difficult existences. At the same time, the economic struggles of the Late Roman Empire undermined investment in the artists’ workshops where the naturalism of classical Roman art had been taught to generations of artists. Lacking the traditional training, means, and patrons who valued classicism , artists during this period often worked in a more static, two-dimensional style that emphasized ideas and symbols over naturalistic illusionism. The abandonment of naturalistic style also coincided, it seemed, with the rise of a new majority religion, Christianity, that rejected materiality and traditional forms of beauty in favor of simplicity and self-denial.

Two reliefs from the Arch of Constantine: left: roundel showing Sacrifice to Apollo, c. 117-138 C.E. right: Detail, Distribution of Largesse, 312-315

Two stone reliefs installed on the Arch of Constantine demonstrate this supposed “decline.” The reused roundel with a sacrifice to Apollo (left) originally carved for a monument to the Emperor Trajan between 117 and 138 (when the Roman empire was more stable), displays many key characteristics of classicism: varied depth of relief , carefully delineated drapery folds, and figures shifting in space. By contrast, in the panel depicting the emperor distributing largesse (right), commissioned in the Late Empire between 312 and 315, the figures seem almost comically disproportionate, with enormous heads and hands, and draperies indicated by drilled lines.

Funerary procession, Amiternum Tomb, c. 50-1 B.C.E. (Museum, Aquila) (photo: Erin Taylor, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The problem with the idea of a “decline” is that it ignores the many, often contradictory, currents of art and experience that existed in the late antique world. Romans had long sought to incorporate newly conquered and colonized populations by appropriating local religious beliefs and artistic traditions, in the process creating new, localized versions of Roman art that were sometimes less naturalistic. Even artists working in the capital, Rome, could choose to employ either naturalism or a more symbolic visual shorthand, depending on who made the art and who consumed it—as in the Amiternum Tomb (above), which was made during the first century, when classicism was the most prominent style. Instead of displaying a classical attention to composition, the artist has arrayed stocky figures of a variety of sizes in a seemingly haphazard way—going against the current artistic trends of the day.

Classicism survives

If works like the Amiternum Tomb help complicate the idea of an artistic decline, do they perhaps simply demonstrate variances in artists’ and patrons’ tastes? Some have argued that Emperor Constantine (who decriminalized Christianity in Rome in the early fourth century), and by extension the increasingly Christian populace, were, because of their beliefs, drawn to a non-classical style that denied naturalism in favor of a more symbolic set of forms. But surviving artworks commissioned by wealthy Romans show that, like their pagan peers, many Christians often still preferred a classicizing style—even if the subjects portrayed were new. For instance, in the middle of the fourth century the body of Junius Bassus, a Roman prefect (high official) , was buried in an elaborate marble sarcophagus.

Plaster cast of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, the original marble sarcophagus dates to 359 C.E. and is located in the Treasury, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

Since he was a Christian convert, Junius’s sarcophagus was covered with narrative and symbolic scenes from the Christian bible, all rendered in a classicizing style. The standing apostles are wrapped in Roman togas and the youthful Christ sits on a sella curulis , the animal-headed and -footed chair of the governing classes. Unlike most classical works, here the hands and heads of the figures are a little too large, but the artist was clearly attempting to employ the stylistic language of classicism to transmit Christian content.

The Symmachi Panel, c. 400 C.E., carved elephant ivory (Victoria and Albert Museum, London)

These aesthetic departures from strict classicism were not limited to Christian-sponsored art: the same tendencies are apparent in objects that were commissioned by avowed pagans around the same time. This ivory panel was commissioned to celebrate a marriage between members of two Roman patrician (noble) families, the Nicomachi and Symmachi. A female figure with an oversized head and hands stands next to an altar, while a comparatively tiny servant stands behind it. The woman’s back leg projects in front of the surrounding frame, while her front leg, counterintuitively, stands on the ground within it, breaking the rules of naturalism. Based on the artworks that survive, we know that both pagan and Christian patrons found these kinds of contradictions in space and proportion acceptable.

A hoard of silver

There were also a diversity of themes preferred amongst patrons of different religions. Artworks from this time sometimes combine overtly pagan content with classicizing style, but for use by Christians. The so-called “Great Dish” found in the Mildenhall treasure is a shining example of such artistic combinations. Concentric rings of repoussé and engraved decoration celebrate the classical themes of the ocean and Bacchic revelry. The hair and beard of the Roman god Neptune in the center of the dish radiate dolphins and seaweed. Around him nymphs ride sea creatures.

The Mildenhall Great Dish, 4th century C.E., silver, 60.5 cm diameter (The British Museum)

In the outer band Bacchus (the god of wine), Hercules, Pan and throngs of satyrs and maenads holding Bacchic thistle-headed staffs and a shepherd’s crook twist and turn, draperies swirling, dancing with wine-induced abandon.

The Mildenhall Great Dish, 4th century C.E., silver, 60.5 cm diameter (The British Museum) (photo: Ian, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

While this dish’s classicizing style and subject matter are undeniable, we known that its owner was likely Christian, as spoons from his dinnerware set (below) include the Christian symbols of the Chi-Rho and Alpha and Omega . Despite his Christianity, the owner likely felt perfectly comfortable displaying the platter with its exuberant dancing nudes on his sideboard for the admiration of his guests.

Rather than demonstrating a “decline” or a sharp break in artistic themes and styles, Roman artworks of the early middle ages display as much diversity and blending as the empire itself.

Spoons from the Mildenhall Treasure, 4th century CE, silver (The British Museum)

Bykomende hulpbronne:

Dale Kinney and Anthony Cutler, “A Late Antique Ivory Plaque and Modern Response,” American Journal of Archeology 98 (1994), pp. 457-480

Richard Hobbs, The Mildenhall Treasure (London: The British Museum Press, 2012)


Top 10 Medieval Urban Legends

Who doesn&rsquot love a good legend? They are obviously extremely popular owing to the millions of spam emails that fly around the internet every day filled with the latest urban legend waiting for snopes to debunk it. This list looks at some more historical legends which, believe it or not, some people still believe to this day. It seems that no amount of snopesing can debunk them perhaps listverse will fare better.

An incubus is a demon in male form supposed to lie upon sleepers, especially women, in order to have sexual intercourse with them, according to a number of mythological and legendary traditions. Its female counterpart is the succubus. An incubus may pursue sexual relations with a woman in order to father a child, as in the legend of Merlin, and some sources indicate that it may be identified by its unnaturally cold penis. Religious tradition holds that repeated intercourse with an incubus or succubus may result in the deterioration of health, or even death. A number of secular explanations have been offered for the origin of the incubus legends. They involve the medieval preoccupation with sin, especially sexual sins of women. Victims may have been experiencing waking dreams or sleep paralysis.

The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel refers to the ancient Tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. Many groups of Jews have doctrines concerning the continued hidden existence or future public return of these tribes. This is a subject that is partially based upon authenticated and documented historical fact, partially upon written religious tradition and partially upon speculation. There is a vast amount of literature on the Lost Tribes and no specific source can be relied upon for a complete answer. Some scientists have researched the topic, and at various times some have made claims of empirical evidence of the Ten Lost Tribes. However, religious and scriptural sources remain the main sources of the belief that the Ten Lost Tribes have some continuing, though hidden, identity somewhere. It should be noted that the Book of Mormon suggests that the Native Americans are from two of the lost tribes.

The Fountain of Youth is a legendary spring that reputedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks of its waters. Florida (ironically) is often said to be its location, and stories of the fountain are some of the most persistent associated with the state. Eternal youth is a gift frequently sought in myth and legend, and stories of things such as the philosopher&rsquos stone, universal panaceas, and the elixir of life are common throughout Eurasia and elsewhere. Unfortunately, earlier native versions of the legend (from before the Old World became old) are not known outside of what snippets Spanish chroniclers managed to preserve of what is sure to have been a rich tradition.

The Wandering Jew is a figure from medieval Christian folklore whose legend began to spread in Europe in the thirteenth century and became a fixture of Christian mythology, and, later, of Romanticism. The legend concerns a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to the Crucifixion and was then cursed to walk the earth until the Second Coming. The exact nature of the wanderer&rsquos indiscretion varies in different versions of the tale, as do aspects of his character sometimes he is said to be a shoemaker or other tradesman, sometimes he is the doorman at Pontius Pilate&rsquos estate. The origins of the legend are debatable perhaps one element is the story in Genesis of Cain, who is issued with a similar punishment &mdash to wander over the earth, never reaping a harvest again, but scavenging.

Pope Joan (also called La Papessa) is the name of a legendary female pope who supposedly reigned for less than three years in the 850s, between the papacies of Leo IV and Benedict III (though there were only two months between the two reigns). She is known primarily from a legend that circulated in the Middle Ages. Pope Joan is regarded by most modern historians and religious scholars as fictitious, possibly originating as an anti-papal satire. The story of Pope Joan is known mainly from the 13th century chronicler Martin of Opava &ndash writing 500 years after the alleged Popess. Most scholars dismiss Pope Joan as a medieval legend. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes acknowledges that this legend was widely believed for centuries, even among Catholic circles, but declares that there is &ldquono contemporary evidence for a female pope at any of the dates suggested for her reign,&rdquo and goes on to say that &ldquothe known facts of the respective periods make it impossible to fit [a female pope] in&rdquo. For those who are wondering what would happen if this were true (or were to ever be true): nothing a female is not able to be a priest and a Pope cannot be crowned unless he is a priest first.

Robin Hood is an archetypal figure in English folklore, whose story originates from medieval times, but who remains significant in popular culture where he is known for &ldquostealing from the rich and giving to the poor&rdquo and fighting against injustice and tyranny. His band includes a &ldquothree score&rdquo group of fellow outlawed yeomen &ndash called his &ldquoMerry Men.&rdquo The origin of the legend is claimed by some to have stemmed from actual outlaws, or from tales of outlaws, such as Hereward the Wake, Eustace the Monk, Fulk FitzWarin, and William Wallace. There are a number of theories that attempt to identify a historical Robin Hood, but for various reasons (such as the popularity of the name in the Middle Ages), it is unlikely to ever come up with any evidence that suggests he is not just a legend.

According to Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers. The connection of Joseph of Arimathea with the Grail legend dates from Robert de Boron&rsquos Joseph d&rsquoArimathie (late 12th century) in which Joseph receives the Grail from an apparition of Jesus and sends it with his followers to Great Britain. The development of the Grail legend has been traced in detail by cultural historians: It is a legend which first came together in the form of written romances, deriving perhaps from some pre-Christian folklore hints, in the later 12th and early 13th centuries. The early Grail romances centered on Percival and were woven into the more general Arthurian fabric. Some of the Grail legend is interwoven with legends of the Holy Chalice.

King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders in the early 6th century. The details of Arthur&rsquos story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum (History of the Britons) and Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals), sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons sometime in the late 5th to early 6th century, but the lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of post-Roman Britain.

The Children&rsquos Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events which happened in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French or German boy an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity bands of children marching to Italy and children being sold into slavery. A study published in 1977 cast doubt on the existence of these events and many historians now believe that they were not (or not primarily) children but multiple bands of &ldquowandering poor&rdquo in Germany and France, some of whom tried to reach the Holy Land and others who never intended to do so. Early versions of events, of which there are many variations told over the centuries, are largely apocryphal. Recent research suggests the participants were not children, at least not the very young. The confusion started because later chroniclers, who were not witness to the events of 1212 and who were writing 30 years or more later, began to translate the original accounts and misunderstood the Latin word pueri, meaning &ldquoboys&rdquo, to mean literally &ldquochildren&rdquo. The original accounts did use the term pueri but it had a slang meaning, similar to how the term &ldquocountry bumpkins&rdquo is used as a derogatory term in the rural United States.

The legends of Prester John, popular in Europe from the 12th through the 17th centuries, told of a Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims and pagans in the Orient. Written accounts of this kingdom are variegated collections of medieval popular fantasy. Reportedly a descendant of one of the Three Magi, Prester John was said to be a generous ruler and a virtuous man, presiding over a realm full of riches and strange creatures, in which the Patriarch of the Saint Thomas Christians resided. His kingdom contained such marvels as the Gates of Alexander and the Fountain of Youth, and even bordered the Earthly Paradise. Among his treasures was a mirror through which every province could be seen, the fabled original from which derived the &ldquospeculum literature&rdquo of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, in which the prince&rsquos realms were surveyed and his duties laid out. Despite the non-existence of Prester John, the medieval belief in the legend affected several hundred years of European and world history, directly and indirectly, by encouraging Europe&rsquos explorers, missionaries, scholars and treasure hunters.

This article is licensed under the GFDL because it contains quotations from Wikipedia.


The evolution of London: the city's near-2,000 year history mapped

How did London evolve from its creation as a Roman city in 43AD to the crowded, chaotic megacity we see today? The London Evolution Animation takes a holistic view of what was built in the capital during different historical periods – what has been lost, what saved and what protected.

Greater London covers 600 square miles, however up until the 17th century the capital was largely crammed into a single square mile, marked by the skyscrapers of the financial City today.

The visualisation, originally created for the Almost Lost exhibition by the Bartlett Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (Casa), explores the development of the city through the evolution of the road network and preserved buildings.

Unlike other historical cities such as Athens or Rome, where there is an obvious patchwork of areas from different periods, London's scheduled sites and listed buildings are individual structures, in many cases assembled gradually by parts from many different periods. Those who try to locate different historic structures will know that these features appear as pieces of different jigsaw puzzles, scattered across the contemporary city.

The animation took nine months to make, using a variety of methods and data from several sources. The Museum of London Archaeology provided datasets for the Roman and Medieval periods as well as the 17th and early 18th centuries. The University of Cambridge’s engineering department contributed road network datasets from the late 18th century to today. An additional Tudor layer was based on a map of London in 1520 from the Historic Towns Trust data on the city’s 19,000 listed buildings and 156 scheduled monuments came from English Heritage and buildings data was drawn from the Ordnance Survey.

In the visualisation, new road segments appear gradually over an image of faded contemporary London. For each period, gradually enlarging yellow points highlight statutorily protected buildings and structures.

The animation has also provided a starting point for the development of a virtual model which will enable us to better understand and anticipate the wider impact of development on London’s historic fabric. We are currently working on a 3D version.

Early Victorian London. Brighter white lines show new roads built during the period Photograph: Casa

The greatest preserved feature of the city is its own urban fabric. London started its evolution with the Roman creation of Londinium and some of the main axes of the contemporary city, such as Oxford Street, are still with us.

London was abandoned in 410AD and under the Saxons isolated farmsteads were built in the surrounding countryside. Some of these – such as Enfield, Hampton and Chelsea – grew to form the heart of villages which still act as centres in modern London.

From the 9th century, London grew again within its original Roman boundary, and during the Norman period it was connected by the Strand to a new political centre at Westminster. By this time most of Roman London had been lost, with its many timber buildings decayed and its stone buildings reused. Today, virtually nothing from the Roman period exists above ground, though beneath street level many important archaeological remains survive.

During the Medieval period plagues and famines significantly restricted population growth, however under the Tudors, London’s population increased to around 200,000. Following Henry VIII’s demolition of London’s religious houses, significant new development occurred, and a number of royal retreats were built away from the centre: Hampton Court and Eltham Palace survive.

The Great Fire of 1666 destroyed four-fifths of the city and more than 13,000 medieval, Tudor and early-17th century buildings were lost. As a result only a tiny proportion of pre-1700 London buildings and structures exist today all those that survive largely intact are protected and their location is shown in the animation.

Between 1714 and 1840, London’s population swelled from around 630,000 to nearly 2 million, making it the largest and most powerful city in the world.

The Polygon of Somers Town in an etching from 1850. It was demolished in the 1890s and a modern housing estate occupies the site. Photograph: Alamy Photograph: Alan King engraving / Alamy/Alamy

A significant proportion of Georgian structures survive today, even though commercial development in the first half of the 20th century destroyed many.

The Victorian period found London expanding once more, as the population grew from around 2 million to 6.5 million. The opening of the London Underground in 1863 effectively cut distances and enabled residents to leave the crowded centre for more spacious suburban developments. Despite a culling of Victorian buildings between the 1940s and 70s, the sheer scale of development has led a much higher survival rate.

The population peaked in 1940 at around 8.5 million, before declining and then rising recently to just over 8 million. Despite the decline and the devastation caused by the second world war, the 20th century saw the largest urban expansion in London’s history.


Kyk die video: Geschiedenis Middeleeuwen - Steden en Staten 1000-1500: de pest, Hanze, kruistochten


Kommentaar:

  1. Agrican

    Cute message

  2. Guzilkree

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  3. Van Eych

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  4. Halim

    Dit spreek natuurlik vanselfsprekend.

  5. Meztigal

    nie veel nie

  6. Agnimukha

    I apologize for interfering ... But this topic is very close to me. Ready to help.

  7. Dazahn

    Ek sal nie sê oor hierdie onderwerp nie.



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