Watter anti-Japannese guerrilla-eenhede was van 1944-1945 aktief in Mantsjoerije?

Watter anti-Japannese guerrilla-eenhede was van 1944-1945 aktief in Mantsjoerije?


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Ek skryf 'n historiese fiksieroman met 'n Noord-Koreaanse protagonis wat hom in 1944 by die anti-Japannese guerrillamagte in Mantsjoerije aangesluit het.

Ek verstaan ​​dat die groot anti-Japannese weerstand in Mantsjoerije in 1941 uitgeroei is en Kim il sung afgetree het na die grens van die USSR.

Watter anti-Japannese guerrillagroepe was nog gedurende hierdie tyd aktief?


Daar was 'n 'weermag' genaamd 'Northeast Anti Japanese United Army' (Engelse Wiki) onder die hoofbeheer van die Kommunistiese Party van China (die naam destyds).

Maar soos u op die skakel kan lees,

Op die hoogtepunt van hul aktiwiteite het NAJUA 'n mag van 10 000 troepe gehad. Hulle het die guerrilla -oorlogvoering geloods in die agterkant van die Japannese leër, wat die hoofland China binnegeval het. Die Japannese weermag het besef dat NAJUA die grootste bedreiging vir hul operasie op die vasteland van China is. Dus begin die Japanse weermag, tesame met die Manchukuo-leër, met die operasies om NAJUA middel 1930 te vee. Net soos NAJUA, het die Manchkuo -leër baie Koreaanse offisiere ingesluit wat hul lojaliteit aan Japan belowe het. Sulke Koreaanse offisiere was Park Chung-Hee, Baek Seon Yeop en Jeong Il-Gwon, wat later die volle generaals in die Suid-Koreaanse weermag en (na staatsgreep van 16 Mei) hooggeplaastes in die Suid-Koreaanse regering geword het. En die Manchkuo -leër het 'n spesiale troep, Jiandao Teshedui (Chinees: 間 島 特設 隊, Koreaans: 간도 특설 대), wat hoofsaaklik uit Koreane bestaan ​​het. Hulle het die moeilikste take aangeneem om NAJUA aan te val.

Namate die offensief van die Japannese weermag kwaai geword het, het NAJUA groot slagoffers gely. Baie van hul soldate was dood of gevange geneem. Boonop het Japannese militêre intelligensie NAJUA -gevangenes verlei of gemartel om na die Japannese kant te bekeer. Die bekeerde het Japannese gehelp om hul gewese kamerade aan te val. In sy outobiografie, Segiwa Deobuleo (세기 와 더불어), herinner Kim Il-Sung dat sulke bekerings van oud-kamerade pynliker was as die Japannese hewige offensiewe of moeilike klimaat in Mantsjoerije. Om hierdie redes kon NAJUA nie meer aktiwiteite in Mantsjoerije doen nie. Op bevel van CPC het NAJUA na die USSR ontsnap. Daar is hulle formeel opgeneem in die Rooi Leër, as die 88ste Internasionale Brigade, maar hulle het die organisasie van NAJUA behou. Die troepe wat in Mantsjoerije oorgebly het, is heeltemal deur Japannese vernietig. Die ontsnapte troepe het in die USSR gebly totdat die oorlog geëindig het. Nadat Japan oorgegee het, het Koreane en Chinese teruggekeer na hul eie lande en die revolusionêre aktiwiteite daar begin.

Ongelukkig was daar geen groep wat 'n 'weermag' genoem is nie, selfs die grootte van die 'georganiseerde groep' sedert 1944, wat grootliks aktief was in anti -Japannese aktiwiteite. Dit was totdat die USSR Mantsjoerye binnegeval het dat die 'anti-Japannese' aktiwiteite begin funksioneer het.


Daar was vroeg in 1945 tekens van die Kommunistiese Agtste Roete -leër (drie afdelings, een onder Lin Piao), in Mantsjoerije. Gedurende die herfs van die jaar, nadat die Japannese vertrek het, het Lin 'nog' meer 'divisies' na die streek gedruk, en dit aansienlik ingeneem vir die kommuniste (behalwe die groot stede).

Baie Koreane in die streek het tot by die einde van die oorlog by die Agtste Roete -weermag aangesluit, wat teruggekeer het na (Noord-) Korea en hul deelname aan die land se kommunistiese weermag.


Filippynse verset teen Japan

Tydens die Japannese besetting van die eilande in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was daar 'n uitgebreide Filippynse versetbeweging, wat die Japannese gekant was met aktiewe ondergrondse en guerrilla -aktiwiteite wat oor die jare toegeneem het. Die stryd teen die guerrillas-afgesien van die Japannese gereelde magte-was 'n Japannese gevormde Buro vir Konstabulêre (wat later die naam van die ou Filippynse Konstabulêre geneem het tydens die Tweede Republiek), [2] [3] Kempeitai (die Japannese militêre polisie), [2] en die Makapili (Filippyne wat om die Japannese veg). [4] Naoorlogse studies skat dat ongeveer 260 000 mense onder guerrillagroepe georganiseer is en dat lede van anti-Japannese ondergrondse organisasies meer was. [5] [6] Dit was doeltreffend dat Japan teen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog slegs twaalf van die agt-en-veertig provinsies beheer het.

Bepaalde eenhede van die verset sal herorganiseer en toegerus word as eenhede van die Filippynse weermag en konstabel. [7] Die Amerikaanse regering het amptelik betalings en voordele toegestaan ​​aan verskeie etnisiete wat teen die einde van die oorlog met die Geallieerdes geveg het. Slegs die Filippyne is egter uitgesluit van sulke voordele, en sedertdien het hierdie veterane moeite gedoen om uiteindelik deur die Verenigde State erken te word. Sowat 277 afsonderlike guerrilla -eenhede wat uit 260 715 individue bestaan ​​het, is amptelik erken dat hulle in die versetbeweging geveg het. [8]


Inhoud

Japan het op 8 Desember 1941 'n aanval op die Filippyne geloods, net tien uur na hul aanval op Pearl Harbor. [2] Aanvanklike lugbombardement is gevolg deur landings van grondtroepe noord en suid van Manila. [3] Die verdedigende troepe van die Filippyne en die Verenigde State was onder bevel van generaal Douglas MacArthur, wat vroeër die jaar in die Amerikaanse weermag herroep is en aangewys is as bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse weermag in die Asië-Stille Oseaan streek. [4] Die vliegtuie van sy bevel is vernietig, die vlootmag is beveel om te vertrek en as gevolg van die omstandighede in die Stille Oseaan, was versterking en heraanbod van sy grondmagte onmoontlik. [5] Onder die druk van groter getalle het die verdedigende magte teruggetrek na die Bataan -skiereiland en na die eiland Corregidor by die ingang van Manilabaai. [6] Manila, 'n oop stad verklaar om die vernietiging daarvan te voorkom, [7] is op 2 Januarie 1942 deur die Japannese beset. [8]

Die Filippynse verdediging duur voort tot die finale oorgawe van die Amerikaanse-Filippynse magte op die Bataan-skiereiland in April 1942 en op Corregidor in Mei. [9] Die meeste van die 80 000 krygsgevangenes wat deur die Japannese in Bataan gevang is, moes die berugte "Bataan Death March" na 'n gevangeniskamp 105 kilometer na die noorde onderneem. [9] Duisende mans, verswak deur siektes en ondervoeding en hard behandel deur hul gevangenes, is dood voordat hulle hul bestemming bereik het. [10] Quezon en Osmeña het die troepe na Corregidor vergesel en later na die Verenigde State vertrek, waar hulle 'n ballingskapregering op die been gebring het. [11] MacArthur is na Australië bestel, waar hy begin beplan het vir 'n terugkeer na die Filippyne. [12]


Die beroep [wysig | wysig bron]

Waarskuwing vir plaaslike inwoners om hul perseel sanitêr te hou of straf te kry.

'N 100 Pesos -nota gemaak deur die Japannese tydens die besetting.

Die Japannese militêre owerhede het onmiddellik begin met die organisering van 'n nuwe regeringstruktuur in die Filippyne. Alhoewel die Japanners na die besetting onafhanklikheid vir die eilande beloof het, het hulle aanvanklik 'n Staatsraad georganiseer waardeur hulle burgerlike aangeleenthede gelei het tot Oktober 1943, toe hulle die Filippyne tot 'n onafhanklike republiek verklaar het. ⎙ ] Die meeste van die Filippynse elite, met enkele noemenswaardige uitsonderings, dien onder die Japannese. ⎚ ] Die republiek wat deur Japan geborg word, staan ​​onder leiding van president José P. Laurel. ⎛ ] Filippynse samewerking in Japannese geborgde politieke instellings het begin onder Jorge B. Vargas, wat oorspronklik deur Quezon aangestel is as die burgemeester van Greater Manila voordat Quezon uit Manila vertrek het. ⎜ ] Die enigste politieke party wat tydens die besetting toegelaat is, was die Japannese georganiseerde KALIBAPI. ⎝ ] Tydens die besetting het die meeste Filippyne lojaal gebly aan die Verenigde State, en#9118 ] en oorlogsmisdade wat deur magte van die Ryk van Japan gepleeg is teen geallieerde magte, en#9119 ] en burgerlikes is gedokumenteer. ⎠ ] ⎡ ]

Weerstand [wysig | wysig bron]

Japannese besetting van die Filippyne is gekant teen aktiewe en suksesvolle ondergrondse en guerrilla -aktiwiteite wat oor die jare toegeneem het, wat uiteindelik 'n groot deel van die land beslaan het. Teenoor hierdie guerrillas was 'n in Japan gestigte Buro vir Konstabulêre (wat later die naam van die ou Konstabulêre geneem het tydens die Tweede Republiek), ⎢ ] ⎣ ] Kempeitai, ⎢ ] en die Makapili. ⎤ ] Na-oorlogse ondersoeke het getoon dat ongeveer 260 000 mense in guerilla-organisasies was en dat lede van die anti-Japannese ondergronds nog meer was. Dit was so effektief dat Japan teen die einde van die oorlog slegs twaalf van die agt-en-veertig provinsies beheer het. ⎥ ]

Die Filippynse guerrillabeweging het aanhou groei, ondanks Japannese veldtogte daarteen. Dwarsdeur Luzon en die suidelike eilande het Filippyne by verskillende groepe aangesluit en belowe om teen die Japannese te veg. Die bevelvoerders van hierdie groepe het met mekaar kontak gemaak, gestry oor wie in beheer was van watter gebied, en planne begin formuleer om die terugkeer van Amerikaanse magte na die eilande te help. Hulle versamel belangrike intelligensie -inligting en smokkel dit na die Amerikaanse weermag, 'n proses wat soms maande duur. Generaal MacArthur het 'n klandestiene operasie gestig om die guerrillas te ondersteun. Hy het luitenant -bevelvoerder Charles "Chick" Parsons met 'n duikboot na hulle gesmokkel. Die guerrillamagte het op hul beurt hul wapens en plofstof opgebou en planne beraam om MacArthur se inval te help deur Japannese kommunikasielyne te saboteer en Japannese magte van agter af aan te val. ⎦ ]

Verskeie guerrillamagte het oor die hele argipel gevorm, wat wissel van groepe Amerikaanse weermagte in die Verre Ooste (USAFFE) wat geweier het om hulself oor te gee aan die plaaslike milisie wat aanvanklik georganiseer is om bandiete te beveg wat veroorsaak is deur wanorde veroorsaak deur die inval. ⎧ ] Verskeie eilande in die Visayas -streek het guerrillamagte onder leiding van Filippynse offisiere, soos kolonel Macario Peralta in Panay, ⎧ ] ⎨ ] majoor Ismael Ingeniero in Bohol, ⎧ ] &# 9129 ] en kaptein Salvador Abcede in Negros. ⎧ ] ⎪ ] Die eiland Mindanao, wat die verste van die sentrum van die Japannese besetting was, het 38 000 guerrilla's wat uiteindelik onder die bevel van die Amerikaanse siviele ingenieur, kolonel Wendell Fertig, gekonsolideer is. ⎧ ]

Een versetgroep in die Sentraal-Luzon-gebied was bekend as die Hukbalahap (Hukbo ng  Bayan Laban sa  Hapon), of die People's Anti-Japanese Army wat vroeg in 1942 georganiseer is onder leiding van Luis Taruc, 'n kommunistiese partylid sedert 1939. Die Huks het ongeveer 30 000 mense gewapen en hul beheer oor gedeeltes van Luzon uitgebrei. Guerrilla-aktiwiteite op Luzon is egter belemmer as gevolg van die swaar Japannese teenwoordigheid en die binnegevegte van die verskillende groepe. ⎭ ] ⎮ ]

Gebrek aan toerusting, moeilike terrein en onontwikkelde infrastruktuur het die koördinering van hierdie groepe bykans onmoontlik gemaak, en vir 'n paar maande in 1942 is alle kontak met die Filippynse weerstandsmagte verloor. Kommunikasie is in November 1942 herstel toe die gereformeerde Filippynse 61ste afdeling op Panay -eiland onder leiding van kolonel Macario Peralta radiokontak kon bewerkstellig met die USAFFE -bevel in Australië. Dit het die intelligensie aangaande Japannese magte in die Filippyne na SWPA -bevel gestuur, asook die eens sporadiese guerrilla -aktiwiteite gekonsolideer en die guerrillas in staat gestel om in die oorlogspoging te help. ⎧ ] Onder die seineenhede van Col   Peralta was die 61 Signal Company beman deur 2 Lt Ludovico Arroyo Bañas, wat geheg was aan die magte van die 6de en#160 Militêre Afdeling, gestasioneer in Passi, Iloilo, onder bevel van kapt. Eliseo Espia en die 64ste   Seinmaatskappy van dieselfde Militêre Afdeling, onder bevel van LtCol. Cesar Hechanova, waaraan 2 lt. Bañas het later die verantwoordelikheid gekry. ⎯ ]

'N Toenemende hoeveelheid voorrade en radio is per duikboot afgelewer om die guerrilla -poging te bevorder. Teen die tyd van die Leyte -inval was vier duikbote uitsluitlik toegewy aan die aflewering van voorrade aan die guerrilla's. ⎧ ]

Ander guerrilla -eenhede was verbonde aan die SWPA en was aktief in die hele argipel. Sommige van hierdie eenhede was georganiseer of het direk verband gehou met vooraf-oorgawe-eenhede wat beveel is om guerrilla-aksies uit te voer. 'N Voorbeeld hiervan was Troop  C, 26ste Kavalerie. ⎰ ] ⎱ ] ⎲ ] Ander guerrilla -eenhede bestaan ​​uit voormalige Filippynse weermag- en Filippynse Verkenners -soldate wat deur die Japannese uit krygsgevangenekampe vrygelaat is. ⎳ ] ⎴ ] Ander was gesamentlike eenhede van Amerikaners, militêr en burgerlik, wat nooit oorgegee het of ontsnap het na oorgawe nie, en Filippyne, Christene en Moros, wat aanvanklik hul eie klein eenhede gevorm het. Kolonel Wendell Fertig het so 'n groep op Mindanao georganiseer wat nie net die Japannese effektief weerstaan ​​het nie, maar ook 'n volledige regering gevorm het wat gereeld op die hele eiland oop was. Sommige guerrilla -eenhede sou later bygestaan ​​word deur Amerikaanse duikbote wat voorrade afgelewer het, ⎵ ] ontruim vlugtelinge en beseerdes, ⎶ ] sowel as ingevoegde individue en hele eenhede, ⎷ ] soos die 5217ste verkenningsbataljon, ⎸ ] en Alamo Scouts. ⎸ ]

Teen die einde van die oorlog het ongeveer 277 afsonderlike guerrilla -eenhede bestaan ​​uit ongeveer 260,715 individue wat in die versetbeweging geveg het. ⎹ ] Gekose eenhede van die verset sal herorganiseer en toegerus word as eenhede van die Filippynse weermag en konstabel. ⎺ ]


Filippynse verset teen Japan

  • Wendell  Fertig
  • Russell  W.  Volckmann
  • Edwin  Ramsey
  • Marcos V. Agustin
  • Terry  Adevoso
  • James  M.  Cushing
  • Robert  Lapham
  • Ruperto  Kangleon
  • Macario  Peralta  Jr.
  • Xu Jingcheng [3]
  • Luis  Taruc
  • Casto  Alejandrino

Japan

  • Imperial  Japanese  Wapen
  • Konstabulêr (tot 1944)
  • Makapili (vanaf 1944)

Herken  Guerrillas

  • 10de militêre distrik
  • ECLGA
  • Marking's Guerillas
  • Cebu Area Command
  • Luzon Guerrilla gewapende magte
  • Leyte Area Command
  • 6de Militêre Distrik
  • Wha-Chi [3]

260 000 amptelik erkende lede van die pro-Amerikaanse verset ná die oorlog [7]

30 000 Hukbalahap -vegters [7]

Tydens die Japannese   -besetting  van  die   -eilande in Wêreld en#8197War  II, was daar 'n uitgebreide Filippynse versetbeweging (Filippynse: Kilusan van Paglaban op Pilipinas), wat die Japannese en hul medewerkers teenstaan ​​met aktiewe ondergrondse en guerrilla -aktiwiteite wat oor die jare toegeneem het. Die stryd teen die guerrillas-afgesien van die Japannese gereelde magte-was 'n in Japan gevormde Buro  Constabulary (later die naam van die ou Filippynse  Constabulary tydens die Tweede  Republiek), [12] [13] die Kenpeitai (die Japannese militêre polisie), [12] en die Makapili (Filippyne wat om die Japannese veg). [14] Naoorlogse studies skat dat ongeveer 260 000 mense onder guerrillagroepe georganiseer is en dat lede van anti-Japannese ondergrondse organisasies meer was. [15] [16] Dit was so effektief dat Japan teen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog slegs twaalf van die agt-en-veertig provinsies beheer het.

Bepaalde eenhede van die weerstand sou herorganiseer en toegerus word as eenhede van die Filippynse#8197 Army en Constabulary. [17] Die Amerikaanse regering het amptelik betalings en voordele toegestaan ​​aan verskillende etnisiteite wat teen die einde van die oorlog met die Geallieerdes geveg het. Slegs die Filippyne is egter uitgesluit van sulke voordele, en sedertdien het hierdie veterane moeite gedoen om uiteindelik deur die Verenigde State erken te word. Sowat 277 afsonderlike guerrilla -eenhede wat uit 260 715 individue bestaan ​​het, is amptelik erken dat hulle in die versetbeweging geveg het. [18]


Ontleder: Sowjet -desinformasieveldtog het gehelp om Noord -Korea te skep

NEW YORK, 25 Maart (UPI) - Die stigterleier van Noord -Korea het moontlik nooit die mag verkry nie, as dit nie was vanweë 'n Sowjet -propagandaveldtog en onderdrukking wat hom gehelp het om teenstanders na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te verslaan nie, sê 'n historikus wat spesialiseer in die geskiedenis van Noord -Korea.

Die groot rol van Moskou in die skepping van Noord -Korea is lank vergete, maar sonder Russiese hulp kan Kim Il Sung, die biologiese grootvader van Kim Jong Un, eenvoudig uit die geskiedenis verdwyn het.

Balazs Szalontai, 'n professor in Noord-Koreaanse studies aan die Koreaanse Universiteit, het gesê Kim Il Sung was 'n minderjarige in die 88ste onafhanklike brigade van die Sowjet-Rooi Leër voordat sy toesighouers hom met die hand uitgesoek het-'n 33-jarige Koreaanse man met 'n geruite verlede -uit 'n groep kandidate wat waarskynlik etniese Koreane uit die Sowjetunie insluit.

Moskou en Washington het ooreengekom om die besetting van die Koreaanse skiereiland onder '' trusteeskap '' te verdeel. Nadat die Sowjet -magte Mantsjoerije binnegedring het, waar hulle Japan se oorgawe aanvaar het, het die Russe in die skiereiland ingestroom.

In 'n poging om gewilde steun vir die Sowjet -besetting onder die pas bevryde Koreane op te bou, het Russiese offisiere Kim Il Sung aan hulle voorgehou. Kim het eers na Tokio se kapitulasie na sy vaderland teruggekeer. Volgens Szalontai het hy nooit aan die oorlog deelgeneem nie.

'Kim Il Sung het absoluut geen rol gespeel in die bevryding van Korea in 1945 nie, en alle latere bewerings van Noord -Korea oor sy deelname aan die stryd van 1945 was eenvoudig vals,' het hy per e -pos aan UPI gesê.

Die rekord verdraai

Noord -Koreaanse propaganda het die grondliggende mites oor Kim bewaar, wat skielik in 1994 gesterf het na 'n belangrike ontmoeting met die voormalige Amerikaanse president, Jimmy Carter.

In Noord-Korea word die stigterslid steeds uitgebeeld as 'n anti-Japannese guerrilla-vegter wat 'n direkte rol in die nederlaag van Japan gespeel het.

Kim se vooroorlogse geskiedenis is vaag vir kundiges weens 'n gebrek aan dokumentêre bewyse. Sommige historici in Suid-Korea het gesê dat Kim 'n vegter geword het in 'n geheel-Koreaanse eenheid onder die Chinese Kommunistiese Party, nadat sy ouers hervestig het in die noordooste van China.

Kim se ouers was moontlik lede van 'n groter diaspora.

Dongyoun Hwang, 'n professor in Asiatiese studies aan die Soka Universiteit van Amerika in Kalifornië, het gesê dat baie Koreane ná 1910 na Mantsjoerije gemigreer het weens die Japannese kolonisasie.

Op Chinese bodem het Kim moontlik geen ander keuse gehad as om geïntegreer te word in die geledere van Chinese kommuniste nie, vanweë die aard van die befondsing van die Sowjetunie.

'Dit hou alles verband met die Kommunistiese Internasionale,' het Hwang telefonies aan UPI gesê met verwysing na die historiese kommunistiese liggaam wat deur die Sowjetunie beheer word. 'In 1926, nadat die Komintern [Kommunistiese Internasionaal] 'n reël van een-kommunistiese party-per-land ingestel het, kon Koreaanse kommuniste [in China] nie afsonderlik organiseer nie.

"Koreane wat in ballingskap was, almal uit hul land gedwing, het dit baie moeilik gevind om met mekaar te kommunikeer."

Kim het hom aangesluit by die Noordoos-anti-Japannese Verenigde weermag, 'n eenheid wat deur die Chinese kommuniste en Komintern gesteun is, wat begin het met rebelle-aanvalle nadat Japan Mantsjoerije geannekseer het. Kim se vegrekord bly egter vaag.

Kim het tydens die koloniale tydperk ten minste een anti-Japannese skermutseling gehad. Die destydse Pochonbo -aanval van 1937, wat amptelik in Noord -Korea bekend was as die 'Slag van Pochonbo', is destyds in Koreaanse koerante berig.

Szalontai het gesê die konflik loop uit op niks anders as die vernietiging van 'n polisiekantoor nie. Dit het die Sowjets nie daarvan weerhou om Kim se guerrilla -ervaring te oordryf terwyl hulle polarisasie onder die Koreaanse bevolking benut nie.

"Die Sowjets het hul pogings verskerp om 'n kultus rondom hom te skep en sy oordrewe guerrilla -aktiwiteite nadruklik te kontrasteer met die verskillende medewerkers wat aktief was onder Suid -Koreaanse konserwatiewes," of voormalige lede van die koloniale establishment, het die ontleder gesê.

Om hul ambisies om 'n pro-Sowjet-regime op die skiereiland te skep, te verwesenlik, het die Russe in Oktober 1945 tydens 'n massa-byeenkoms gesê dat Kim 'n legendariese guerilla-leier was. Kim is belaglik en Koreaanse beskuldigings dat hy 'n 'nep' is.

Die negatiewe ontvangs wat Kim ontvang het, was moontlik die gevolg van 'n terugslag teen Sowjet -taktiek.

'Daar was verskeie guerrilla -leiers wat almal die gesogte naam van Kim Il Sung gebruik het,' het Szalontai gesê. "In die gewilde legendes is hul prestasies saamgevoeg in een, en die [Sowjet- en later Noord -Koreaanse] owerhede skryf al hierdie sterk oordrewe aktiwiteite toe aan 'n enkele persoon, 'hul' Kim Il Sung."

Sommige van die legendariese figure sou ouer gewees het as die 33-jarige Kim in 1945. Kim het ook verband gehou met die omstrede kuratorskap en was die teiken van 'n sluipmoordaanval in 1946.

'Pamflette wat in die land versprei is, het hom as 'n Sowjet -marionet uitgebeeld,' het Szalontai gesê.

'N Blou erfenis van onderdrukking

Die Sowjet -veldtog om Kim te legitimeer, het vinnig beweeg - miskien te vinnig. Teen 1946 is die land se eerste universiteit na hom vernoem, selfs voor die vorming van 'n regering. Vandag is die Noord -Koreaanse Kim Il Sung -universiteit 'n simbool van aansien in die regime.

Maar die verwoestendste impak wat Rusland op Noord-Korea gehad het, was die bekendstelling van inbraak in die Stalinistiese styl teen Kim se meer gewilde teenstanders. Suid-Koreaanse historici het gesê dat ander Koreaanse anti-koloniale aktiviste wat die trusteeskap, wat later in die afdeling van Korea verhard het, gekant was, onder Sowjet-owerhede gesuiwer is.

Hierdie praktyke het 'n groot impak op Noord-Korea, waar nie-kommunistiese partye geen kans gehad het om wortel te skiet nie.

"In Oos -Europa het sulke partye 'n lang geskiedenis van verkiesingskompetisie gehad, maar in Noord -Korea het hulle skaars begin verskyn" toe die Russe Kim in die openbaar vertoon het, het Szalontai gesê.

Russiese onderdrukking het uiteindelik 'die Noord -Koreaanse politieke stelsel meer onderdrukkend' gemaak as diktature in Oos -Europa, het hy gesê.


Watter anti-Japannese guerrilla-eenhede was van 1944-1945 aktief in Mantsjoerye? - Geskiedenis


Hierdie bladsy bevat navorsingsmateriaal en inligting rakende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Filippyne en die Stille Oseaan. Dit is 'n aan die gang, met die eerste items wat in Februarie 2005 gepos is. Ons het begin met 'n paar onmiddellik beskikbare items en voeg meer materiaal by soos die tyd dit toelaat:

Onderhoude met veterane van die Death March, guerrilla -veterane en ander soldate wat by die Stille Oseaan -veldtogte betrokke was.

--> Oorspronklike dokumente verkry van die National Archives and Records Administration, die MacArthur Memorial, verskeie ander argiewe en persoonlike versamelings.

Filippynse Verkenners. Beskrywing van die Filippynse Verkenners.

Militêre eenhede Lys van militêre eenhede in die Filippyne toe die Japannese aanval.

Guerrilla's en ondergrondse. Lyste van guerrilla -eenhede en ondergrondse organisasies in die Filippyne tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

"Hel skepe." Skakels na webwerwe met inligting oor die Japannese "Hell Ships."

Veteraangroepe. Skakels na veteraangroepe, veral dié wat veterane van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Stille Oseaan insluit.

--> Foto's van sommige van die gevangenes, ontduikers en guerrillas en van die plekke wat in Bataan Dagboek.

-->
Die Filippynse Verkenners. Bygevoeg op 29 Januarie 2005

Die Filippynse Verkenners was soms 'Amerika se koloniale leër', en was deel van die Verenigde State se gewone weermag uit hul organisasie in 1901 totdat die verkenners ontbind is na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Verkenningseenhede was deel van die gewone Amerikaanse weermag en het bestaan ​​uit Filippynse mans wat onder leiding van Amerikaanse offisiere was. 'N Paar Filippynse offisiere wat West Point of Amerikaanse kolleges met ROTC -programme bygewoon het, het ook in die Scouts gedien. Die mans het 'n welverdiende reputasie as professionele, toegewyde soldate geniet, en daar was 'n lang waglys van manne in die Filippyne wat aansoek gedoen het om vir die Verkenners in te skakel. Diegene wat gelukkig genoeg is om aanvaar te word, lewer hul lewenslange loopbaan in die algemeen diens in die Scouts. Net so het Amerikaanse offisiere wat aan die Verkenners toegewys was, hulself gelukkig geag deel te wees van hierdie elite -organisasie, een van die voorste eenhede van die Amerikaanse weermag aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Diens in die vooroorlogse Filippyne was een van die gewildste opdragte van die weermag.

Die Filippynse Verkenners het hul reputasie in gevegte gestand gedoen en was die ruggraat van die Amerikaanse leërmagte van generaal MacArthur in die Verre Ooste (USAFFE). Terwyl die Japannese aan die begin van die oorlog in die Stille Oseaan deur die res van Suidoos -Asië gevee het, het generaal MacArthur se troepe langer as vier maande op Bataan -skiereiland en Corregidor -eiland aangehou, onder leiding van die Filippynse Verkenners. Toe die Amerikaanse weermag op Bataan op 9 April 1942 oorgegee het en Corregidor op 6 Mei 1942 oorgegee het, het feitlik al die Filippynse Verkenners -soldate en offisiere gevangenes van die Japannese geword. Groot getalle daarvan, meer as die helfte, sou in die volgende drie jaar in Japanse gevangeniskampe sterf.

In 1945 het die magte van generaal MacArthur die Filippynse eilande bevry en oorlewende Scout -soldate meld weer vir aktiewe diens. Die Scout -eenhede is hersaamgestel, en mans wat na verwys is as “ New Scouts ” is gewerf uit die guerrillamagte wat gedurende die oorlog in die Filippyne opereer het. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is die Verenigde State se gewapende magte tot vredestyd gereduseer en het die Filippyne hul onafhanklikheid van die Verenigde State verkry. Die Filippynse Scout -organisasies is ontbind. Individuele speurdersoldate het die geleentheid gebied om in die gewone Amerikaanse weermag diens te doen en Amerikaanse burgers te word, wat die meeste gedoen het.

Die Filippynse Scout-militêre organisasies word onder "Militêre eenhede in die Filippyne" gelys. Vir meer inligting oor die Filippynse verkenners, besoek die webwerf van die Philippine Scouts Heritage Society by www.philippine-scouts.org.

Militêre eenhede in die Filippyne. Opgedateer 10 Junie 2005

Dit is 'n lys van die belangrikste militêre organisasies (regiment en hoër) in die Filippyne ten tyde van die Japannese aanval.

Die Filippynse departement was die Amerikaanse leër se algehele administratiewe struktuur in die Filippyne tot 26 Julie 1941. Die departement was bevelvoerder oor alle Amerikaanse militêre eenhede op die eilande, behalwe die Amerikaanse vloot. Al die eenhede het die Filippynse departement se blou-en-wit "Mer-leeu" -lappie gedra, behalwe die Filippynse afdeling.

Militêre distrikte. Vir administratiewe doeleindes het die Filippynse departement die eilande in tien distrikte verdeel. Die distriksbenamings word vandag nog in sommige gevalle gebruik:
1ste militêre distrik -Noord -Luzon
2de militêre distrik -lingayen/sentrale vlakte
3de militêre distrik -Oos -sentrale Luzon, insluitend Bataan en Zambales
4de militêre distrik -Suid -sentrale Luzon, insluitend Manila, Batangas, Palawan, Mindoro
5de militêre distrik -Oos en suidoos Luzon, Catadecanes
6de militêre distrik -Tablas, Panay, Macabete
7de militêre distrik -Negros
8ste militêre distrik -Bohol, Cebu
9de militêre distrik —Leyte, Samar
10de militêre distrik -Mindanao

USAFFE. Op 26 Julie 1941 herroep president Roosevelt generaal Douglas MacArthur in die Amerikaanse weermag en plaas hom in beheer van 'n nuwe organisasie, die Amerikaanse weermag in die Verre Ooste (USAFFE). Die Filippynse departement het die diensstruktuur binne USAFFE geword. Generaal MacArthur het bevel oor alle militêre organisasies op die eilande behalwe die Asiatiese Vloot van die Amerikaanse Vloot:

Die Filippynse Afdeling, ongeveer 10 000 man onder bevel van generaal -majoor Jonathan M. Wainwright, was die enigste gereelde Amerikaanse leërafdeling in die Filippyne met die aanvang van vyandelikhede. Dit bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit Filippynse Verkenners (PS). Die Filippynse afdeling het sy eie kenmerkende "carabao head" -lappie gehad en bevat die volgende regimente:
12de Mediese Regiment (PS). Filippynse Scout mediese ondersteuning.
12de kwartiermeestersregiment (PS). Filippynse Scout logistiek.
14de Ingenieurregiment (PS). Filippynse Scout gevegsingenieurs.
23ste en 24ste veldartillerieregimente (PS). Filippynse Scout -veldartillerie.
31ste Infanterieregiment (VS). Amerikaanse infanterie.
45ste Infanterieregiment (PS). Filippynse Scout -infanterie.
57ste Infanterieregiment (PS). Filippynse Scout -infanterie.
Na die oorlog is die Filippynse afdeling weer georganiseer as die 12de infanteriedivisie, die Amerikaanse weermag.

26ste Kavalerieregiment (PS) was die laaste perderuitery in die Amerikaanse weermag. Die onafhanklike regiment was gestasioneer by Fort Stotsenberg langs Clark Field in die middel van Luzon. Nadat die Japannese by die Lingayengolf geland het, het generaal MacArthur sy mees mobiele eenheid, die 26ste Kavallerie, toegewys om die terugtrekking van die USAFFE -leër na Bataan te dek.

Coast Artillery Corps. Die kusartillerie, onder bevel van generaal -majoor George F. Moore, was verantwoordelik vir die bemanning van die versterkte eilande in die monding van Manilabaai en Subicbaai. Hulle basis -eiland, Corregidor, was die laaste geallieerde vesting wat aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan die Japannese geval het.
59ste kusartillerieregiment (VS)
60ste kusartillerieregiment (VS)
91ste kusartillerieregiment (PS)
92ste Coast Artillery Regiment (PS)

Die Lugmag van die Verre Ooste (VS), onder bevel van generaal -majoor Lewis Brereton, word vinnig opgegradeer toe die Japannese aanval. Die Amerikaanse weermagplanne het gevra dat Clark Field, in die middel van Luzon-eiland, en ander fasiliteite vergroot moet word om 272 moderne B-17-bomwerpers te akkommodeer, wat Clark Field die grootste Amerikaanse bomwerperbasis van die Amerikaanse weermag maak. As daar vyandelikhede uitbreek, het militêre beplanners verwag dat die B-17-vloot die oewers van die Filippyne sou kon verdedig en ook die Japannese skeepsvaart in die Suid-Chinese See kon beheer. 107 nuwe P-40-vegvliegtuie is gestuur om ouer vliegtuie te vervang wat na die Filippynse weermag se lugkorps gestuur is. Die eerste vyf-en-dertig B-17-bomwerpers het in Oktober 1941 aangekom, en meer was van die Amerikaanse weskus af op pad toe Japannese bomwerpers Clark Field op 7 Desember vernietig het, slegs ure nadat die Japannese vloot Pearl Harbor vernietig het. Die oorlewende bomwerpers vlieg suidwaarts na Australië. Teen die tyd dat USAFFE teruggetrek het na Bataan, was almal behalwe agtien van die P-40-vegters vernietig of neergeskiet deur Japannese nulle, en die meeste van die manne van die Verre Ooste se lugmag het as infanterie op Bataan geveg.
2de waarnemings eskader
3de Pursuit-eskader (P-40)
17de Pursuit-eskader (P-40)
28ste Bombardement Eskader (B-17)

Die Asiatiese vloot, gebaseer in Manilabaai en onder bevel van admiraal Thomas Hart, was slegs 'n breukdeel van die grootte van die Amerikaanse vloot se Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor. Sy oppervlakteskepe was geen werklike hindernis vir die kragtige Japannese vloot nie, en die dag na die aanval van die Japannese seil die oppervlakvloot na Oos -Indië om by die Nederlandse vloot aan te sluit. Die nege-en-twintig duikbote van die Asiatiese Vloot het agtergebly om die Filippyne te bewaak, maar het hulpeloos geblyk toe hul torpedo's defektief blyk te wees.

Die Filippynse leër (PA) is in 1936 gestig om in die volgende tien jaar opgelei en opgebou te word. Generaal Douglas MacArthur, nadat hy uit die Amerikaanse weermag afgetree het, is aangestel as "Field Marshall" van die Filippynse leër en is aangestel om die Filippynse magte te ontwerp en op te bou. Hy het planne opgestel vir twee gewone weermag -infanteriedivisies, die 1ste en 2de afdeling, en tien reserwe -infanteriedivisies wat 11de, 21ste, 31ste was. etc. The three infantry regiments in each reserve division were numbered beginning with the division's number, 21st, 22nd and 23rd Regiments in the 21st Division, for example. The Philippine Army was expected to take over defense of the islands on July 4, 1946, when the Philippine Commonwealth would be granted its independence from the United States. At the outbreak of hostilities, the 1st Regular Division had been activated but it was at little more than half strength. All of the reserve divisions had been activated but their training was well below military standards, they were poorly equipped, and they were all under strength. The 2nd Regular Division was activated after the retreat to Bataan and consisted primarily of the Philippine Constabulary regiments. (The book Battle of Bataan by Richard C. Mallonee chronicles the 21st Infantry Division, PA.)

North Luzon Force/I Corps. The North Luzon Force was commanded by Major General Jonathon "Skinny" Wainwright, and was assigned to meet the Japanese at the Lingayen beaches and prevent them from landing on Luzon. After the beach defense failed, the North Luzon Force retreated south down the Luzon central plain in a brilliant withdrawal movement engineered by General Wainwright and covered by the Philippines Scouts' 26th Cavalry. Losses were heavy, but the organization re-grouped on the west coast of Bataan and on January 6, 1942, was redesignated I Corps. The North Luzon Force included the 1st, 31st, 71st and 91st Divisions (PA). Brig. Gen. Albert Jones took command of I Corps after General Wainwright was given command of all Luzon forces on March 11, 1942.

South Luzon Force/II Corps. The South Luzon Force was commanded by Major General George M. Parker and was assigned to defend Luzon Island south of Manila. In the retreat to Bataan, the lead elements of the South Luzon Force were shuttled by civilian buses to Bataan where they were re-designated the "Bataan Defense Force," while the remaining elements held off the Japanese forces that landed on the Bicol Peninsula. The forward elements had to get into position to defend Bataan before the North Luzon Force arrived, and the remainder had to get over the Calumpit bridges before the North Luzon Force completed their retreat and blew up the bridges. On Bataan, the South Luzon Force took responsibility for the east coast of the peninsula, and was re-designated II Corps. The South Luzon Force included the 11th, 21st, 41st and 51st Divisions (PA).

The Philippine Constabulary (PC). The 1st Regiment of the Philippines' national police force was inducted into USAFFE on October 15, 1941, and the 2nd Regiment was inducted on November 17. Each regiment had three battalions, consisting of three rifle companies and one machine gun company. Their assigned mission was to guard against sabotage of essential infrastructure such as power plants and water supplies, and to arrest and incarcerate Japanese nationals when hostilities broke out. The 1st and 2nd Constabulary Regiments were responsible for north and south Luzon, respectively. The 3rd Constabulary Regiment was stationed in the southern islands. A 4th Constabulary Regiment was constituted on Bataan in January 1942, made up of members of the palace guard and individual constabulary stations that retreated to Bataan with the USAFFE army. On Bataan, the 1st, 2nd and 4th Philippine Constabulary Regiments were assigned to the 2nd Regular Division under Major General Francisco.

National Guard Units (US). As part of the massive military build-up in the Philippines after July 26, 1941, a number of U.S. National Guard units were shipped to Luzon for a temporary tour of duty. The following units had arrived in the Philippines by the time the Japanese attacked, on Dec. 7, 1941:
192nd Tank Battalion, Wisconsin (A Co.), Illinois (B Co.), Ohio (C Co.) and Kentucky (D Co.--assigned to 194th Tank Battalion in the Philippines.) National Guard.
194th Tank Battalion, Minnesota (A Co.), California (C Co.) National Guard. (B Co. was sent to Alaska instead of the Philippines.) (The book Bataan Uncensored by Col. E.B. Miller describes the actions of the 194th Tank Batallion on Bataan.)
200th Coast Artillery, New Mexico National Guard
515th Coast Artillery (Anti-Aircraft) , New Mexico National Guard.

In addition, the 131st Field Artillery Regiment was enroute from the U.S. aboard the USS Republic in the Pensacola convoy. On Dec 7, the convoy was diverted to Brisbane, Australia, and the 131st was ultimately shipped to Java in the Dutch East Indies due to the Japanese naval blockade of the Philippines. The men of the 131st were captured by the Japanese in Java and many of them were shipped to Burma where they worked as slave laborers on the Burma railway, including the infamous "Bridge over the River Kwai."

USFIP. On March 11, 1942, General MacArthur and his key staff officers departed the Philippines for Australia, leaving General Jonathon Wainwright in command on Luzon. MacArthur was still in command of USAFFE, the United States Forces in the Far East. On March 22, 1942, the War Department designated Wainwright's command the United States Forces in the Philippines, USFIP, placing Wainwright in charge of all forces in the Philippines.

Luzon Force. When he assumed command of USFIP, General Wainwright moved his headquarters from Bataan to Corregidor. He left Major General Edward P. King in charge on Bataan, and designated King's command "Luzon Force." Luzon Force consisted of I Corps and II Corps on Bataan, plus a few battalions in the northern mountains that had, thus far, continued to hold out against the Japanese. On April 9, 1942, General King surrendered his starving and emaciated forces to the Japanese.

One month later, on May 6, 1942, General Wainwright surrendered Corregidor--the last Allied stronghold in Asia . Japanese intelligence officers had intercepted the War Department message placing Wainwright in command of USFIP, and they forced him to surrender not just Corregidor but all of the Philippine Islands.

Guerrilla Units. Added June 10, 2005.

A variety of guerrilla organizations sprang up in the Philippine Islands during the Japanese Occupation. The following list begins with the LGF, the first major guerrilla organization in the Philippine Islands, then lists the major units on Luzon, Panay, and Mindanao arranged in order of their locations, approximately north to south. Other units also existed on Luzon and almost every inhabited Philippine Island.

Luzon Guerrilla Force (LGF). During the Battle of Bataan in January, 1942, Lt. Col. Claude Thorp, former Provost Marshall of Fort Stotsenberg, was authorized by General MacArthur to take a party of volunteers and infiltrate through enemy lines to establish a spy station in the Zambales Mountains above Clark Field. Thorp and his men observed Japanese activity on Clark Field and radioed reports of Japanese bombers taking off to attack Bataan and Corregidor. Thorp was also authorized to organize Filipino guerrillas to sabotage Japanese operations. After the American surrenders of Bataan and Corregidor, he formed the LGF, the original "USAFFE guerrilla" organization in the Philippines. Col. Thorp divided Luzon Island into four areas and appointed a commander over each, who was charged with recruiting guerrillas and forming an effective anti-Japanese guerrilla movement in his area of responsibility:
North Luzon Military District , Capt. Ralph Praeger until his capture in August 1943.
East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area (ECLGA) , Captain Joe Barker until the Japanese captured Colonel Colonel Thorp in October 1942, then Lieutenant Edwin Ramsey.
Western Luzon Guerrilla Area , Captain Ralph McGuire until he was killed in April 1943, then Captain Gualberto Sia (aka Ernest Neuman).
Southern Luzon , Captain Jack Spies. However Spies was killed on his way to South Luzon, and this part of the organization never materialized.

The Japanese captured Colonel Thorp in October, 1942 and his deputy, Captain Joseph R. Barker took command of LGF. In January 1943, Barker went into Manila disguised as a Catholic priest and was also captured, after which the LGF began to fall apart. There was never a unified guerrilla command in the Philippines after Barker's capture. Even though Colonel Thorp and all of his appointed commanders were captured and executed by the Japanese, several of the guerrilla organizations he established continued to grow and became quite effective in intelligence gathering and in harassing the Japanese. The story of Colonel Claude A. Thorp and his men is included in Bataan Diary.

North Luzon Military District. Capt. Ralph Praeger, 26th Cavalry, was commanding officer of Troop C near Baugio in northern Luzon. After the Japanese landings at Lingayen Gulf in December 1941, he marched his troop to Tuguegarao Airfield in the Cagayan Valley and attacked, destroying several Japanese aircraft. He and his men refused to surrender to the Japanese in May 1942, and Col. Thorp appointed him to organize Filipino guerrillas in North Luzon. He established his headquarters in Kabugao, Apayao and joined Marcelo Adduru's Cagayan-Apayao Force in July 1942. Praeger made radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters in Australia late in 1942, and came under the nominal control of Lt. Col. Martin Moses in February 1943, until Moses was captured on June 3, 1943. Praeger was captured by the Japanese in August 1943. The remnants of his guerrilla organization were picked up and re-organized by Major Russell Volckmann and Capt. Donald Blackburn. Ralph Praeger was executed in Manila in December 1944, as General MacArthur's forces approached Luzon. More information on Ralph Praeger can be found in Bernard Norling's The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon.

Cagayan Force. Founded Dec. 10 1941, immediately after the Japanese attack, by Major Marcelo Adduru who was governor of Cagayan province in north Luzon. Adduru's guerrillas consisted primarily of Cagayan Philippine Constabulary personnel. Adduru was captured and imprisoned in April 1943. As soon as he was paroled in October 1943, Adduru revived the Cagayan Force. He was re-captured on July 5, 1944, and a Col. Gonzalo took over, but most of the personnel went over to the 11th Infantry Regiment under Volckmann.

Cagayan-Apayao Force. Governor Marcelo Adduru formed this organization on July 6, 1942, by combining his guerrilla force, men from the 14th Infantry Regiment, PA, and Capt. Ralph Praeger's 26th Cavalry, PS, Troop C.

United States Army Forces in the Philippines--Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL). Having escaped from Bataan, Lt. Col. Martin Moses and Lt. Col. Arthur "Maxie" Noble founded their guerrilla command in the northern mountains near Baguio. They contacted Philippine Army commanders in the area who had refused to surrender and guerrilla organizers from Col. Thorp's organization, and began to plan a major strike against the Japanese. On October 15, 1942, they attacked the Japanese-owned Itogon Mines near Baguio and held the area for more than a week. The Japanese counter-attacked with infantry and tanks and drove the guerrillas back into the mountains, then took heavy reprisals on the civilian villages in the area. Moses and Noble retreated into headhunter country, and began to collect intelligence data to send to General MacArthur. They were tracked down by the Japanese and captured in June 1943, then executed. Elements of their command became independent units or were taken over by Russell Volckmann's USFIP-NL and Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. Their officers and commanders included Capt. Ralph B. Praeger, Maj. Thomas S. Jones, Col. Marcelo Adduru, and Ali Al-Rashid. The story of Colonels Moses and Noble is included in Bataan Diary .

14th Infantry Regiment. After the Japanese attack in 1941, Capt. Guillermo Nakar and his Philippine Army battalion held out in the mountains of north Luzon until General Wainwright surrendered. Nakar refused to surrender and developed his unit into a guerrilla force of about 1100 men. He was in radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters until August 1942, and MacArthur promoted Nakar to Lt. Col. Nakar was betrayed and captured in September 1942, and subsequently executed by the Japanese. His organization was taken over by Capt. Manuel Enriquiez, then Capt. Romulo Manriquez, and continued to operate independently until November 1943 when it was absorbed by Major Russell Volckmann's USFIP-NL.

United States Forces in the Philippines--Northern Luzon (USFIP-NL). Organized by Major (guerrilla Colonel) Russell Volckmann, USFIP-NL became one of the largest and best organized guerrilla operations on Luzon, and one of the most ruthless. In August 1943, when Capt. Ralph Praeger was captured, Volckmann took over his North Luzon Military District. In November 1943 Volckmann took over the remnants of Capt. Guillermo Nakar's 14th Infantry after Nakar was captured. In August 1944 he made radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters, and in the fall of 1944 received 35 tons of supplies brought in by the submarine Seawolf . On January 9, 1945, Volckmann and his men met General MacArthur's invading forces on the beaches of Lingayen Gulf.
11th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Maj. Donald Blackburn Cagayan Valley
14th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Maj. Romulo Manriquez Nueva Vizcaya
15th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Maj. Robert Arnold Ilocos Norte
66th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Maj. Dennis Molintas Baguio area
121st (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Capt. Walter Cushing, Capt. William Peryam, Lt. Col. Manuel Enriquez, Maj. George Barnett Ilocos Sur

Luzon Guerrilla Armed Forces (LGAF) (Lapham's Raiders). 1st Lt. (guerrilla Major) Robert Lapham was a member of Lt. Col. Claude Thorp's original infiltration party. Thorp placed him in charge of recruiting guerrillas in Western Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces. When the Japanese captured Thorp, Lapham kept his own guerrilla organization intact and independent. When Volckmann claimed him as part of USFIP-NL, Lapham told General MacArthur's headquarters that he reported to Major Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. At its peak, Lapham's organization was reported to include about 10,000 men. Lapham's Raiders , by Robert Lapham and Bernard Norling documents the activities of the LGAF. Behind Japanese Lines , by Ray Hunt and Bernard Norling documents Ray Hunt's escape from the Japanese and subsequent union with Robert Lapham.
Nueva Ecija , Capt. Harry McKenzie
Western Tarlac , Capt. Albert S. Hendrickson
Pangasinan , Capt. Ray Hunt.

South Tarlac Military District (STMD). Formed by Sgt. (guerrilla Capt.) Al Bruce in the mountains near Capas, Tarlac.
O'Donnell Regiment , Elisio V. Mallari.

East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area (ECLGA). After the fall of Corregidor on May 6, 1942, Lt. Col. Claude Thorp appointed Captain Joseph R. Barker, 26th Cavalry, to recruit Filipino guerrillas in the Luzon central provinces. Barker's organization was dubbed the East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area. When the Japanese captured Thorp in October 1942, Barker took command of Thorp's organization, turning ECLGA over to Lieutenant (guerrilla Major) Edwin Ramsey. The Japanese captured and executed Barker, but Ramsey continued to expand ECLGA and by October, 1944 may have had command of as many as 45,000 Filipino volunteers, including the Bulacan Military District and the Bataan Military District, one of the largest guerrilla organizations in the islands. ECLGA had continuing problems with the Hukbalahap, who were also located in central Luzon, and their differences erupted into gunfire on multiple occasions. The Huks attempted to assassinate Ramsey, and on at least one occasion Ramsey issued orders that Huks be shot on sight. Ramsey was in regular contact with the Manila underground, including Manuel Roxas in Manila, and had frequent courier contact with Major Jesus Villamor's "Planet" spy network and radio station on Negros Island. Colonel Ramsey has documented his activities and the history of the ECLGA in his book, Lieutenant Ramsey's War . The relationship between Major Ramsey and John Boone's Bataan guerrillas is described in Bataan Diary .
Pampanga Military District , Col. Abelardo de Dios
Bataan Military District , Cpl. (guerrilla Col.) John P. Boone
Bulacan Military District , Col. Fausto Alberto

Hukbalahap. The Hukbalahap (literally, "the army to fight Japan") was formed by a Francisco Lava (or Lara) and Luis Taruc as a union of the Philippine communist and socialist parties at the outset of the war. It was a large, well organized and most ruthless guerrilla organization numbering 100,000 members at its maximum strength. The Huks had on-going contact with members of the Free Philippines underground in Manila, although there was no formal relationship with that group. Based at Mount Arayat in Pampanga Province, the Huks made it clear that they intended to form a communist government in Pampanga and eventually to take over the government of the Philippines. Disagreements, and even battles, between the Huks and the USAFFE guerrillas were common. After the war, the Huks refused to disarm and continued to fight the Philippine government forces well into the 1950s. The Huk district political leaders were:
South Pampanga , Maj. Jose Banal (aka Jose Poblete).
East Pampanga , Felipe Culala (aka Dayang-Dayang), a female guerrilla.
North of Mt. Arayat , Esuebio Aquino.
Nueva Ecija , Jose "Dimasalang" de Leone.
West Pampanga , Abelardo Dabu.
Bulacan , Ramon Robles.
Laguna , Pedro Villegas (aka Carlos Hassim).

Militarily the Huks fielded combat "Squadrons" of 100 men each, divided into platoons and squads. Two squadrons = a battalion, and two battalions = a regiment. Each squadron had a commander, a vice-commander, a political instructor, a supply officer, and an intelligence officer, although there were no ranks.
Sqdn 25 , Nueva Ecija, commander Leon Estares.
Sqdn 48 , Manila, a Chinese squadron called "Wa Chi," commander Col. Ong.
Sqdn 58 , Manila, a Chinese squadron, commander Alfonso de la Rosa.
Sqdn 77 , Bulacan-Pampanga, commander Dante.
Sqdn 104 , Pampanga, commander Guerrero (a woman who often dressed as a man).

Squadron 155. Formed by Lt. Henry Clay Conner, an Air Corps signal officer who escaped from Bataan with Major Bernard Anderson, Squadron 155 was composed primarily of Negrito natives who lived along the east rim of the Zambales mountains above Clark Field and Fort Stotsenburg. Conner originally reported to Maj. Edwin Ramsey's ECLGA, but transferred his allegiance to Col. Gyles Merrill's LGF USFIP, nearby, when the latter became active during 1944. Conner ingratiated himself into the Negrito community and organized the spear and bow and arrow carrying natives into an anti-Japanese force. In 1944 he was joined by Lt. Felipe Maningo who headed a group of 150 Philippine Scouts. These men gathered intelligence data from Clark Field where many of them worked as laborers for the Japanese air corps, and passed it to Lt. Conner who passed it in turn to Col. Merrill, Al Bruce in Tarlac to his north, or to John Boone in Bataan to his south. Much of Squadron 155's data defined bombing targets for U.S. planes during the liberation, and their reports of Japanese fortifications in the Zambales Mountains led U.S. troops to root out the Japanese defenders, averting a deadly ambush of the U.S. 6th Army. Squadron 155 is described in On a Mountainside , by Malcolm Decker.
First Pampanga Regiment , Northwest Pampanga, Julian Mercado
Second Pampanga Regiment , Northwest Pampanga, Francisco Ocampo
Provisional Battalion of Negrito Scouts , Kojario Laxamana
1st Provisional Battalion of Philippine Scouts , Lt. Felipe Maningo

Western Luzon Guerrilla Area (Zambales Military District) (Zambales guerrillas). Colonel Thorp appointed red-headed Captain Ralph McGuire, a pre-war mining engineer, to organize guerrillas in Zambales Province. McGuire was reasonably successful until the Japanese crack-down on guerrillas in April 1943, when he was betrayed for Japanese reward money. The Japanese cut off McGuire's head, mounted it on a pole, and paraded it through the villages of Zambales as a symbol of American weakness. However, the Zambales guerrilla organizations continued, headed by Gualberto Sia, who reported to Maj. Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. During 1944, most of the 6,000 Filipino-led guerrillas in Zambales switched from Anderson's command to Col. Gyles Merrill, who was hiding in the Zambales Mountains and who outranked Major Anderson. In January, 1945, Capt. Ramon Magsaysay's guerrillas were successful in driving the Japanese off of the Zambales coast, enabling MacArthur's XI Corps to land on the beaches of Zambales unopposed. Once the area was under U.S. control, Col. Gyles Merrill recommended that Magsaysay be appointed provisional governor of Zambales. Magsaysay went on to become President of the Philippine Republic.
United States Philippine Islands Forces (USPIF)--Zambales , Gualberto Sia
Subic Bay Area , Earnest Johnson
Castillejos and San Marcellino , Antonio Francisco
Coastal Zambales , Capt. Ramon Magsaysay
Squadron D , H. S. Johnson.

Luzon Guerrilla Forces, United States Forces in the Philippines (LGF USFIP). Colonel Gyles Merrill escaped from the Death March and in August 1942 gathered a small group of officers who had been in hiding at the Fassoth Camp. He briefly offered his services to Lt. Col. Thorp (Merrill outranked Thorp), but when Thorp was captured in October 1942 Merrill and his men moved back into the Zambales Mountains and hid out until MacArthur's forces approached the Philippines in 1944. During this period Merrill made contact with and assumed nominal command of the Zambales guerrilla organizations, and made contact with the Chinese underground in Manila. As American forces began working their way through the Pacific in 1944, Merrill, as the highest ranking officer in the Philippines, issued orders that all guerrilla commanders on Luzon were to report to him. A conflict developed, and only the guerrilla leaders in his immediate geographical area agreed to follow his orders When U.S. forces landed on the Zambales coast, they found the coast cleared of Japanese--the Zambales guerrillas acting under Merrill's orders had forced the Japanese off the coastline and back to the Subic Bay area. Colonel Merrill and his organization are described in Bataan Diary .
Zambales Guerrillas , Gualberto Sia
Mountain Group Command , Lt. Col. Eddie Wright:
Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts , Lt. Col. Eddie Wright
South Tarlac Military District , Sgt. (guerrilla Capt.) Al Bruce
Bataan Military District , Cpl. (guerrilla Col.) John Boone (Boone also reported to Maj. Edwin Ramsey, ECLGA).
Squadron 155 , Lt. (guerrilla Maj.) Henry Clay Conner

Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts. Lt. Col. Eddie Wright, 45th Infantry (PS), refused to surrender to the Japanese and hid out in northern Bataan expecting that General MacArthur would return to the Philippines with reinforcements within a few months. When that did not happen, Wright at first became discouraged but then resolved to raise a battalion of former Philippine Scouts to attack the Japanese from the rear when MacArthur's army did return. Late in 1944, he approached Col. Gyles Merrill, LGF USFIP, for authorization to proceed with his plan and to solicit Merrill's logistical support. Merrill expanded Wright's planned battalion into a full regiment by assigning Philippine Scout organizations that had joined Al Bruce's South Tarlac Military District and Clay Conner's Pampanga Military District. Merrill assigned Wright's Scouts to prevent Japanese troops from crossing the Zambales mountains from the interior of Luzon to the coast. Wright got his regiment organized, but had no weapons with which to fight the Japanese until after the American forces landed at Lingayen beach and on the Zambales coast. After the American forces arrived and supplied them with arms in January 1945, the Philippine Scouts rejoined the regular U.S. Army and participated in operations against the Japanese until the war ended in August. The Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts is described in Bataan Diary .
1st Battalion , Lt. Felipe Maningo
2nd Battalion , Sgt. (guerrilla Capt.) Alfred Bruce
3rd Battalion , Maj. Royal Reynolds

Bataan Military District. Formed by Corporal (guerrilla Colonel) John Boone, 31st Infantry, the Bataan Military District grew slowly in northern Bataan throughout the Japanese occupation. Boone was helped by, and reported to, Major Edwin Ramsey of ECLGA. He had regular contact with the Manila underground, specifically with Claire Phillips at Club Tsubaki, and he obtained intelligence reports from Manila Bay and from the Subic Bay area which he passed on to Major Ramsey. When General MacArthur's forces returned to Luzon in January 1945, Boone's forces sabotaged Japanese infrastructure on Bataan and conducted harassing attacks on the Japanese forces in the Zig-zag Pass. The Bataan Military District is described in detail in Bataan Diary .
1st (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Lt. Col. Ceferino Regala, Dinalupihan area
2nd (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Lt. Col. Victor Abad, bayside
3rd (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Lt. Col. Andres Megano, seaside
4th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment , Lt. Col. Federico Lumbre, southern Bataan

Bulacan Military District/Area. Captain Joe Barker appointed Captain Alejo Santos to recruit guerrillas in Bulacan and form the Bulacan Military District. Major Edwin Ramsey succeeded to Barker's command after Barker was captured in 1942, and Santos decided to set up an independent guerrilla organization. Two regiments stayed in Ramsey's organization, under the command of Col. Fausto Alberto, and kept the name Bulacan Military District. Santos' regiment was thereafter designated the "Bulacan Military Area," and he worked loosely under the leadership of Major Bernard Anderson.

Kalayaan Command. Air Corps Major Bernard Anderson formed this organization of about 15,000 men in Tayabas (now Quezon) Province west of Manila after Col. Claude Thorp and Capt. Joe Barker were captured. Anderson had refused to surrender to the Japanese on Bataan, and found his way to Col. Thorp's camp where he was assigned to assist Barker in recruiting and organizing guerrillas in central Luzon. Anderson concentrated on intelligence gathering and propaganda. To avoid reprisals on the civilian population he refrained from attacking the Japanese until four days before General MacArthur's 6th Army landed at Lingayen Gulf.
Ball Military Area (aka Bulacan Military Area) , Bulacan, Maj. Alejo Santos.
Ohio Military Area , Bicol, Maj. Russell Barrios.
Texas Military District , Lingayen Area.
Salt Military Area , Tayabas, Pedro Redor.
York Military District , Manila.

Chinese Anti-Japanese Guerrilla Force. Manila and the surrounding areas had a substantial population of Chinese merchants who had migrated into the area over the years. Japan attacked China in 1937 and committed horrible atrocities there, so there was no love lost between the Chinese and Japanese. Under the leadership of Huang Chieh and a Col. Sheng, among others, the Chinese population of the Philippines actively opposed the Japanese as best they could. They raised money for relief efforts in China and for Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek's army, gathered intelligence information for General MacArthur, and fought as guerrillas in central Luzon.

South Luzon Military District. Colonel Thorp appointed Captain George J. "Jack" Spies, 26th Cavalry, to recruit Filipino guerrillas in Southern Luzon. As he traveled south from Thorp's headquarters in the Zambales mountains he was betrayed by a pro-Japanese Filipino and killed by the Japanese. The South Luzon Military District, therefore, never actually got off the ground. However, another guerrilla command was organized in South Luzon by Col. Hugh Straughn. See Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT), below.

Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT). During the siege of Bataan, General Douglas MacArthur authorized retired Spanish-American War veteran Colonel Hugh Straughn to organize the FAIT in the southern mountains near Antipolo, Rizal. As MacArthur left the Philippines and Bataan fell, Straughn extended his command to cover all of the area south and east of Manila. His was the only large, unified guerrilla command besides Col. Thorp's, and within the FAIT several other guerrilla organizations were born, including President Quezon's Own Guerrillas (PQOG), Terry Hunter's ROTC Guerrillas, and Marking's Guerrillas. When Straughn was captured in August, 1943, most of these organizations became independent under their respective leaders. Portions of FAIT remained in tact under nominal control of "Col. Elliot P. Ellsworth" (General Vincente Lim) in Manila, until Lim was captured. Straughn and Lim were both executed by the Japanese.

Marking's Guerrillas. Two of the most colorful guerrilla leaders in World War II were Marcos Villa Augustin (Marking), a former cab driver and boxer from Manila, and his deputy/mistress/wife/biographer Yay Panlillio, an American mestizo and former newspaper reporter. Marking's guerrillas formed in the Sierra Madre mountains east of Manila under Col. Straughn's umbrella, and became an independent organization when Straughn was captured in August 1943. Marking's organization developed a reputation for ruthlessness, and was often in open conflict with the Hunters ROTC Guerrillas, nearby.
1st Army Corps , Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas
2nd Army Corps , Manila, Bulacan, Cavite
3rd Army Corps , north Bulacan, Tarlac and Pangasinan
Associated groups:
Oldtimers , Col. Leon Z. Cabalhin, Laguna-Rizal
Batanguenos , Col. Daud Mangkon, Batangas
Texans , Maj. Patricio Emi (famous ex-bandit), Cavite and Mindoro
Highlanders , Maj. Carlos Crisostomo
Saboteurs , Col. Pablo Alora
McKinley Brigade , Col. Ortega
Anilao , Maj. Juan Santiago

Hunters ROTC Guerrillas. One of the more effective south Luzon guerrillas, Terry's Hunters were composed primarily of military academy and ROTC cadets. They were founded in Manila in January 1942 by Miguel Ver of the Philippine Military Academy, and moved to Rizal Province in April where they came under Col. Hugh Straughn's FAIT. After the Japanese captured Straughn and Ver the executive officer, Eleuterio Adevoso (aka Terry Magtanggol), also a Philippine Military Academy cadet, took over. They were among the most aggressive guerrillas in the war and made the only guerrilla raid on a Japanese prison, Muntinglupa (New Bilibid), to free their captured members and to obtain arms. They also participated in the liberation of Los Banos prison camp during liberation. Captain Bartolomeo Cabangbang, leader of the central Luzon penetration party, said that the Hunters supplied the best intelligence data on Luzon. The history of the unit is detailed in the book Terry's Hunters , by Proculo L. Mojica.
Manila & Rizal , CO: Amado Bagalay (Corporal, Philippine Constabulary)
Pasay, Pateros-Muntinglupa , CO: Juanito Ferrer (Philippine Military Academy)
San Pedro, Tuason-Caluan , CO: Justiniano Estrella (politician)
Lumbang-Pallita , CO: Lt. Col. Emanuel Ocampo (ROTC, Far Eastern University)
Tiaong-Antimonan , CO: Vincente Eustacio (ROTC, Jose Rial College)
Santo Tomas, Batangas , CO: Catalino Nera (PMTB)

President Quezon's Own Guerrillas (PQOG). Formed by General Vincente Umali, former mayor of Tiaong, Tayabas, this organization was located in Batangas, central Laguna and west central Tayabas. They were one of the better armed guerrilla organizations with as many as 7,000 of the 10,000 members in possession of firearms of one sort or another. Ferdinand Marcos reportedly started out with this group, and they maintained contact with guerrilla organizations in central Luzon, Manila and the Visayan islands. Once U.S. forces returned to the Philippines and began bombing Luzon, the PQOG was successful in rescuing a number of downed flyers and returning them to the U.S. Navy alive.

Fourth Philippine Corps (Panay). Colonel Marcario Peralta and the 8,000 men of his 61st (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment controlled most of Panay Island except for the coastal towns occupied by the Japanese. He captured Governor Hernandez, accused him of being a Japanese collaborator, and installed Tomas Confessor as governor. He established an intelligence network that covered all of the Visayan Islands and established regular courier routes to Luzon to pick up intelligence data from the Manila underground. He competed with Colonel Wendell Fertig on Mindanao for control of neighboring islands until General MacArthur ordered all guerrilla commanders to stay within their established areas and cease expanding and competing with one another.

U.S. Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) (10th Military District) (Mindanao). Colonel Wendell Fertig, a pre-war mining engineer, evaded the Japanese after the surrender and in August 1942, pretending to be a general sent in by MacArthur, took command of the Mindanao guerrilla organizations. His guerrillas controlled the mountainous, jungle-covered interior of Mindanao for much of the war while the Japanese held the inhabited coastal areas. He established radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters, and received the first submarine contact and supplies sent out from Australia. He competed with Peralta on Panay for MacArthur's attention and for overall command of guerrilla forces in the area. In 1943 and again in 1944, the Japanese launched expeditions to surpress Fertig, and they were fairly successful although Fertig continued to operate from the interior of Mindanao for the rest of the war. They Fought Alone by John Keats tells Colonel Fertig's story on Mindanao, although the accuracy of the book has been chalanged by Mindanao guerrilla leader Clyde Childress.

"Hell Ships." Added August 15, 2005, links added April 26, 2007, July 20, 2009.


Eksterne skakels

  • "U.S. Army Recognition Program of Philippine Guerrillas.". Headquarters, Philippine Command,
  • General MacArthur's General Staff (20 June 2006) [1966]. "CHAPTER X GUERRILLA ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES". Reports of General MacArthur. United States Army. pp. 295–326.
  • Schmidt, Major Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

Resistance in Luzon

USAFFE and American sponsored guerrillas

After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). One example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a guerrilla force which grew to a 10,000-man force by the end of the war. [22] Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area, mainly near Manila. It was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to simply go home as cadets were ordered to do, and began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese. [23] [24] This force would later be instrumental, providing intelligence to the liberating forces led by General Douglas MacArthur, and took an active role in numerous battles, such as the Raid at Los Baños. When war broke out in the Philippines, some 300 Philippine Military Academy and ROTC cadets, unable to join the USAFFE units because of their youth, banded together in a common desire to contribute to the war effort throughout the Bataan campaign. The Hunters originally conducted operations with another guerrilla group called Marking's Guerrillas, with whom they went about liquidating Japanese spies. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles. [25]

Also, before being proven false in 1985 by the United States Military, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong guerrilla force known as the Maharlika Unit. [26] Marcos also used maharlika as his personal pseudonym depicting himself as a bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla fighter during World War II. [27] [28] Marcos told exaggerated tales and exploits of himself fighting the Japanese in his self-published autobiography Marcos of the Philippines which was proven to be fiction. [29] His father, Mariano Marcos, did however, collaborated with the Japanese and was executed by Filipino guerillas in April 1945 under the command of Colonel George Barnett, and Ferdinand himself was accused of being a collaborator as well. [30] [31]

In July 1942, South West Pacific Area, became aware of the resistance movements forming in occupied Philippines through attempted radio communications to Allies outside of the Philippines by late 1942, couriers had made it to Australia confirming the existence of the resistance. [32] By December 1942, SWPA sent Captain Jesús A. Villamor to the Philippines to make contact with guerrilla organizations, eventually developing extensive intelligence networks including contacts within the Second Republic Government. [32] [33] In addition, through the Allied Intelligence Bureau's Philippine Regional Section, SWPA began to send operatives, and equipment, into the Philippines to make contact and supply guerrilla organizations. [32] [34] Unique to other guerrillas in the Philippines were the Wa Chi a resistance unit composed of Filipino-Chinese and Chinese immigrants. They were established to counter the Japanese suspicion and abuse of the Chinese living in the country, and had over 700 men strong. The movement was aided by the American guerrilla forces and were also supported by anti-Japanese civilians and farmers living in the outskirts. [35] In Nueva Ecija, guerrillas led by Juan Pajota and Eduardo Joson protected the U.S. Army Rangers and Alamo Scouts who were conducting a rescue mission of Allied POWS from a counterattack by Japanese reinforcements. [36] Pajota and the Filipino guerrillas received Bronze Stars for their role in the raid. [37] Among the guerrilla units, the Blue Eagles were a specialized unit established for landmine and sniper detection, as well as in hunting Japanese spies who have blended in with the civilian population. [38]

Nonetheless, Japanese crackdowns on these guerrillas in Luzon were widespread and brutal. The Japanese Army, Kempeitai and Filipino collaborators hunted down resistance fighters and anyone associated with them. [39] One example happened to resistance leader Wenceslao Vinzons leader of the successful guerilla movement in Bicol. [40] [41] After being betrayed to the Japanese by a Japanese collaborator, Vinzons was tortured to give up information on his resistance movement. Vinzons however, refused to cooperate, and he and his family, consisting of his father Gabino, his wife Liwayway, sister Milagros and children Aurora and Alexander, were bayoneted to death.

Hukbalahap resistance

As originally constituted in March 1942, the Hukbalahap was to be part of a broad united front resistance to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. [42] This original intent is reflected in its name: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon", which was "People's Army Against the Japanese" when translated into English. The adopted slogan was "Anti-Japanese Above All". [43] The Huk Military Committee was at the apex of Huk structure and was charged to direct the guerrilla campaign and to lead the revolution that would seize power after the war. [43] Luis Taruc a communist leader and peasant-organizer from a barrio in Pampanga was elected as head the committee, and became the first Huk commander called "El Supremo". [43]

The Huks began their anti-Japanese campaign as five 100-man units. They obtained needed arms and ammunition from Philippine army stragglers, which were escapees from the Battle of Bataan and deserters from the Philippine Constabulary, in exchange of civilian clothes. The Huk recruitment campaign progressed more slowly than Taruc had expected, due to competition with U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE) guerrilla units in enlisting new soldiers. The U.S. units already had recognition among the islands, had trained military leaders, and an organized command and logistical system. [43] Despite being restrained by the American sponsored guerrilla units, the Huks nevertheless took to the battlefield with only 500 men and much fewer weapons. Several setbacks at the hands of the Japanese and with less than enthusiastic support from USAFFE units did not hinder the Huks growth in size and efficiency throughout the war, developing into a well trained, highly organized force with some 15,000 armed fighters by war's end. [43] The Huks attacked both the Japanese and other non-Huk guerrillas. [44]


Politiek [wysig | wysig bron]

Manchuria is officially a unitary representative parliamentry republic with a unicameral legislature. The Constitution of Manchuria serves as the supreme law of Manchuria, which establishes a clear separation of powers. However for much of its history Manchuria was an autocracy. From 1945 Manchuria was ruled as a Marxist-Leninist single-party state that ended in 1990 following peaceful street protests around Manchuria that became known as the Orchid Revolution. In 1990 Manchuria adopted its current constitution, becoming a democracy. Nevertheless former members of the Communist Party of Manchuria still dominate politics.

Manchurian politics are split between various parties with the the largest being the Manzuxiehui, a nationalist big tent party which has continually governed since 2002. Currently the Manzuxiehui is in government with the current premier and Manzuxiehui leader Liu Zhou is the first female head of state and government of Manchuria. The main opposition parties include the centrist populist New Progressive Party, the centre-left democratic socialist Socialist Party of Manchuria and the far-right neo-fascist Qinglonghui. The legislature of Manchuria is known as the Zuigaohuiyi and consists of 685 seats. The majority of Manchurian politicians have technical backgrounds, making a de facto technocracy.


Kyk die video: Anti-Japanese armys former barracks in Russia


Kommentaar:

  1. Brashicage

    die baie kosbare frase

  2. Armen

    Dit stem saam, nogal nuttige idee

  3. Kinsey

    Interessante oplossings

  4. Eason

    So gebeur.

  5. Hakan

    I apologize for interrupting you, but, in my opinion, this topic is no longer relevant.

  6. Janson

    EPTI SPS HUGE



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